Publications by authors named "Suseela Yelumalai"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Myristic acid defends against testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis: Restoration of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis in diabetic rats.

Life Sci 2021 Aug 11;278:119605. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) may lead to testicular-related infertility while Myristic acid (MA) is beneficial to lower hyperglycaemia. Thus, we hypothesized that MA could protect testes against hyperglycaemia-induced damage in DM. DM was induced in adult male rats by high-fat diet consumption for 12 weeks, accompanied by a single dose streptozotocin injection. Following DM confirmation, the rats were fed orally with 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight MA for 28 consecutive days. After completion of treatment, rats were sacrificed and blood, cauda epididymis and testes were harvested. Serum was separated, epididymal sperm was collected for analysis. Molecular studies of the testes were performed by qPCR, Western blotting and immunostaining. MA was found to protect the testes against oxidative stress via preventing the upregulation of RAGE, Keap1, and the downregulation of Nrf2, NQO1, HO1, SOD, CAT and GPx. MA also prevented increase in testicular inflammation and apoptosis, as indicated by low inflammatory (NF-κB p65, IKKβ, TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS) and apoptosis (Bax and caspase-9), but high anti-apoptosis (Bcl-2) markers' levels. Besides, MA prevented the downregulation of testicular steroidogenic markers (3βHSD, 17βHSD, StAR, ARA-54 and CYP11A1). Sperm analysis revealed near normal sperm count, motility, viability, lower abnormal sperm morphology in diabetic rats received MA. MA also prevented the loss of germ cells via preventing the decreased in cell proliferative marker (PCNA) while maintaining near normal epithelial height, tubular and Leydig cell diameters in the testes in DM. MA protects the testes against damage in DM, thus maintaining spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, consequently preserving male fertility in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119605DOI Listing
August 2021

administration of quercetin ameliorates sperm oxidative stress, inflammation, preserves sperm morphology and functions in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats.

Arch Med Sci 2019 Jan 30;15(1):240-249. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with sperm damage. In view of the fact that quercetin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this compound may help to protect sperm against damage in DM. In this study, effects of quercetin on sperm parameters in DM were investigated.

Material And Methods: Quercetin (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg/b.w.) was given orally to streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced adult male diabetic rats for 28 days. Following treatment completion, rats were sacrificed and sperm were harvested from the cauda epididymis. Sperm count, motility, viability, hyperosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled sperm and morphology were assessed. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in sperm with and without HO incubation were determined by biochemical assays. Expression levels of SOD, CAT and GPx mRNAs in sperm were evaluated by qPCR. Sperm DNA integrity was estimated by flow cytometry while expression levels of the inflammatory markers NF-κβ and TNF-α in sperm were determined by Western blotting.

Results: In diabetic rats receiving quercetin, sperm count and motility, viability and HOS tail-coiled sperm increased ( < 0.05) while sperm with abnormal morphology decreased. Moreover, sperm SOD, CAT, GPx activities and their mRNA expression levels increased while sperm LPO, NF-κβ and TNF-α levels decreased. In normal and diabetic rat sperm incubated with HO, a further increase in MDA and further decreases in SOD, CAT and GPx were observed, and these were ameliorated by quercetin treatment.

Conclusions: administration of quercetin to diabetic rats helps to ameliorate sperm damage and improves sperm morphology and functions in DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2018.81038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348351PMC
January 2019

Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

Sci Rep 2016 06 8;6:27543. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Level 3, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22-54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ-related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm's fundamental ability to activate an oocyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4897631PMC
June 2016

Total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of sperm exhibiting phospholipase C zeta are significantly correlated with fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Fertil Steril 2015 Sep 18;104(3):561-8.e4. Epub 2015 Jun 18.

Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the relationship of total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of sperm exhibiting phospholipase C zeta, with fertilization rates after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Design: Laboratory study; controls vs. patients after IVF (n = 27) or ICSI (n = 17) treatment.

Setting: Fertility center.

Patient(s): A total of 44 semen samples, subjected to either IVF or ICSI treatment. Oocyte collection, ICSI or IVF, determination of sperm concentration and motility, and immunocytochemical analyses of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ).

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Percentages of sperm exhibiting PLCζ.

Result(s): Significant positive correlation between ICSI fertilization rates and total levels, localization patterns, and the proportion (percentage) of sperm exhibiting PLCζ. Total levels, localization patterns, and the proportion of sperm exhibiting PLCζ are correlated with fertilization rates for ICSI, but not for IVF.

Conclusion(s): Evaluating total levels, localization patterns, and proportions of PLCζ may represent a useful diagnostic tool for clinical purposes in men for whom IVF is not advised or has previously failed. This clinical study further supports the fundamental role of PLCζ in the oocyte activation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.05.018DOI Listing
September 2015

Aberrant protamine content in sperm and consequential implications for infertility treatment.

Hum Fertil (Camb) 2014 Jun 28;17(2):80-9. Epub 2014 May 28.

Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Level 3, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital , Headington, Oxford , UK.

Human sperm express two types of protamine: protamine 1 (P1) and the family of protamine 2 (P2) proteins, with P1 and P2 normally existing in a ratio of approximately 1:1. Both the elevation and reduction of this ratio have been linked with male infertility suggesting that abnormalities in protamine expression, processing and replacement may be responsible for effects on semen parameters observed in infertile males affected by deficient protamination, along with abnormalities in associated regulatory processes. Abnormal protamination may result in insufficient condensation in the sperm nucleus, thus rendering paternal DNA susceptible to damage, which could have detrimental consequences upon embryogenesis. Consequently, it is imperative that Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) endeavour to utilise sperm devoid of protamine abnormalities, especially because retained histones are present in imprinted gene clusters. Emerging evidence indicates that abnormalities in protamine content may influence epigenetic signals transmitted via paternal DNA. Indeed, an increase in rare imprinting disorders has been observed in children conceived via in vitro fertilisation (IVF). This review examines the links between male infertility, abnormal protamine expression and replacement, the implications of abnormal sperm DNA packaging on fertility treatments and the potential iatrogenic effects of ART procedures on sperm function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14647273.2014.915347DOI Listing
June 2014

Pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia: levels of angiogenic factors in malaysian women.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2010 Nov 29;47(3):191-7. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

Department of Obstretics & Gynaecology, University of Malaya Medical Center, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a major contributor to maternal and fetal mortality. The cause of preeclampsia remains unclear, but oxidative stress on the endothelium leading to endothelial dysfunction is said to be the root cause of the disease. The aim of this study was to measure and determine the plasma levels of key angiogenic factors in pregnancy as an indicator for the early onset of preeclampsia in pregnancy. Plasma levels of circulating a soluble fms like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF), both pro-angiogenic factors were analyzed in normal pregnant Malaysian women (control group, n = 34), women with pregnant induced hypertension (PIH, n = 34) and women with preeclampsia (PE, n = 34) all at three gestational ages, 24-28 weeks (early pregnancy: EP), 32-36 weeks (late pregnancy: LP) and 6 weeks after delivery (postpartum: PN). The plasma levels of angiogenic factors were determined by ELISA. sFlt-1 levels were elevated in PIH and PE patients as compared to controls. PIGF and VEGF were significantly decreased in PIH and PE as compared to the controls. These results suggest that elevated concentration of sFlt-1 and suppressed levels of PIGF and VEGF may contribute to the development of hypertension in pregnancy which precedes preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.10-27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2966928PMC
November 2010