Publications by authors named "Susanne Osanto"

61 Publications

Real-life data on the impact of successful downstaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A Dutch Multicenter Study.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Dec 21. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) theoretically are an excellent group to consider downstaging using locoregional therapy (LRT) since they do not have extrahepatic spread or vascular invasion. Once successful, this can change the treatment strategy from palliative to curative intention. Although downstaging therapy is suggested in guidelines, it is still not widely accepted. Moreover, studies on downstaging are mainly performed in high-incidence HCC countries. Therefore, our aim was to gain insight in therapeutic strategies in patients with intermediate stage HCC and their impact on intention-to-treat survival in a real-life setting in a low-incidence HCC country. We retrospectively analyzed data from the national Dutch HCC registry. From this database, consisting of 1409 patients with a diagnosis of HCC between 2005-2013 in 5 Dutch tertiary referral centers, we identified 165 patients with intermediate stage HCC. Out of these patients, 63 (38%) were not offered LRT, whereas 102 (62%) did receive LRT. Subsequently, 50 (49%) of the 102 patients who received LRT were successfully downstaged. Eleven patients (22% of successfully downstaged patients) eventually underwent liver transplantation. Cox regression analysis showed that a lower MELD score, an AFP value <100 ng/ml, successful downstaging and liver transplantation (all ≤p = 0.01) were positively associated to overall survival. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that LRT is not routinely offered to intermediate stage HCC patients in the Netherlands. Nevertheless, we showed that patients with intermediate stage HCC who are successfully downstaged have a survival benefit compared to those who were not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.12.009DOI Listing
December 2021

Cribriform architecture outperforms Gleason pattern 4 percentage and tertiary Gleason pattern 5 in predicting the outcome of Grade Group 2 prostate cancer patients.

Histopathology 2022 Feb 14;80(3):558-565. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: Gleason pattern 4 (GP4) percentage, invasive cribriform and/or intraductal carcinoma (IC/IDC) and the presence of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 (TP5) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens all aid in the risk stratification of Grade Group (GG) 2 prostate cancer patients. However, it is unclear to what extent these pathological features are mutually related and what are their individual values if they are investigated simultaneously. The aims of this study were: (i) to determine the mutual relationships of the GP4 percentage, IC/IDC and TP5 in GG2 RP specimens; and (ii) to assess their prognostic value for biochemical recurrence-free survival (BCRFS).

Methods And Results: Of 1064 RP specimens, 472 (44.4%) showed GG2 prostate cancer. Patients with ≥25% GP4 more frequently had IC/IDC (67.0% versus 43.9%; P < 0.001) and TP5 (20.6% versus 5.8%; P < 0.001) than those with <25% GP4. In unadjusted analysis, an increased GP4 percentage [hazard ratio (HR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.6; P = 0.04] and IC/IDC (log rank P < 0.001) were associated with shorter BCRFS, whereas TP5 (P = 0.12) and a dichotomised (<25%, ≥25%) GP4 percentage (P = 0.10) were not. In multivariable analysis, IC/IDC was an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-2.9; P = 0.005) for BCRFS, whereas a continuous or dichotomised GP4 percentage and TP5 were not independent prognostic factors.

Conclusion: In conclusion, a higher GP4 percentage in RP specimens was associated with more frequent IC/IDC and TP5. IC/IDC was an independent predictor for BCRFS, whereas the GP4 percentage and TP5 were not. These findings underscore the importance of routinely including the presence of IC/IDC in RP pathology reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14590DOI Listing
February 2022

An exploratory first-in-man study to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of liposomal dexamethasone at a 2- and 1-week interval in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 10;9(5):e00845

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Dexamethasone has antitumor activity in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aimed to investigate intravenous liposome-encapsulated dexamethasone disodium phosphate (liposomal dexamethasone) administration in mCRPC patients. In this exploratory first-in-man study, patients in part A received a starting dose of 10 mg followed by five doses of 20 mg liposomal dexamethasone at 2-week intervals. Upon review of part A safety, patients in part B received 10 weekly doses of 18.5 mg. Primary outcomes were safety and pharmacokinetic profile, secondary outcome was antitumor efficacy. Nine mCRPC patients (5 part A, 4 part B) were enrolled. All patients experienced grade 1-2 toxicity, one (part B) patient experienced grade 3 toxicity (permanent bladder catheter-related urosepsis). No infusion-related adverse events occurred. One patient had upsloping glucose levels ≤9.1 mmol/L. Trough plasma concentrations of liposomal- and free dexamethasone were below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in part A, and above LLOQ in three patients in part B (t ~50 h for liposomal dexamethasone), trough concentrations of liposomal- and free dexamethasone increased toward the end of the study. In seven of nine patients (78%) patients, stable disease was observed in bone and/or CT scans at follow-up, and in one (part B) of these seven patients a >50% PSA biochemical response was observed. Bi- and once weekly administrations of IV liposomal dexamethasone were well-tolerated. Weekly dosing enabled trough concentrations of liposomal- and free dexamethasone >LLOQ. The data presented support further clinical investigation in well-powered studies. Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN 10011715.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377443PMC
October 2021

Neoadjuvant Treatment with Angiogenesis-Inhibitor Dovitinib Prior to Local Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Phase II Study.

Oncologist 2021 10 4;26(10):854-864. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence rates following locoregional treatment are high. As multireceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) are effective in advanced HCC, we assessed the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant systemic treatment with dovitinib in early- and intermediate-stage HCC.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four patients with modified Child-Pugh class A early- and intermediate-stage HCC received neoadjuvant oral dovitinib 500 mg daily (5 days on/2 days off) for 4 weeks, followed by locoregional therapy. Primary endpoints were objective response rates and intratumoral blood flow changes. Secondary endpoints were safety, pharmacodynamical plasma markers of VEGFR-blockade, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS).

Results: Modified RECIST overall response rate was 48%, including 13% complete remission, and despite dose reduction/interruption in 83% of patients, intratumoral perfusion index decreased significantly. Grade 3-4 adverse events, most frequently (on-target) hypertension (54%), fatigue (25%), and thrombocytopenia (21%), occurred in 88% of patients. Plasma VEGF-A, VEGF-D, and placental growth factor increased significantly, whereas sTie-2 decreased, consistent with VEGFR-blockade. Following neoadjuvant dovitinib, all patients could proceed to their original planned locoregional treatment. No delayed toxicity occurred. Seven patients (three early, four intermediate stage) underwent orthotopic liver transplant after median 11.4 months. Censoring at transplantation, median TTP and OS were 16.8 and 34.8 months respectively; median cancer-specific survival was not reached.

Conclusion: Already after a short 4-week dovitinib treatment period, intratumoral blood flow reduction and modest antitumor responses were observed. Although these results support use of systemic neoadjuvant strategies, the poor tolerability indicates that dovitinib dose adaptations are required in HCC.

Implications For Practice: Orthotopic liver transplantation may cure early and intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Considering the expected waiting time >6 months because of donor liver scarcity, there is an unmet need for effective neoadjuvant downsizing strategies. Angiogenesis inhibition by dovitinib does not negatively affect subsequent invasive procedures, is safe to administer immediately before locoregional therapy, and may provide a novel treatment approach to improve patient outcomes if tolerability in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma can be improved by therapeutic drug monitoring and personalized dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488766PMC
October 2021

Comedonecrosis Gleason pattern 5 is associated with worse clinical outcome in operated prostate cancer patients.

Mod Pathol 2021 11 26;34(11):2064-2070. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Individual growth patterns and cribriform architecture are increasingly considered in risk stratification and clinical decision-making in men with prostate cancer. Our objective was to establish the prognostic value of individual Gleason 5 patterns in a radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort. We reviewed 1064 RPs and recorded Grade Group (GG), pT-stage, surgical margin status, Gleason 4 and 5 growth patterns as well as intraductal carcinoma. The clinical endpoints were biochemical recurrence and post-operative distant metastasis. Gleason pattern 5 was present in 339 (31.9%) RPs, of which 47 (4.4%) presented as primary, 166 (15.6%) as secondary, and 126 (11.8%) as tertiary pattern. Single cells/cords were present in 321 (94.7%) tumors with Gleason pattern 5, solid fields in 90 (26.5%), and comedonecrosis in invasive carcinoma in 32 (9.4%) tumors. Solid fields demonstrated either a small nested morphology (n = 50, 14.7%) or medium to large solid fields (n = 61, 18.0%). Cribriform architecture was present in 568 (53.4%) RPs. Medium to large solid fields and comedonecrosis coincided with cribriform architecture in all specimens, and were not observed in cribriform-negative cases. In multivariable analysis adjusted for Prostate-Specific Antigen, pT-stage, GG, surgical margin status and lymph node metastases, cribriform architecture (Hazard Ratio (HR) 9.9; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.9-25.5, P < 0.001) and comedonecrosis (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7, P = 0.01) were independent predictors for metastasis-free survival, while single cells/cords (HR 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P = 0.55) and medium to large solid fields (HR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.7, P = 0.09) were not. In conclusion, comedonecrosis in invasive carcinoma is an independent prognostic Gleason 5 pattern for metastasis-free survival after RP. These data support the current recommendations to routinely include cribriform pattern in pathology reports and indicate that comedonecrosis should also be commented on.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00860-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514328PMC
November 2021

Real-world Data of Nivolumab for Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Netherlands: An Analysis of Toxicity, Efficacy, and Predictive Markers.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 06 14;19(3):274.e1-274.e16. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 inhibitor, has been approved as second-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Europe since 2016. We investigated the toxicity and efficacy of nivolumab as well as potential predictive biomarkers in the Dutch population.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of the Dutch national registry of nivolumab for the treatment of advanced RCC. The main outcome parameters included toxicity, objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), and time to treatment failure (TTF). In addition, potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers for outcomes were evaluated.

Results: Data on 264 patients were available, of whom 42% were International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) poor risk at start of nivolumab, 16% had ≥ 3 lines of previous therapy, 7% had non-clear-cell RCC, 11% had brain metastases, and 20% were previously treated with everolimus. Grade 3/4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 15% of patients. The median OS was 18.7 months (95% confidence interval, 13.7-23.7 months). Progression occurred in 170 (64.4%) of 264 patients, with a 6-and 12-months TTP of 49.8% and 31.1%, respectively. The ORR was 18.6% (49 of 264; 95% confidence interval, 14%-23%). Elevated baseline lymphocytes were associated with improved PFS (P = .038) and elevated baseline lactate dehydrogenase with poor OS, PFS, and TTF (P = .000). On-treatment increase in eosinophils by week 8 predicted improved OS (P = .003), PFS (P = .000), and TTF (P = .014), whereas a decrease of neutrophils was associated with significantly better TTF (P = .023).

Conclusions: The toxicity and efficacy of nivolumab for metastatic RCC after previous lines of therapy are comparable with the results in the pivotal phase III trial and other real-world data. On-treatment increase in eosinophil count is a potential biomarker for efficacy and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.10.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Where are we?

Arch Esp Urol 2020 12;73(10):971-985

Department of Oncology. Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden. The Netherlands. European Uro-Oncology Group (EUOG). Leiden. The Netherlands.

Objectives: Fifty percent of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients succumb from metastatic disease despite radical cystectomy (RC). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) randomized clinical trials (RCT) investigated whether peri-operative chemotherapy improves survival. More recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are explored as peri-operative single agent, ICI-ICI or ICI-chemotherapy combinations. Our goal is to provide the status of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment in MIBC.

Methods: The literature on NAC and ACT trials in MIBC was reviewed.

Results: Since the 1980s, NAC RCTs were performed in cisplatin-fit patients, mainly using cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Meta-analyses indicated a small, but significant 5% improvement in overall survival in T2-T4N0M0 MIBC patients. Mostly MVAC or gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) regimens were used without clear benefit of one regimen over the other. NAC value in N+MIBC is not established and predictive value of associated~25-40% complete downstaging (pathologically confirmed complete regression, pCR) not unequivocally demonstrated. Adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy RCTs were smaller, some prematurely stopped for poor accrual, and underpowered to demonstrate clear statistical evidence for a 5% overall survival advantage in pT3-T4N1-3M0 MIBC. Novel neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors, alone or with chemotherapy, phase 2 trials demonstrate down staging and encouraging clinical results.

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant MVAC or GC in cT2-T4N0 MIBC patients fit for cisplatin is still recommended based on OS benefit shown in meta-analyses, butreal-world adherence to NAC is low as ~40-50% ofpatients are unfit for cisplatin. The value of neoadjuvant treatment in node-positive MIBC is not clearly demonstrated requiring more accurate clinical staging and prospective studies. Adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy may be considered in selected, chemo-naïve pT3-T4N+patients. Results from prospective checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy RCTs are needed before immunotherapy becomes a recommended alternative for peri-operative treatment. Molecular tumour subtyping will support selecting novel agents for neoadjuvant or adjuvant strategies.
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December 2020

Cribriform architecture in radical prostatectomies predicts oncological outcome in Gleason score 8 prostate cancer patients.

Mod Pathol 2021 01 20;34(1):184-193. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The Gleason score is an important parameter for clinical outcome in prostate cancer patients. Gleason score 8 is a heterogeneous disease including Gleason score 3 + 5, 4 + 4, and 5 + 3 tumors, and encompasses a broad range of tumor growth patterns. Our objective was to characterize individual growth patterns and identify prognostic parameters in Gleason score 8 prostate cancer patients. We reviewed 1064 radical prostatectomy specimens, recorded individual Gleason 4 and 5 growth patterns as well as presence of intraductal carcinoma, and evaluated biochemical recurrence- and metastasis-free survival. Gleason score 8 disease was identified in 140 (13%) patients, of whom 76 (54%) had Gleason score 3 + 5, 46 (33%) 4 + 4, and 18 (13%) 5 + 3 disease. Invasive cribriform and/or intraductal carcinoma (n = 87, 62%) was observed more frequently in Gleason score 4 + 4 (93%) than 3 + 5 (47%; P < 0.001) and 5 + 3 (44%; P < 0.001) patients. Gleason pattern 5 was present in 110 (79%) men: as single cells and/or cords in 99 (90%) and solid fields in 32 (29%) cases. Solid field pattern 5 coexisted with cribriform architecture (23/32, 72%) more frequently than nonsolid pattern 5 cases (36/78, 46%, P = 0.02). In multivariable analysis including age, prostate-specific antigen, pT-stage, surgical margin status, and lymph node metastases, presence of cribriform architecture was an independent parameter for biochemical recurrence-free (hazard ratio (HR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.7; P = 0.04) and metastasis-free (HR 3.5, 95% CI 1.0-12.3; P = 0.05) survival. In conclusion, invasive cribriform and/or intraductal carcinoma occurs more frequently in Gleason score 4 + 4 prostate cancer patients than in Gleason score 3 + 5 and 5 + 3, and is an independent parameter for biochemical recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, cribriform architecture has added value in risk stratification of Gleason score 8 prostate cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0625-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806505PMC
January 2021

Clinicopathological characteristics of glomeruloid architecture in prostate cancer.

Mod Pathol 2020 08 20;33(8):1618-1625. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Glomeruloid architecture is the least common Gleason 4 growth pattern in prostate adenocarcinoma. Its clinicopathological features and relation with cribriform architecture, which has been recognized as an adverse feature, remains to be established. Our objective was to investigate clinicopathological features of glomeruloid architecture in radical prostatectomies. We reviewed 1064 radical prostatectomy specimens and recorded Grade Group, pT-stage, margin status, Gleason pattern percentages, and growth patterns. Simple and complex glomerulations were distinguished by gland size and intraluminal cribriform protrusions. Clinical endpoint was biochemical recurrence-free survival. Glomerulations were identified in 365 (34%) specimens. In 472 Grade Group 2 patients, 210 (44%) had simple and 92 (19%) complex glomerulations. Complex glomerulations coincided with cribriform architecture more often than simple glomerulations (67% versus 52%; P = 0.01). Men with simple glomerulations had significantly lower prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels (9.7 versus 12.1 ng/ml; P = 0.03), percentage Gleason pattern 4 (19% versus 25%; P = 0.001), extra-prostatic extension (34% versus 50%; P = 0.01), and positive surgical margins (25% versus 39%; P = 0.04) than those with cribriform architecture. Extra-prostatic extension (37%) and positive surgical margins (30%) in men with complex glomerulations resembled those with simple glomeruloid rather than those with cribriform architecture. In multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for PSA, pT-stage, margin status, and lymph node metastases, cribriform architecture had independent predictive value for biochemical recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio (HR)) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.9; P = 0.004), while simple (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.2; P = 0.26) and complex (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.5-1.6; P = 0.67) glomerulations did not. Both simple and complex glomeruloid architecture are associated with better outcome than cribriform architecture in Grade Group 2 prostate cancer patients. Therefore, glomeruloid pattern and particularly complex glomerulations should not be classified as a cribriform growth pattern variant in radical prostatectomy specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0507-2DOI Listing
August 2020

Lifetime Transfusion Burden and Transfusion-Related Iron Overload in Adult Survivors of Solid Malignancies.

Oncologist 2020 02 27;25(2):e341-e350. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Limited data exist on transfusion burden and transfusion-related iron overload in adult survivors of solid malignancies.

Methods: Hospital-specific cancer registry data of patients with solid tumor receiving systemic anticancer treatment between January 2008 and September 2009 at the Oncology Department of the Leiden University Medical Center (The Netherlands) were retrieved and cross-referenced with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion records. Individual lifetime transfusion burden was captured in April 2015. Multitransfused long-term survivors with serum ferritin >500 μg/L were subsequently screened for hepatic and cardiac iron overload using 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: The study population consisted of 775 adult patients with solid cancer (45.2% male; median age, 58 years; >75% chemotherapy-treated), 423 (54.6%) of whom were transfused with a median of 6.0 RBC units (range 1-67). Transfusion triggers were symptomatic anemia or hemoglobin <8.1-8.9 g/dL prior to each myelosuppressive chemotherapy cycle. We identified 123 (15.9%) patients across all tumor types with a lifetime transfusion burden of ≥10 RBC units. In the absence of a hemovigilance program, none of these multitransfused patients was screened for iron overload despite a median survival of 4.6 years. In 2015 at disclosure of transfusion burden, 26 multitransfused patients were alive. Six (23.1%) had hepatic iron overload: 3.9-11.2 mg Fe/g dry weight. No cardiac iron depositions were found.

Conclusion: Patients with solid malignancies are at risk for multitransfusion and iron overload even when adhering to restrictive RBC transfusion policies. With improved long-term cancer survivorship, increased awareness of iatrogenic side effects of supportive therapy and development of evidence-based guidelines are essential.

Implications For Practice: In the presence of a restrictive transfusion policy, ∼30% of transfused adult patients with solid cancer are multitransfused and ∼50% become long-term survivors, underscoring the need for evidence-based guidelines for the detection and management of transfusion-related iron overload in this group of patients. In each institution, a hemovigilance program should be implemented that captures the lifetime cumulative transfusion burden in all patients with cancer, irrespective of tumor type. This instrument will allow timely assessment and treatment of iron overload in cancer survivors, thus preventing organ dysfunction and decreased quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011667PMC
February 2020

EAU-ESMO Consensus Statements on the Management of Advanced and Variant Bladder Cancer-An International Collaborative Multistakeholder Effort: Under the Auspices of the EAU-ESMO Guidelines Committees.

Eur Urol 2020 02 19;77(2):223-250. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy; Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: Although guidelines exist for advanced and variant bladder cancer management, evidence is limited/conflicting in some areas and the optimal approach remains controversial.

Objective: To bring together a large multidisciplinary group of experts to develop consensus statements on controversial topics in bladder cancer management.

Design: A steering committee compiled proposed statements regarding advanced and variant bladder cancer management which were assessed by 113 experts in a Delphi survey. Statements not reaching consensus were reviewed; those prioritised were revised by a panel of 45 experts prior to voting during a consensus conference.

Setting: Online Delphi survey and consensus conference.

Participants: The European Association of Urology (EAU), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), experts in bladder cancer management.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Statements were ranked by experts according to their level of agreement: 1-3 (disagree), 4-6 (equivocal), and 7-9 (agree). A priori (level 1) consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement and ≤15% disagreement, or vice versa. In the Delphi survey, a second analysis was restricted to stakeholder group(s) considered to have adequate expertise relating to each statement (to achieve level 2 consensus).

Results And Limitations: Overall, 116 statements were included in the Delphi survey. Of these statements, 33 (28%) achieved level 1 consensus and 49 (42%) achieved level 1 or 2 consensus. At the consensus conference, 22 of 27 (81%) statements achieved consensus. These consensus statements provide further guidance across a broad range of topics, including the management of variant histologies, the role/limitations of prognostic biomarkers in clinical decision making, bladder preservation strategies, modern radiotherapy techniques, the management of oligometastatic disease, and the evolving role of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in metastatic disease.

Conclusions: These consensus statements provide further guidance on controversial topics in advanced and variant bladder cancer management until a time when further evidence is available to guide our approach.

Patient Summary: This report summarises findings from an international, multistakeholder project organised by the EAU and ESMO. In this project, a steering committee identified areas of bladder cancer management where there is currently no good-quality evidence to guide treatment decisions. From this, they developed a series of proposed statements, 71 of which achieved consensus by a large group of experts in the field of bladder cancer. It is anticipated that these statements will provide further guidance to health care professionals and could help improve patient outcomes until a time when good-quality evidence is available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.09.035DOI Listing
February 2020

Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer: Results of a Dutch Multidisciplinary Consensus Meeting.

Eur Urol Oncol 2020 04 8;3(2):231-238. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Urology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Oligometastatic prostate cancer (OMPC) is a heterogeneous disease state that is imperfectly understood, and its clinical implications are unclear.

Objective: To determine the consensus of a Dutch multidisciplinary expert panel on biological aspects, treatment goals, and management of OMPC in daily clinical practice.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The study comprised a modified Delphi method including an explorative survey with various statements and questions, followed by a consensus meeting to discuss and determine the agreement with revised statements and related items. The panel consisted of 34 Dutch representatives from urology, medical and radiation oncology, radiology, nuclear medicine, and basic research.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Agreement was determined with statements (five-point scale). Consensus was defined as ≥75% panel agreement with a statement.

Results And Limitations: Consensus existed for 56% of statements. The panel agreed that OMPC comprises a limited metastatic spread in the hormone-sensitive setting, in both the synchronous and the metachronous presentation. Limited metastatic spread was believed to involve three to five metastases and a maximum of two organs. Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was currently perceived as the most accurate diagnostic imaging modality. Although there was a consensus that targeted treatment of all metastases in OMPC will delay further dissemination of the disease, opinions on specific treatment regimens were divided. Panel outcomes were limited by the lack of scientific evidence on OMPC.

Conclusions: A multidisciplinary panel reached a consensus that OMPC is a specific disease state requiring a tailored treatment approach. OMPC registries and clinical studies should focus on both the biology and the clinical parameters in relation to optimal treatment strategies in synchronous and metachronous OMPC.

Patient Summary: A group of Dutch medical specialists agreed that prostate cancer patients having few metastases may benefit from a new therapeutic approach. Clinical studies need to determine which treatment is best for each specific situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2019.07.010DOI Listing
April 2020

Dose Reduction May Jeopardize Efficacy of Abiraterone Acetate.

J Clin Oncol 2018 10 6;36(30):3062-3064. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

F.J. Sherida H. Woei-A-Jin, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; and Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Tine Van Nieuwenhuyse, University Hospitals Leuven; and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Nielka P. van Erp, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Benoit Beuselinck and Stephanie Stroobants, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Dirk Jan A.R. Moes and Susanne Osanto, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; and Isabel Spriet, University Hospitals Leuven; and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.79.3182DOI Listing
October 2018

Cabozantinib in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma in adults following prior vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapy: clinical trial evidence and experience.

Ther Adv Urol 2018 Mar 9;10(3):109-123. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Cabozantinib is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that potently inhibits MET and AXL, both associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), next to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, KIT, FLT3 and RET. Chronic treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeting sunitinib upregulates MET and AXL in RCC, indicating that cabozantinib may be particularly effective in patients with advanced RCC whose disease progressed on prior VEGFR-targeted treatment. Cabozantinib (60 mg once daily) has been investigated in comparison to everolimus (10 mg once daily) in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 658 patients with advanced RCC of whom 71% had received one prior and 29% had received at least two prior lines of VEGR-targeted therapy. This study demonstrated highly significant improved progression-free survival of 7.4 months 3.9 months with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.62] in favour of cabozantinib. Cabozantinib also showed a superior overall survival of 21.4 months 16.5 months (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.53-0.83). Objective response rate was higher in cabozantinib-treated patients, 17% 3%. Clinical benefit was shown in all subgroups of patients, including in patients with bone or visceral metastases. The safety profile was acceptable with manageable side effects. Based on this study, cabozantinib is a highly effective approved second-line treatment option for patients with advanced RCC with a manageable toxicity profile. Other recently approved second-line agents include checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and VEGF-targeting agent lenvatinib combined with everolimus. In the absence of predictive markers as well as head-to-head comparisons of these three recently approved treatments, the choice between these drugs in second-line treatment will probably be made based on comorbidities, tolerability of previous treatment and presence of high tumour burden with rapidly progressive disease. Future pretreatment assessment of MET and AXL tumour aberration may aid clinicians to make a rational choice between currently approved second-line treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756287217748867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896860PMC
March 2018

International evaluation of the psychometrics of health-related quality of life questionnaires for use among long-term survivors of testicular and prostate cancer.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2017 May 11;15(1):97. Epub 2017 May 11.

Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Understanding of the physical, functional and psychosocial health problems and needs of cancer survivors requires cross-national and cross-cultural standardization of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires that capture the full range of issues relevant to cancer survivors. To our knowledge, only one study has investigated in a comprehensive way whether a questionnaire used to evaluate HRQoL in cancer patients under active treatment is also reliable and valid when used among (long-term) cancer survivors. In this study we evaluated, in an international context, the psychometrics of HRQoL questionnaires for use among long-term, disease-free, survivors of testicular and prostate cancer.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited long-term survivors of testicular and prostate cancer from Northern and Southern Europe and from the United Kingdom who had participated in two phase III EORTC clinical trials. Participants completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire, the QLQ-PR25 (for prostate cancer) or the QLQ-TC26 (for testicular cancer) questionnaires, and the Impact of Cancer questionnaire. Testicular cancer survivors also completed subscales from the Nordic Questionnaire for Monitoring the Age Diverse Workforce.

Results: Two hundred forty-two men (66% response rate) were recruited into the study. The average time since treatment was more than 10 years. Overall, there were few missing questionnaire data, although scales related to sexuality, satisfaction with care and relationship concerns of men without partners were missing in more than 10% of cases. Debriefing showed that in general the questionnaires were accepted well. Many of the survivors scored at the upper extremes of the questionnaires, resulting in floor and ceiling effects in 64% of the scales. All of the questionnaires investigated met the threshold of 0.70 for group level reliability, with the exception of the QLQ-TC26 (mean reliability .64) and the QLQ-PR25 (mean reliability .69). The questionnaires were able to discriminate clearly between patients with and without comorbid conditions.

Conclusions: The currently available HRQoL questionnaires exhibit acceptable psychometric properties and were well received by patients, but additional efforts are needed to ensure that the full range of survivor-specific issues is assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-017-0670-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426020PMC
May 2017

Tissue factor-bearing microparticles and CA19.9: two players in pancreatic cancer-associated thrombosis?

Br J Cancer 2016 07 12;115(3):332-8. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) heralds a poor prognosis, especially in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). Tissue factor (TF) is implicated as one of the main culprits in PAC-associated VTE and disease progression.

Methods: In a prospective cohort study of 79 PAC patients, we measured plasma CA19-9 and microparticle-associated TF activity (MP-TF activity). In addition, we enumerated TF(+)MPs and MUC1(+)MPs in plasma (n=55), and studied the expression of TF, MUC1, CD31 and CD68 in tumour tissue (n=44).

Results: Plasma MP-TF activity was markedly elevated in PAC patients with VTE compared with those without (median: 1925 vs 113 fM Xa min(-1); P<0.001) and correlated with the extent of thromboembolic events, metastatic disease and short survival. Similar results were found for CA19-9. Patients with massively progressing thrombosis and cerebral embolisms despite anticoagulant therapy (n=3) had the highest MP-TF activities (12 118-40 188 fM Xa min(-1)) and CA19-9 (40 730-197 000 kU l(-1)). All tumours expressed MUC1 and TF. MP-TF activity did not correlate with intensity of TF expression in adenocarcinoma cells, but corresponded with numbers of TF(+) macrophages in the surrounding stroma.

Conclusions: Circulating TF(+)MPs and mucins may concertedly aggravate coagulopathy in PAC. Understanding of underlying mechanisms may result in new treatment strategies for VTE prevention and improvement of survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2016.170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4973148PMC
July 2016

Adherence to guideline recommendations for management of clinical T1 renal cancers in the Netherlands: a population-based study.

World J Urol 2016 Aug 13;34(8):1053-60. Epub 2016 May 13.

Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: For decades, small renal cancers are treated by radical nephrectomy (RN). Current guidelines recommend partial nephrectomy (PN) to preserve renal function and minimize cardiovascular comorbidity. As adherence to guidelines is largely unknown and international comparison to evaluate quality of health care is lacking, an pre-specified guideline evaluation of quality indicators concerning management of cT1 renal cancers was performed.

Methods: We performed a cohort study including patients with cT1 renal cancer between 2010 and 2014, identified through the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Time trends and variation in treatment were described. Factors associated with PN in cT1a and laparoscopic RN in cT1b were evaluated with logistic regression analyses.

Results: An increase in nephron-sparing treatment strategies (NSS) of cT1a patients (N total = 2436) was observed; in 2014, 67 % underwent NSS (62 % PN and 5 % thermal ablation). Age, a non-central tumor localization and being treated in a high-volume hospital were associated with PN. Although NSS were applied more frequently over time, the majority (70 %) of cT1b patients (N total = 2205) underwent RN in 2014, mainly performed laparoscopically. Increasing tumor size, tumor localization in the right kidney and being treated in a university hospital were associated with a lower probability of a laparoscopic RN versus open. Treatment in a high-volume hospital was associated with a higher probability of laparoscopic RN.

Conclusions: Dutch patients with cT1 renal cancer are predominantly treated according to current guidelines. Data of this pre-specified quality indicator analysis of a urological national guideline may serve as a model for international comparison of treatment of cT1 renal cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-016-1841-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4958124PMC
August 2016

Evaluation of lecithinized human recombinant super oxide dismutase as cardioprotectant in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2014 Nov;78(5):950-60

Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aim: Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is (partly) mediated by free radical overload. A randomized study was performed in breast cancer patients to investigate whether free radical scavenger super oxide dismutase (SOD) protects against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity as measured by changes in echo, electrocardiography and an array of biomarkers.

Method And Results: Eighty female, chemotherapy-naïve breast cancer patients (median age 49, range 24-67 years) scheduled for four or five courses of adjuvant 3 weekly doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy, were randomly assigned to receive 80 mg PC-SOD (human recombinant SOD bound to lecithin) or placebo, administered intravenously (i.v.) immediately prior to each AC course. The primary end point was protection against cardiac damage evaluated using echocardiography, QT assessments and a set of biochemical markers for myocardial function, oxidative stress and inflammation. Assessments were performed before and during each course of chemotherapy, and at 1, 4 and 9 months after completion of the chemotherapy regimen. In all patients cardiac effects such as increases in NT-proBNP concentration and prolongation of the QTc interval were noticed. There were no differences between the PC-SOD and placebo-treated patients in systolic or diastolic cardiac function or for any other of the biomarkers used to assess the cardiac effects of anthracyclines.

Conclusion: PC-SOD at a dose of 80 mg i.v. is not cardioprotective in patients with breast carcinoma treated with anthracyclines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4243869PMC
November 2014

Recruiting long-term survivors of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III clinical trials into quality of life studies: challenges and opportunities.

Eur J Cancer 2014 Jul 9;50(11):1957-63. Epub 2014 May 9.

Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: In this pilot study we evaluated the feasibility of and methods for assessing the quality of life of long term survivors of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase III clinical trials. Here we report the results pertaining to the feasibility of conducting such research.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited long-term, disease-free survivors from two mature EORTC clinical trials in testicular and prostate cancer from centres in Northern and Southern Europe, and the United Kingdom (UK).

Results: A number of challenges were encountered in recruiting participating centres, obtaining medical ethical approval and in recruiting survivors and collecting the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data in a timely manner. The efficiency with which the study could be conducted varied widely across centres and countries. Time to obtain medical ethical approval for the study ranged from 1.5 to 25 months. We encountered most problems with ethical approval in the UK, Italy and Belgium. In most cases, data collection was completed within 3 months (range 10 weeks-1 year). Completed questionnaires were obtained from 68% and 56%, respectively, of the testicular and prostate cancer survivors who were approached.

Conclusions: HRQoL research among long-term survivors of EORTC phase III clinical trials is possible, but the process of ethical approval and data collection is a lengthy one. To minimise many of the logistical problems, long-term follow-up of patients should be an integral part of future clinical trials. Moreover, regulations governing medical ethical approval for clinical research within the EU should be carefully evaluated to facilitate long-term follow-up of cancer survivors in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2014.04.018DOI Listing
July 2014

Procoagulant tissue factor activity on microparticles is associated with disease severity and bacteremia in febrile urinary tract infections.

Thromb Res 2014 May 6;133(5):799-803. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: Inhibition of tissue factor, the primary initiator of coagulation in sepsis, attenuates morbidity in primates infused with Escherichia coli. In a human endotoxemia model, microparticles expressing procoagulant TF (MP-TF) are released in blood concurrently with markers of inflammation and coagulation. We investigated whether the release of MP-TF into blood is accompanied by procoagulant and inflammatory changes in patients with E. coli urinary tract infection.

Materials And Methods: In a multicenter cohort study, we determined clinical disease severity using APACHE II scores and measured plasma MP-TF activity, TAT, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1, procalcitonin and monocyte count in blood of 215 patients with community-acquired febrile E. coli urinary tract infections.

Results: Plasma MP-TF activity on admission corresponded with clinical disease severity (APACHE II score; P=0.006) and correlated significantly but weakly with plasma markers of disease severity (sE-selectin, sVCAM-1, procalcitonin). Additionally, median plasma MP-TF activity was higher in patients than in healthy controls (197 vs. 79 fM Xa/min; P<0.0001), and highest in bacteremic patients (325 fM Xa/min). MP-TF activity showed a weak inverse correlation with monocyte count (rs -0.22; P=0.016) and a weak correlation with TAT (rs 0.23, P=0.017). After 3 days of antibiotic treatment, upon resolution of the infection, plasma MP-TF activity and TAT concentrations declined.

Conclusions: Microparticle-associated procoagulant tissue factor activity is related to disease severity and bacteremia in febrile E. coli UTI patients and may contribute to the prothrombotic state in gram-negative sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2014.03.007DOI Listing
May 2014

Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma.

J Extracell Vesicles 2013 Dec 31;2. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EV) are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited.

Objectives: To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Methods: Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM.

Results: EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles). In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25-260 nm). The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules.

Conclusions: Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jev.v2i0.21494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895263PMC
December 2013

Durable remission of renal cell carcinoma in conjuncture with graft versus host disease following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion: rule or exception?

PLoS One 2014 15;9(1):e85198. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can be applied as immunotherapeutic intervention to treat malignant diseases. Here, we describe a patient with progressive metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who was treated with T cell depleted non-myeloablative alloSCT and DLI resulting in disease regression accompanied by extensive graft versus host disease (GVHD). We characterized the specificity of this immune response, and detected a dominant T cell population recognizing a novel minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA) designated LB-FUCA2-1V. T cells specific for LB-FUCA2-1V were shown to recognize RCC cell lines, supporting a dominant role in the graft versus tumor (GVT) reaction. However, coinciding with the gradual disappearance of chronic GVHD, the anti-tumor effect declined and 3 years after alloSCT the metastases became progressive again. To re-initiate the GVT reaction, escalating doses of DLI were given, but no immune response could be induced and the patient died of progressive disease 8.5 years after alloSCT. Gene expression studies illustrated that only a minimal number of genes shared expression between RCC and professional antigen presenting cells but were not expressed by non-malignant healthy tissues, indicating that in patients suffering from RCC, GVT reactivity after alloSCT may be unavoidably linked to GVHD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085198PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893183PMC
December 2014

Outcome after ST elevation myocardial infarction in patients with cancer treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Dec 21;112(12):1867-72. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Department of Cardiology, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

The simultaneous occurrence of cancer and coronary heart disease is increasing in the Western world. Nevertheless, the influence of cancer on ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been investigated extensively. This multicenter registry included patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI from 2006 to 2009. Patients were stratified according to history of cancer, and primary focus lay on all-cause and cardiac mortalities during 1-year follow-up. Adjusted effect sizes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 208 patients had a history of cancer (diagnosed ≤6 months ago in 20.7%, 6 months to 3 years ago in 21.7%, and >3 years ago in 57.6%) and 3,215 patients had no history of cancer. Chemotherapy had been administered previously to 23% of patients with cancer. Patients with cancer were older, more frequently women, and more commonly known with previous myocardial infarction or anemia. Reperfusion rates were similar after PCI. Patients with cancer showed greater all-cause (17.4% vs 6.5% in other patients) and cardiac mortalities at 1 year (10.7% vs 5.4% in other patients) because of high early cardiac death (23.8%) in recently diagnosed patients with cancer. After adjustment, a recent cancer diagnosis predicted cardiac mortality at 7 days (hazard ratio 3.34, 95% confidence interval 1.57 to 7.08). The adverse prognosis was partly explained by anemia and occurrence of cardiogenic shock, whereas outcome was independent of cancer treatment. In conclusion, patients with cancer showed greater mortality after STEMI. A cancer diagnosis in the 6 months before primary PCI was strongly associated with early cardiac mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.08.019DOI Listing
December 2013

Tasquinimod: a novel drug in advanced prostate cancer.

Future Oncol 2013 Sep;9(9):1271-81

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Tasquinimod, an oral quinolone-3-carboxamide with anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of prostate cancer, has been tested in patients with minimally symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), showing promising inhibitory effects on the occurrence of metastasis and delayed disease progression. Although its mode of action is not fully understood, tasquinimod presumably exerts its unique anti-tumor action through inhibition of angiogenesis and immunomodulation. In clinical studies, tasquinimod demonstrated anti-tumor activity in prostate cancer in combination with a mild-to-moderate side effect profile. With single-agent tasquinimod, dose-limiting toxicity was amylase elevation without signs of pancreatitis and sinus tachycardia. The maximum tolerated dose in Phase I studies in patients with CRPC was once daily administration of 0.5-1-mg tasquinimod orally. In a Phase II trial, significant clinical activity has been demonstrated in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive, metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients. Men were randomized to tasquinimod or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; treatment with tasquinimod resulted in significant improvement of median progression-free survival (7.6 vs 3.3 months with placebo; p = 0.0042). Based on these encouraging effects, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in men with minimally symptomatic mCRPC has been designed. This large Phase III trial, powered for a primary end point of progression-free survival, has now enrolled the target number of 1200 men. If the Phase II data are validated in the Phase III trial a new compound with a unique mode of action might become approved as a future therapy for minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon.13.136DOI Listing
September 2013

Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

Acta Oncol 2014 03 19;53(3):351-60. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden , The Netherlands.

Background: Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness.

Material And Methods: We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy.

Results: Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured.

Conclusion: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development of metabolic syndrome and CVD years later in individual testicular cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2013.819116DOI Listing
March 2014

Alternatively spliced tissue factor promotes breast cancer growth in a β1 integrin-dependent manner.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Jul 25;110(28):11517-22. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Full-length tissue factor (flTF), the coagulation initiator, is overexpressed in breast cancer (BrCa), but associations between flTF expression and clinical outcome remain controversial. It is currently not known whether the soluble alternatively spliced TF form (asTF) is expressed in BrCa or impacts BrCa progression. We are unique in reporting that asTF, but not flTF, strongly associates with both tumor size and grade, and induces BrCa cell proliferation by binding to β1 integrins. asTF promotes oncogenic gene expression, anchorage-independent growth, and strongly up-regulates tumor expansion in a luminal BrCa model. In basal BrCa cells that constitutively express both TF isoforms, asTF blockade reduces tumor growth and proliferation in vivo. We propose that asTF plays a major role in BrCa progression acting as an autocrine factor that promotes tumor progression. Targeting asTF may comprise a previously unexplored therapeutic strategy in BrCa that stems tumor growth, yet does not impair normal hemostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1307100110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710867PMC
July 2013

Murine tissue factor coagulant activity is critically dependent on the presence of an intact allosteric disulfide.

Haematologica 2013 Jan 16;98(1):153-8. Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Tissue factor activation (decryption) has been proposed to be dependent on the cysteine 186-cysteine 209 allosteric disulfide in the tissue factor extracellular domain. Tissue factor procoagulant activity is under the control of protein disulfide isomerase-dependent modulation and nitrosylation of this disulfide. Human tissue factor disulfide mutants have been proposed as a model for encrypted tissue factor, but poor expression of these mutants hampers research into tissue factor decryption. We, therefore, investigated whether mouse tissue factor cysteine 186-cysteine 209 disulfide bond mutants form a better suited model for tissue factor decryption. Stable mouse wild-type tissue factor, tissue factor(C190A), tissue factor(C213A) and tissue factor(C190/213A) disulfide mutant-expressing baby hamster kidney cells with equal levels of surface tissue factor were established. Tissue factor coagulant activity on these cells was determined using an active factor Xa-dependent chromogenic assay. The effect of nitrosylation on tissue factor function was also assessed. A tissue factor(C190/213A) mutant exerted marginal procoagulant activity, also after addition of supraphysiological concentration of factor VIIa. Tissue factor(C190A) and tissue factor(C213A) mutants showed reduced activity and the presence of tissue factor dimers. Nitrosylation of wild-type tissue factor cells decreased procoagulant function, an effect which was reversed by incubation with bacitracin, an inhibitor of protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting that this isomerase promotes de-nitrosylation of tissue factor. Mouse tissue factor procoagulant function is dependent on the Cys190-Cys213 disulfide bond and is modulated by nitrosylation. The murine model of disulfide-mutated tissue factor is more suitable for studying tissue factor decryption than are human tissue factor mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2012.069997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533678PMC
January 2013
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