Publications by authors named "Suzan K Hanna"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Roles of chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in the pharmacokinetics of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in vivo and in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.

Nanomedicine 2015 Oct 17;11(7):1797-807. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Carolina Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Center for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: Nanoparticles (NPs) are cleared by monocytes and macrophages. Chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 are key mediators for recruitment of these immune cells into tumors and tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of CCL2 and CCL5 on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of NPs. Mice deficient in CCL2 or CCL5 demonstrated altered clearance and tissue distribution of polyethylene glycol tagged liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) compared to control mice. The PK studies using mice bearing SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenografts revealed that the presence of tumor cells and higher expression of chemokines were significantly associated with greater clearance of PLD compared to non-tumor bearing mice. Plasma exposure of encapsulated liposomal doxorubicin positively correlated with the total exposure of plasma CCL2 and CCL5 in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer treated with PLD. These data emphasize that the interplay between PLD and chemokines may have an important role in optimizing PLD therapy.

From The Clinical Editor: The use of nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers is gaining widespread acceptance in the clinical setting. However, the underlying pharmacokinetics of these novel drugs has not really been elucidated. In this interesting article, the authors carried out experiments using mice deficient in CCL2 or CCL5 to study the clearance of liposomal system. They showed the important role the immune system played and would enable better designs of future drug delivery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2015.05.007DOI Listing
October 2015

Genetically engineered cancer models, but not xenografts, faithfully predict anticancer drug exposure in melanoma tumors.

Oncologist 2012 19;17(10):1303-16. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, 1013 Genetic Medicine Building, CB 7361, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7361, USA.

Background: Rodent studies are a vital step in the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and are used in pharmacokinetic (PK), toxicology, and efficacy studies. Traditionally, anticancer drug development has relied on xenograft implantation of human cancer cell lines in immunocompromised mice for efficacy screening of a candidate compound. The usefulness of xenograft models for efficacy testing, however, has been questioned, whereas genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and orthotopic syngeneic transplants (OSTs) may offer some advantages for efficacy assessment. A critical factor influencing the predictability of rodent tumor models is drug PKs, but a comprehensive comparison of plasma and tumor PK parameters among xenograft models, OSTs, GEMMs, and human patients has not been performed.

Methods: In this work, we evaluated the plasma and tumor dispositions of an antimelanoma agent, carboplatin, in patients with cutaneous melanoma compared with four different murine melanoma models (one GEMM, one human cell line xenograft, and two OSTs).

Results: Using microdialysis to sample carboplatin tumor disposition, we found that OSTs and xenografts were poor predictors of drug exposure in human tumors, whereas the GEMM model exhibited PK parameters similar to those seen in human tumors.

Conclusions: The tumor PKs of carboplatin in a GEMM of melanoma more closely resembles the tumor disposition in patients with melanoma than transplanted tumor models. GEMMs show promise in becoming an improved prediction model for intratumoral PKs and response in patients with solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3481896PMC
June 2013

Pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of XMT-1001, a novel, polymeric topoisomerase I inhibitor, in mice bearing HT-29 human colon carcinoma xenografts.

Clin Cancer Res 2012 May 5;18(9):2591-602. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Division of Pharmacotherapy & Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition of macromolecular camptothecin (CPT) drug conjugate, XMT-1001, and irinotecan (CPT-11) in mice bearing HT-29 xenograft tumors.

Experimental Design: The antitumor efficacy of XMT-1001 was evaluated in the mouse HT-29 human colon carcinoma xenograft model. XMT-1001 was administered intravenously to female athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing established HT-29 xenograft tumors (n = 10) at 15, 30, and 60 mg CPT equivalents/kg on weekly or biweekly schedules. The tumor growth inhibition and tumor growth delay endpoints were used for efficacy evaluation. In the pharmacokinetic study, XMT-1001 was administered intravenously at a pharmacologically relevant dose of 60 mg CPT equivalents/kg × 1 via tail vein or an equimolar dose of CPT-11 at 100 mg/kg i.p. × 1. Mice (n = 3 per time point) were euthanized from 0.083 to 336 hours after XMT-1001 administration and from 0.083 to 24 hours after CPT-11. Plasma, tumor, and tissues were collected from all animals. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was used to measure XMT-1001, conjugate release products, CPT-20-O-(N-succinimido-glycinate; CPT-SI) and CPT-20-O-(N-succinamidoyl-glycinate; CPT-SA), and CPT.

Results: After XMT-1001 administration, the majority of the plasma exposure is accounted for by conjugated CPT. XMT-1001 exhibited a prolonged exposure of conjugated drug, active conjugate primary release products, CPT-SI and CPT-SA, and active CPT, which was associated with greater antitumor response compared with CPT-11.

Conclusions: XMT-1001 provides an extended systemic and tumor exposure of conjugated drug and shows improved antitumor effect compared with CPT-11.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1554DOI Listing
May 2012

Effect of radiation on the penetration of irinotecan in rat cerebrospinal fluid.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011 Sep 16;68(3):721-31. Epub 2010 Dec 16.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: Anticancer agents are useful for treating brain tumors, but sub therapeutic concentrations due to decreased blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration limit their effectiveness. This study evaluated the effect of cranial radiation on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: Rats (n = 48) were treated with irinotecan (10 mg/kg), and then administered 10 or 20 Gy or sham irradiation as control after drug. The pharmacokinetics for irinotecan, SN-38, and APC were measured in plasma and CSF over 6 h. Up to 7 plasma samples per animal were collected, and one CSF sample was collected per animal (serial sacrifice design). Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with NONMEM, and radiation tested as a covariate for the fraction of irinotecan (f(CSF)) entering the CSF.

Results: The estimate of f(CSF) (% and RSE) was 0.165 (73.5) for the control group and 0.265 (66.5) for radiation-treated groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Predictive check plots showed that the model adequately described the overall trend and variability in the observed data. The median values of bootstrap parameters were similar to the NONMEM estimates based on the original data set.

Conclusions: These results indicate that cranially administered radiation can increase the penetration of anticancer agents such as irinotecan into the CSF. Studies that evaluate radiation-fractionation, radiation-time course effect relationships, blood-brain barrier and blood-tumor barrier effects for irinotecan and other anticancer agents are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-010-1542-3DOI Listing
September 2011

Diabetes-induced bradycardia is an intrinsic metabolic defect reversed by carnitine.

Metabolism 2007 Aug;56(8):1118-23

Julia Parrish Diabetes Research Institute, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612-4742, USA.

Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D) have reduced serum carnitine levels and bradycardia. Heart rates (HRs) of 24nondiabetic rats (NRs) and 24 STZ-D rats were compared. L-carnitine (C) was added to the drinking water of rats (12 STZ-D+C) to raise their serum carnitine level. The intrinsic HR for each animal was determined after parasympathetic and sympathetic blockade. The HRs of STZ-D rats (278+/-15 beats per minute) were less than those of NRs (348+/-8 beats per minute) (P<.01). STZ-D rats had low serum carnitine compared with control and STZ-D+C rats. The difference in HR of STZ-D rats and NRs continued after blockade, indicating that the bradycardia ofdiabetes is intrinsic to the heart. The metabolic milieu reflected in the rats' urinary organic acid profiles differed between the control and STZ-D rats. The HR of STZ-D+C rats (326+/-5 beats per minute) did not differ from those of NRs. Increasing either the insulin dose or the serum free carnitine reduced urinary organic acids, but normal HRs were associated only with elevated serum carnitine levels. When glucose is compromised as a myocardial energy source (diabetes mellitus), we propose that elevated levels of serum carnitine may increase myocardial fatty acid metabolism sufficiently to correct the bradycardia of STZ-D rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2007.04.005DOI Listing
August 2007

Hyperglycemic brain injury in the rat.

Brain Res 2006 Mar 17;1076(1):9-15. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Children with diabetes onset before 5 years of age have reduced neurocognitive function. This problem has been attributed to hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin therapy. The eye, kidney, and nerve complications of diabetes (hyperglycemia) have been reduced by intensified insulin therapy which is associated with a 3-fold increase in severe hypoglycemia and therefore is not recommended for children less than 13 years of age. Since hyperglycemia is much more common than intermittent hypoglycemia during early childhood diabetes, it is important to determine if hyperglycemia affects brain growth and development. Rats were exposed to 4 weeks of either continuous hyperglycemia (diabetes) or intermittent (3 h, 3 times/week) hypoglycemia from 4 to 8 weeks of age. The brains of these animals were compared to those of similarly aged normal control animals. The cell number was increased, and the cell size reduced in the cortex of diabetic animals as assessed by DNA/wet weight of brain and protein/DNA content. Reduced amounts of protein, fatty acids, and cholesterol/microgram DNA also indicate smaller cells with reduced myelin content in the cortex of the diabetic animals. Histologic evaluation of these brains confirmed the biochemical findings. These observations require further confirmation and evaluation but indicate that continuous hyperglycemia may be more damaging than intermittent hypoglycemia to the developing brain. This is an important consideration for the management of diabetes mellitus in young children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.12.072DOI Listing
March 2006

High-performance liquid chromatographic assay with fluorescence detection for the simultaneous measurement of carboxylate and lactone forms of irinotecan and three metabolites in human plasma.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2003 May;788(1):65-74

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mail Stop 313, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105-2794, USA.

Irinotecan (CPT-11), a camptothecin analog, is metabolized to SN-38, an active topoisomerase I inhibitor, and inactive metabolites, including APC and SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G). A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method to simultaneously measure the lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11, SN-38, SN-38G, and APC in human plasma was developed. Chromatography was accomplished with a reversed-phase C(8) column and fluorescence detection. A gradient mobile phase system was used. The buffer for mobile phase A consisted of 0.75 M ammonium acetate, 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate (pH 6.0), and acetonitrile (86:14, v/v). The buffer for mobile phase B was identical to mobile phase A with the exception of the concentration (50:50, v/v). Precipitation of plasma proteins was performed with cold methanol. The linear range of detection of the lactone and carboxylate forms of SN-38, SN-38G, and APC was 2-25 ng/ml, and 5-300 ng/ml for CPT-11. The limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 0.5 to 5 ng/ml. Analysis of patients' plasma samples obtained before and after CPT-11 administration showed that the assay is suitable for measuring lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11, SN-38, SN-38G, and APC in clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(02)01016-4DOI Listing
May 2003

Determination of plasma topotecan and its metabolite N-desmethyl topotecan as both lactone and total form by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2003 Feb;784(2):225-32

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, 38105, Memphis, TN, USA.

Topotecan (TPT) undergoes hepatic N-demethylation forming N-desmethyl topotecan (NDS). To evaluate the effect of drug-drug interactions on NDS disposition in children receiving TPT we developed and validated a sensitive and specific HPLC-fluorescence detection method for lactone and total (lactone plus carboxylate) TPT and NDS. Deproteinized plasma is vortexed, centrifuged, and the methanolic extract diluted with water for the lactone form of NDS and TPT or diluted with 1.5% phosphoric acid for NDS and TPT total. A 100 microL sample is injected onto a Varian ChromGuard RP column attached to an Agilent SB-C(18) reversed-phase analytical column held at 50 degrees C. The mobile phase (flow-rate, 0.8 mL/min) consists of methanol-aqueous buffer (27:73, v/v) (75 mM potassium phosphate and 0.2% triethylamine, pH 6.5). TPT and NDS were detected with excitation and emission wavelengths set at 376 and 530 nm, respectively. The standard curves for both forms of TPT ranged from 0.25 to 80 ng/mL, and for NDS ranged from 0.10 to 8.0 ng/mL. Within-day and between-day precision (% RSD) was
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(02)00798-5DOI Listing
February 2003

New liquid chromatographic assay with electrochemical detection for the measurement of amifostine and WR1065.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2002 Jun;772(2):257-65

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of the radio- and chemo-protectant, amifostine and its active metabolite-WR1065 in deproteinized human whole blood and plasma. The two compounds were quantified by measuring WR1065 after two different sample pretreatment procedures. During these procedures, amifostine was quantitatively converted into WR1065, by incubating the sample at 37 degrees C for 4 h at pH<1.0. The resulting amounts of WR1065 were determined by HPLC with coulometric detection (analytical cell: E(1)=200 mV and E(2)=600 mV; guard cell: E(G)=650 mV). The WR1065 standard curve ranged from 0.37 to 50.37 microM. The lower limit of quantitation of WR1065 was 0.25 microM. The within- and between-day precisions were < or = 4.3% and < or = 6.0% for amifostine, < or = 4.4% and < or = 3.8% for WR1065, respectively. The within- and between-day accuracy ranged from 95.4 to 97.7% and 95.4 to 97.8% for amifostine, and from 97.1 to 101.7% and 97.2 to 99.7% for WR1065, respectively. This method minimizes WR1065 loss during sample preparation, and allows for rapid analysis of both compounds on one system. Furthermore, the application of a coulometric electrode is more efficient and requires less maintenance than previously published methods for the two compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(02)00104-6DOI Listing
June 2002