Publications by authors named "Sushmita Saha"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antioxidant mediated protective effect of leaf extract against carbofuran induced oxidative hepatic toxicity.

Toxicol Rep 2021 8;8:1369-1380. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh.

is a traditional medicinal plant for treating diverse ailments. Hence, we designed our study to scrutinize the protective effect of the methanol extract of leaf (BTL) against carbofuran-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepato-toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats for the first time, along with the identification and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical activities of this extract. HPLC analysis confirmed the existence of tannic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and naringin in leaf extract which showed in-vitro antioxidant potentialities with DPPH, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging properties. Co-administration of leaf extract with carbofuran showed dose-dependent significant protective effects of hepatic toxicity on serum markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Carbofuran intoxication also revealed an upsurge in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decline in cellular endogenous antioxidant enzyme levels in rats compared with the control group. However, leaf extract co-treatment increased the levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and amended the MDA level. Similarly, histopathological evaluation further assured that BTL could keep the hepatocyte from carbofuran-induced damage. Therefore, all of our findings may conclude that the phenolic acids and flavonoids of leaf extract are responsible to neutralize the toxic free radical-mediated oxidative hepatic damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278150PMC
July 2021

Role of L. Fruits Extract in Combatting the Hematological and Hepatic Toxic Effects of Carbofuran.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

L. is rich in numerous vital bioactive constituents, though it is an underutilized among the citrus genus. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the protective role of the fruit (CMF) methanol extract against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in experimental rats. In addition, this work aims at detecting and measuring polyphenolic compounds by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of this extract. For this, studies dealing with serum hematological and biochemical parameters, liver endogenous antioxidants, as well as hepatic histo-architectural features have been carried out to assess the protective ability of CMF against CF-induced toxicity. Additionally, total phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant capability were measured and the antioxidant action was investigated using DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays as well as reducing power assessments. HPLC results revealed the presence of benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and salicylic acid in CMF extract. Furthermore, results showed that CMF has considerable total phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant capability and exhibits significant free radical scavenging and reducing potentialities. On the other hand, CF intoxication of rats significantly altered the hematological and serum biochemical parameters with hepatocytes disruption. Carbofuran also caused an upsurge in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and a decline in hepatic cellular antioxidant enzymes levels in rats compared to the control group. Co-administration of CMF amended the anomalies and improved the histo-architectural arrangement of hepatocytes in treated groups. CMF also inhibited the alteration of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and MDA levels as compared to the carbofuran treated group and returned them to their normal state. Taken all together, results from this investigation highlight the protective role of CMF against CF-induced toxicity which might be attributed to the polyphenolic constituents of the extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.1c00166DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of nerol on paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 12;140:111732. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Nerol, a monoterpene is evident to possess diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, anthelmintic, and anti-arrhythmias. This study aims to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in a rat model. Five groups of rats (n = 7) were orally treated (once daily) with 0.05% tween 80 dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution (vehicle), paracetamol 640 mg/kg (negative control), 50 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or nerol (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 14 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood samples and livers of the animals were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The histological findings suggest that paracetamol caused lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pre-treated with silymarin and nerol. The rats pre-treated with nerol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the hepatotoxic markers in animals. Nerol at 100 mg/kg significantly reversed the paracetamol-induced altered situations, including the liver enzymes, plasma proteins, antioxidant enzymes and serum bilirubin, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cholesterol [e.g., total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)] levels in animals. Taken together, nerol exerted significant hepatoprotective activity in rats in a dose-dependent manner. PCM-induced toxicity and nerol induced hepatoprotective effects based on expression of inflammatory and apoptosis factors will be future line of work for establishing the precise mechanism of action of nerol in Wistar albino rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111732DOI Listing
August 2021

Gynecological laparoscopic surgeries in the era of COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective study.

Obstet Gynecol Sci 2021 Jul 1;64(4):383-389. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, India.

Objective: The novel coronavirus pandemic led to the suspension of elective surgeries and the diversion of resources and manpower towards pandemic control. However, gynecological emergencies and malignancies must be addressed despite the restricted resources and the need for protective measures against COVID-19. This study aimed to determine the types of gynecological surgeries performed, difficulties encountered, and their outcomes in the setting of the pandemic.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study over 6 months at a single tertiary center, including 60 women with gynecological complaints, categorized as emergencies and semi-emergencies, who underwent further surgery. Their surgical outcomes were measured through various parameters.

Results: We found that 68.3% were emergency cases, while the rest were classified as semi-emergencies. Fibroid and adenomyosis with failed medical management (48.3%), followed by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (10%), and malignancies (10%) accounted for the semi-emergency cases, while ruptured ectopic pregnancies (13.3%) and torsion and ovarian cysts (18.4%) comprised the emergency cases. The decision to incision time between emergency and semi-emergency cases varied widely due to the safety prerequisites during the pandemic, ranging from 1 hour in emergency cases to 48 hours in semi-emergency cases. In addition, we studied the ease of preoperative preparation, patient satisfaction, and the average number of personnel available to run the operation theaters at these times. No serious perioperative adverse events were observed in the present study.

Conclusion: In conclusion, gynecological surgeries could continue to be safely performed with all precautions in place against COVID-19 infection and related morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5468/ogs.21029DOI Listing
July 2021

Role of para-cervical block in reducing immediate postoperative pain after total laparoscopic hysterectomy: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Obstet Gynecol Sci 2021 Jan 12;64(1):122-129. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Minimally Invasive Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of 0.5% bupivacaine in paracervical block to reduce immediate postoperative pain after total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at a tertiary referral center involving thirty women each in the treatment and placebo groups. Paracervical block with 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine (treatment group) or 0.9% saline (placebo group) was administered following general anesthesia and prior to proceeding with total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at 30 and 60 minutes post extubation and mean VAS score (average VAS score at 30 and 60 minutes) were compared. Adequate pain control was defined as mean VAS score ≤5. Additional postoperative opioid requirement, hospital stay, and readmissions were also compared.

Results: Baseline variables such as age, previous history of cesarean section, operating time, and weight of the specimen were comparable in both groups. VAS scores at 30 (5.0±2.8 vs. 7.0±1.4) and 60 minutes (5.2±2.8 vs. 7.0±0.8) and the mean VAS score (5.1±2.7 vs. 6.8±0.9) were significantly lower in the treatment group. Adequate pain control (mean VAS score ≤5) was 57% higher and additional opioid consumption was 47% lower in the treatment group. No significant difference was found in the duration of hospital stay and readmission rate.

Conclusion: Paracervical block with bupivacaine was useful in reducing immediate postoperative pain with a 25% reduction in mean VAS score and a 47% reduction in opioid consumption in the first hour after total laparoscopic hysterectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5468/ogs.20271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834753PMC
January 2021

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Leaf Extract in Carbofuran-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats.

Chem Res Toxicol 2019 12 19;32(12):2499-2508. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Chemistry , The University of Jordan , Amman 11942 , Jordan.

In folk medicines, () is used as a depurative herb for treating fever, pain, and cancer and as laxative for constipation. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the leaf methanol extract of leaf (J gMe) against carbofuran (CF)-intoxicated liver injuries in Sprague-Dawley rats, along with the antioxidant activity of this extract. For this purpose, levels of serum diagnostic markers, hepatic antioxidant enzymes, and liver histo-architecture were employed to justify the protective efficacy of J gMe. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were quantified, and antioxidant activity was investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays. Results revealed that the leaf extract caused a significant (<0.05, <0.01) decrease of the level of hepatic enzymes, triglycerides, and bilirubin and an increase of the total protein. J gMe has also significantly (<0.05, <0.01) lowered the level of malonylaldehyde. Carbofuran markedly suppressed hepatic antioxidant enzymes, however, the leaf extract significantly augmented these enzymes. The hepatoprotective effect was demonstrated by the improvement in the histo-architectural features of liver sections of CF-intoxicated rats treated with J gMe at 500 mg/kg dose. In addition, J gMe showed moderate total phenolic and total flavonoid content, whereas the IC values of DPPH, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were 71.31 ± 0.42, 134.82 ± 0.14, 47.69 ± 0.38, and 118.44 ± 0.30 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggests the protective role of J gMe against hepatic injury induced by CF, which may be attributed to its higher antioxidant properties and thereby scientifically justifies its traditional use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00345DOI Listing
December 2019

A biomimetic self-assembling peptide promotes bone regeneration in vivo: A rat cranial defect study.

Bone 2019 10 24;127:602-611. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, St James's University Hospital, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Rationally designed, pH sensitive self-assembling β-peptides (SAPs) which are capable of reversibly switching between fluid and gel phases in response to environmental triggers are potentially useful injectable scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering applications. SAP P-4 (CHCOQQRFEWEFEQQNH) has been shown to nucleate hydroxyapatite mineral de novo and has been used in dental enamel regeneration. We hypothesised that addition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) would enhance the in vivo effects of P-4 in promoting skeletal tissue repair. Cranial defects were created in athymic rats and filled with either Bio-Oss® (anorganic bone chips) or P-4 ± human dental pulp stromal cells (HDPSCs). Unfilled defects served as controls. After 4 weeks, only those defects filled with P-4 alone showed significantly increased bone regeneration (almost complete healing), compared to unfilled control defects, as judged using quantitative micro-CT, histology and immunohistochemistry. In silico modelling indicated that fibril formation may be essential for any mineral nucleation activity. Taken together, these data suggest that self-assembling peptides are a suitable scaffold for regeneration of bone tissue in a one step, cell-free therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.06.020DOI Listing
October 2019

Protective Role of Leaf Extract Against Carbofuran-Induced Hematological and Hepatic Toxicities.

Chem Res Toxicol 2019 08 23;32(8):1619-1629. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Chemistry , The University of Jordan , Amman 11942 , Jordan.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of leaf methanol extract (SCL) against carbofuran (CF)-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, along with the identification and quantification of polyphenolic composition by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids in SCL. Similarly, HPLC analysis suggests that SCL contains some known important antioxidants, such as rutin, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid that could be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity of the extract. In CF-exposed rats, significant hematological alterations along with histological changes were marked by the presence of necrosis, congestion, and inflammation. CF-intoxication also showed an increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in cellular antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) levels in rats compared with the control group. Furthermore, coadministration of SCL significantly ameliorated the abnormalities and improved the cellular arrangement in experimental animals. SCL also reversed the alteration of hematological and biochemical parameters and brought them back to normal levels as compared to the control group. In conclusion, may be one of the best sources of natural antioxidant compounds that can be used in the treatment of oxidative stress and stress-related diseases and disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00164DOI Listing
August 2019

Osteochondral tissue engineering in vivo: a comparative study using layered silk fibroin scaffolds from mulberry and nonmulberry silkworms.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(11):e80004. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080004PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3833924PMC
July 2014

Informing future cartilage repair strategies: a comparative study of three different human cell types for cartilage tissue engineering.

Cell Tissue Res 2013 Jun 12;352(3):495-507. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9LU, UK.

A major clinical need exists for cartilage repair and regeneration. Despite many different strategies having been pursued, the identification of an optimised cell type and of pre-treatment conditions remains a challenge. This study compares the cartilage-like tissue generated by human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and human neonatal and adult chondrocytes cultured on three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds under various conditions in vitro and in vivo with the aim of informing future cartilage repair strategies based upon tissue-engineering approaches. After 3 weeks in vitro culture, all three cell types showed cartilage-like tissue formation on 3D poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid scaffolds only when cultured in chondrogenic medium. After 6 weeks of chondro-induction, neonatal chondrocyte constructs revealed the most cartilage-like tissue formation with a prominent superficial zone-like layer, a middle zone-like structure and the thinnest fibrous capsule. HBMSC constructs had the thickest fibrous capsule formation. Under basal culture conditions, neonatal articular chondrocytes failed to form any tissue, whereas HBMSCs and adult chondrocytes showed thick fibrous capsule formation at 6 weeks. After in vivo implantation, all groups generated more compact tissues compared with in vitro constructs. Pre-culturing in chondrogenic media for 1 week before implantation reduced fibrous tissue formation in all cell constructs at week 3. After 6 weeks, only the adult chondrocyte group pre-cultured in chondrogenic media was able to maintain a more chondrogenic/less fibrocartilaginous phenotype. Thus, pre-culture under chondrogenic conditions is required to maintain a long-term chondrogenic phenotype, with adult chondrocytes being a more promising cell source than HBMSCs for articular cartilage tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-013-1586-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3663993PMC
June 2013

The effects of iron oxide incorporation on the chondrogenic potential of three human cell types.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2013 Jun 7;7(6):461-9. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, UK.

Non-invasive monitoring of living cells in vivo provides an important tool in the development of cell-based therapies in cartilage tissue engineering. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to monitor target cell populations in vivo. However, the side-effects on cell function of the labelling reagents, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), are still unclear. This study investigated the effect of SPIO particles on the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), neonatal and adult chondrocytes in vitro. Cells were labelled with SPIO for 24 h and chondrogenesis induced in serum-free medium including TGFβ3. For labelled/unlabelled cells, viability, morphology and proliferation were determined using CellTracker™ Green and PicoGreen dsDNA assays. The expression of SOX9, COL2A1 and ACAN was investigated using qRT-PCR after 2, 7 and 14 days. The results showed that viability was unaffected in all of the cells but cell morphology changed towards a 'stretched' phenotype following SPIO uptake. Cell proliferation was reduced only for labelled neonatal chondrocytes. SOX9 and COL2A1 expression decreased at day 2 but not at days 7 and 14 for labelled HBMSCs and adult chondrocytes; ACAN expression was unaffected. In contrast, SOX9 and COL2A1 expression were unaffected in labelled neonatal chondrocytes but a decrease in ACAN expression was seen at day 14. The results suggest that downregulation of chondrogenic genes associated with SPIO labelling is temporary and target cell-dependent. Resovist® can be used to label HBMSCs or mature chondrocytes for MR imaging of cells for cartilage tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3747461PMC
June 2013

Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Oct 16;401(3):333-8. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU, UK.

Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed a difference in the temporal expression of chondrogenic markers which were up regulated in chondrogenic medium compared to levels in basal medium. Of the three cell types studied, adult chondrocytes offer a more promising cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. This comparative study revealed differences between the microenvironment of all three cell types and provides useful information to inform cell-based therapies for cartilage regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.09.042DOI Listing
October 2010
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