Publications by authors named "Sushil Changan"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) seed: A low-volume, high-value byproduct for human health and the food industry.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 12;386:132694. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia. Electronic address:

Guava processing industries generate peel and seeds as primary waste fractions. Guava seeds obtained after fruit processing possess untapped potential in the field of food science due to the presence of a diversity of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Along with offering a detailed understanding of the nutritional attributes of guava seeds, the present review comprehensively elaborates on the therapeutic activities of their bioactive compounds, their techno-functional properties, and their other edible and nonedible applications. The limited molecular and biochemical mechanistic studies outlining the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and antidiabetic activities of guava seeds available in the literature are also extensively discussed in this review. The use of guava seed constituents as food additives and food functional and structural modulators, primarily as fat reducers, emulsifiers, water and oil holding agents, is also conceptually explained. Additional human intervention and molecular mechanistic studies deciphering the effects of guava seeds on various diseases and human health are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132694DOI Listing
August 2022

Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Biological Activities, and Health-Promoting Effects of the Genus .

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 7;2022:6727609. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 200349 Craiova, Romania.

The genus is of scientific interest due to the phytochemical components and diverse biological activities found across species of the genus. Most species are epiphytic and located in habitats that range from subtropical dry forests to wet montane cloud forests. In many cultures, the genus has a religious, protective, ornamenting, cosmetic, and medicinal role. Detailed investigations into the molecular pharmacological mechanisms and numerous biological effects of spp. remain ambiguous. The review focuses on an in-depth discussion of studies containing data on phytochemistry and preclinical pharmacology. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize the therapeutic potential of spp. biocompounds. Data were collected from several scientific databases such as PubMed and ScienceDirect, other professional websites, and traditional medicine books to obtain the necessary information. Evidence from pharmacological studies has shown that various phytoconstituents in some species have different biological health-promoting activities such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective. No toxicological effects have been reported to date. Future clinical trials are needed for the clinical confirmation of biological activities proven in preclinical studies. Although orchid species are cultivated for ornamental purposes and have a wide traditional use, the novelty of this review is a summary of biological actions from preclinical studies, thus supporting ethnopharmacological data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6727609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8920616PMC
March 2022

Recent developments in cold plasma-based enzyme activity (browning, cell wall degradation, and antioxidant) in fruits and vegetables.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2022 03 26;21(2):1958-1978. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Division of Crop Physiology, Biochemistry and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, India.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations reports, approximately half of the total harvested fruits and vegetables vanish before they reach the end consumer due to their perishable nature. Enzymatic browning is one of the most common problems faced by fruit and vegetable processing. The perishability of fruits and vegetables is contributed by the various browning enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and ripening or cell wall degrading enzyme (pectin methyl-esterase). In contrast, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) assist in reversing the damage caused by reactive oxygen species or free radicals. The cold plasma technique has emerged as a novel, economic, and environmentally friendly approach that reduces the expression of ripening and browning enzymes while increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes; microorganisms are significantly inhibited, therefore improving the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This review narrates the mechanism and principle involved in the use of cold plasma technique as a nonthermal agent and its application in impeding the activity of browning and ripening enzymes and increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes for improving the shelf life and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables and preventing spoilage and pathogenic germs from growing. An overview of hurdles and sustainability advantages of cold plasma technology is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12895DOI Listing
March 2022

An Insight into Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Nutritional Properties of L. from Morocco.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:1794621. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

. (Ericaceae) is an evergreen shrub widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, particularly through the Moroccan forests. It is an important medicinal plant of great scientific interest due to its nutritional, pharmacological, and chemical properties. The objective of this review is to provide insights into traditional medicinal uses and phytochemical and pharmacological properties of from Morocco. In Morocco, the plant has been used as a traditional medicine to treat several pathological conditions. Many phytochemical compounds have been reported in the plant, of which vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and their derivatives are the most prevalent. Leaves and fruits of contain the most significant number of phytochemicals among the species. Furthermore, researchers have demonstrated that exhibited antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiaggregant, and antihypertensive activities due to the presence of many biochemical compounds with health-promoting properties. According to different toxicity tests, the use of is devoid of any significant side effects and/or toxicity. Despite its nutraceutical and health-promoting properties, Moroccan remains underexploited mainly, and most of its traditional uses have not yet undergone scientific evidence-based research; therefore, improved knowledge about the potential value of the plant would allow understanding of its biological activity based on its phytochemical compounds that may contribute to the species preservation and valorization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1794621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8629616PMC
November 2021

Garlic ( L.) Bioactives and Its Role in Alleviating Oral Pathologies.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Nov 21;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Garlic ( L.) is a bulbous flowering plant belongs to the family of Amaryllidaceae and is a predominant horticultural crop originating from central Asia. Garlic and its products are chiefly used for culinary and therapeutic purposes in many countries. Bulbs of raw garlic have been investigated for their role in oral health, which are ascribed to a myriad of biologically active compounds such as alliin, allicin, methiin, S-allylcysteine (SAC), diallyl sulfide (DAS), S-ally-mercapto cysteine (SAMC), diallyl disulphide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS) and methyl allyl disulphide. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA statement. Scopus, PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Science direct databases were searched between 12 April 2021 to 4 September 2021. A total of 148 studies were included and the qualitative synthesis phytochemical profile of GE, biological activities, therapeutic applications of garlic extract (GE) in oral health care system, and its mechanism of action in curing various oral pathologies have been discussed. Furthermore, the safety of incorporation of GE as food supplements is also critically discussed. To conclude, GE could conceivably make a treatment recourse for patients suffering from diverse oral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8614839PMC
November 2021

Ethnomedicinal Plants Used in the Health Care System: Survey of the Mid Hills of Solan District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 5;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

The study was performed in the mid hills of the Dharampur region in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. At the study site, a total of 115 medicinal plants were documented (38 trees, 37 herbs, 34 shrubs, 5 climbers, 1 fern, and 1 grass). In the study region, extensive field surveys were performed between March 2020 and August 2021. Indigenous knowledge of wild medicinal plants was collected through questionnaires, discussions, and personal interviews during field trips. Plants with their correct nomenclature were arranged by botanical name, family, common name, habitat, parts used, routes used, and diseases treated. In the present study, the predominant family was Rosaceae, which represented the maximum number of plant species, 10, followed by Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, which represented 8 plant species. The rural inhabitants of the Dharampur region in the Solan district have been using local plants for primary health care and the treatment of various diseases for a longer time. However, information related to the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants was not documented. The rural inhabitants of the Dharampur region reported that the new generation is not so interested in traditional knowledge of medicinal plants due to modernization in society, so there is an urgent need to document ethnomedicinal plants before such knowledge becomes inaccessible and extinct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10091842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467016PMC
September 2021

Plant-Based Antioxidant Extracts and Compounds in the Management of Oral Cancer.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Oral cancer continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is particularly high in developing countries, where people chew tobacco and betel nut on a regular basis. Radiation-, chemo-, targeted-, immuno-, and hormone-based therapies along with surgery are commonly used as part of a treatment plan. However, these treatments frequently result in various unwanted short- to long-term side effects. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop treatment options for oral cancer that have little or no adverse effects. Numerous bioactive compounds derived from various plants have recently attracted attention as therapeutic options for cancer treatment. Antioxidants found in medicinal plants, such as vitamins E, C, and A, reduce damage to the mucosa by neutralizing free radicals found in various oral mucosal lesions. Phytochemicals found in medicinal plants have the potential to modulate cellular signalling pathways that alter the cellular defence mechanisms to protect normal cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of various medicinal plants and phytoconstituents that have shown the potential to be used as oral cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466097PMC
August 2021

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed: A review on bioactives and biomedical activities.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Oct 25;142:112018. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

The processing of tomato fruit into puree, juices, ketchup, sauces, and dried powders generates a significant amount of waste in the form of tomato pomace, which includes seeds and skin. Tomato processing by-products, particularly seeds, are reservoirs of health-promoting macromolecules, such as proteins (bioactive peptides), carotenoids (lycopene), polysaccharides (pectin), phytochemicals (flavonoids), and vitamins (α-tocopherol). Health-promoting properties make these bioactive components suitable candidates for the development of novel food and nutraceutical products. This review comprehensively demonstrates the bioactive compounds of tomato seeds along with diverse biomedical activities of tomato seed extract (TSE) for treating cardiovascular ailments, neurological disorders, and act as antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial agent. Utilization of bioactive components can improve the economic feasibility of the tomato processing industry and may help to reduce the environmental pollution generated by tomato by-products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112018DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of Nutritional, Phytochemical, and Mineral Composition of Selected Medicinal Plants for Therapeutic Uses from Cold Desert of Western Himalaya.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jul 13;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

The aim of this study was to determine the elemental and nutritive values of leaf parts of 10 selected wild medicinal plants, , , and collected from the high hills of the Chitkul range in district Kinnaur, Western Himalaya. The nutritional characteristics of medicinal plant species were analyzed by using muffle furnace and micro-Kjeldahl methods, and the mineral content in plants was analyzed through atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest percentage of used value was reported in (0.42) and the lowest in (0.17). In this study, it was found that new generations are not much interested in traditional knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants due to modernization in society. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document ethnomedicinal plants along with their phytochemical and minerals analysis in study sites. It was found that rural people in western Himalaya are dependent on wild medicinal plants, and certain steps must be taken to conserve these plants from extinction in the cold desert of Himalayan region. They are an alternative source of medicine because they contain saponin, alkaloid, and flavonoid etc. as well as minerals. The leaves used for analysis possesses good mineral content, such as Na, N, K, P, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ca, Mg, and S. Hence, in the current study it was observed that medicinal plants are not only used for therapeutic purposes, but they can also be used as nutritional supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10071429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309265PMC
July 2021

Delineating the inherent functional descriptors and biofunctionalities of pectic polysaccharides.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 9;269:118319. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chembiotech Laboratories, Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Kyrewood House, Tenbury Wells, Worcs WR15 8FF, UK.

Pectin is a plant-based heteropolysaccharide macromolecule predominantly found in the cell wall of plants. Pectin is commercially extracted from apple pomace, citrus peels and sugar beet pulp and is widely used in the food industry as a stabilizer, emulsifier, encapsulant, and gelling agent. This review highlights various parameters considered important for describing the inherent properties and biofunctionalities of pectins in food systems. These inherent descriptors include monosaccharide composition, galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, molecular weight, structural morphology, functional group analysis, and functional properties, such as water and oil holding capacity, emulsification, foaming capacity, foam stability, and viscosity. In this study, we also delineate their potential as a nutraceutical, prebiotic, and carrier for bioactive compounds. The biofunctionalities of pectin as an anticancer, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic agent are also conceptually elaborated in the current review. The multidimensional characteristics of pectin make it a potential candidate for use in food and biomedical science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118319DOI Listing
October 2021

Beneficial Role of Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites from Medicinal Plants in Maintaining Oral Health.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Plant-derived phytochemicals have been touted as viable substitutes in a variety of diseases. All over the world, dentists have turned to natural remedies for dental cure due to the negative possessions of certain antibacterial mediators used in dentistry. Antimicrobial and other drugs are currently in use, but they show some side effects. Since ancient times, antioxidant EOs have been used for different ailments and have grown in popularity over time. Several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials have shown the safety and effectiveness of antioxidant essential oils (EOs) in oral health obtained from medicinal plants. The current review of literature provides a summary of secondary metabolites, more specifically EOs from 20 most commonly used medicinal plants and their applications in maintaining oral health. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common and preventable global infectious diseases, with diseases of the oral cavity being considered major diseases affecting a person's health. Several clinical studies have shown a connection between oral diseases and oral microbiota. This review discusses the role of antioxidant secondary metabolites in inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens and reducing the formation of dental plaque, and as well as reducing the symptoms of oral diseases. This review article contributes a basic outline of essential oils and their healing actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300643PMC
June 2021

Effect of potato apical leaf curl disease on glycemic index and resistant starch of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 23;359:129939. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla 171001, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-potato (ToLCNDV-potato) causes potato apical leaf curl disease which severely affects nutritional parameters such as carbohydrate, protein, and starch biosynthesis thereby altering glycemic index (GI) and resistant starch (RS) of potato. ToLCNDV-potato virus was inoculated on potato cultivars (Kufri Pukhraj [susceptible]; Kufri Bahar [resistant]) and various quality parameters of potato tuber were studied. There was a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in starch, amylose and resistant starch contents in the infected tubers. However, carbohydrate and amylopectin increased significantly (P < 0.01) which contributes to increased starch digestibility reflected with high GI and glycemic load values. Besides, ToLCNDV-potato infection leads to a significant increase in reducing sugar, sucrose, amino acid and protein in potato tubers. This is a first-ever study that highlights the impact of biotic stress on GI, RS and nutritional quality parameters of potato which is a matter of concern for consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129939DOI Listing
October 2021

Custard Apple ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities.

Biomolecules 2021 04 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143160PMC
April 2021

Guava ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Bioactivities.

Foods 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Ginning Training Centre, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Nagpur 440023, India.

(L.) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and it is an important fruit in tropical areas like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and South America. The leaves of the guava plant have been studied for their health benefits which are attributed to their plethora of phytochemicals, such as quercetin, avicularin, apigenin, guaijaverin, kaempferol, hyperin, myricetin, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and caffeic acid. Extracts from guava leaves (GLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotection activities. In the present review, we comprehensively present the nutritional profile and phytochemical profile of GLs. Further, various bioactivities of the GL extracts are also discussed critically. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of GLs, they can potentially be used as an ingredient in the development of functional foods and pharmaceuticals. More detailed clinical trials need to be conducted to establish the efficacy of the GL extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066327PMC
April 2021

Mango ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Bioactivities.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Feb 16;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae and is an important fruit from South and Southeast Asia. India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and the Philippines are among the top mango producer countries. Leaves of the mango plant have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a plethora of phytochemicals such as mangiferin, followed by phenolic acids, benzophenones, and other antioxidants such as flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The extracts from mango leaves (MLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-obesity, lipid-lowering, hepato-protection, and anti-diarrheal. In the present review, we have elaborated on the nutritional and phytochemical profile of the MLs. Further, various bioactivities of the ML extracts are also critically discussed. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of the MLs, they can be used as a potential ingredient for the development of functional foods and pharmaceutical drugs. However, more detailed clinical trials still needed to be conducted for establishing the actual efficacy of the ML extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920260PMC
February 2021
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