Publications by authors named "Susanne Holzhauer"

35 Publications

Hemostatic Management in an Infant With Neuroblastoma and Severe Hemophilia B With Extended Half-life Recombinant Factor IX Fusion Protein.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Charité University Medicine Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charité and Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin Pediatric Outpatient Practice, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany.

In the rare co-occurrence of childhood cancer and severe hemophilia, hemostatic management is of paramount therapeutic importance. We present the case of an 11-month-old boy with severe congenital hemophilia B, who was diagnosed with metastatic high-risk neuroblastoma. He consequently developed paraneoplastic coagulopathy with life-threatening tumor hemorrhage and intracranial hemorrhage, showing central nervous system relapse. Management consisted of factor IX replacement with extended half-life factor IX fusion protein, adjusted to bleeding risk. Additional interventions included factor XIII, fibrinogen, fresh frozen plasma, tranexamic acid, and platelet transfusions. The half-life of factor IX products was markedly reduced requiring close factor IX monitoring and adequate replacement. This intensified treatment allowed chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplantation, and GD2 antibody immune therapy without bleeding or thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002109DOI Listing
March 2021

Rivaroxaban for treatment of pediatric venous thromboembolism. An Einstein-Jr phase 3 dose-exposure-response evaluation.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 07 4;18(7):1672-1685. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany.

Background: Recently, the randomized EINSTEIN-Jr study showed similar efficacy and safety for rivaroxaban and standard anticoagulation for treatment of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). The rivaroxaban dosing strategy was established based on phase 1 and 2 data in children and through pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling.

Methods: Rivaroxaban treatment with tablets or the newly developed granules-for-oral suspension formulation was bodyweight-adjusted and administered once-daily, twice-daily, or thrice-daily for children with bodyweights of ≥30, ≥12 to <30, and <12 kg, respectively. Previously, these regimens were confirmed for children weighing ≥20 kg but only predicted in those <20 kg. Based on sparse blood sampling, the daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC ] and trough [C ] and maximum [C ] steady-state plasma concentrations were derived using population PK modeling. Exposure-response graphs were generated to evaluate the potential relationship of individual PK parameters with recurrent VTE, repeat imaging outcomes, and bleeding or adverse events. A taste-and-texture questionnaire was collected for suspension-recipients.

Results: Of the 335 children (aged 0-17 years) allocated to rivaroxaban, 316 (94.3%) were evaluable for PK analyses. Rivaroxaban exposures were within the adult exposure range. No clustering was observed for any of the PK parameters with efficacy, bleeding, or adverse event outcomes. Results were similar for the tablet and suspension formulation. Acceptability and palatability of the suspension were favorable.

Discussion: Based on this analysis and the recently documented similar efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with standard anticoagulation, we conclude that bodyweight-adjusted pediatric rivaroxaban regimens with either tablets or suspension are validated and provide for appropriate treatment of children with VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14813DOI Listing
July 2020

Genotype-phenotype correlation and molecular heterogeneity in pyruvate kinase deficiency.

Am J Hematol 2020 05 6;95(5):472-482. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is a rare recessive congenital hemolytic anemia caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. This study reports the molecular features of 257 patients enrolled in the PKD Natural History Study. Of the 127 different pathogenic variants detected, 84 were missense and 43 non-missense, including 20 stop-gain, 11 affecting splicing, five large deletions, four in-frame indels, and three promoter variants. Within the 177 unrelated patients, 35 were homozygous and 142 compound heterozygous (77 for two missense, 48 for one missense and one non-missense, and 17 for two non-missense variants); the two most frequent mutations were p.R510Q in 23% and p.R486W in 9% of mutated alleles. Fifty-five (21%) patients were found to have at least one previously unreported variant with 45 newly described mutations. Patients with two non-missense mutations had lower hemoglobin levels, higher numbers of lifetime transfusions, and higher rates of complications including iron overload, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and pulmonary hypertension. Rare severe complications, including lower extremity ulcerations and hepatic failure, were seen more frequently in patients with non-missense mutations or with missense mutations characterized by severe protein instability. The PKLR genotype did not correlate with the frequency of complications in utero or in the newborn period. With ICCs ranging from 0.4 to 0.61, about the same degree of clinical similarity exists within siblings as it does between siblings, in terms of hemoglobin, total bilirubin, splenectomy status, and cholecystectomy status. Pregnancy outcomes were similar across genotypes in PK deficient women. This report confirms the wide genetic heterogeneity of PK deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25753DOI Listing
May 2020

Development of Haemophilia Treatment in the Eastern Part of Germany over the Last Decade in the Kompetenznetz Hämorrhagische Diathese Ost (KHDO).

Hamostaseologie 2020 Feb 11;40(1):119-127. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Medical Department I, Division of Haemostaseology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Introduction:  In 2005 the Kompetenznetz Hämorrhagische Diathese Ost published epidemiologic data about patients with haemophilia A (HA) and haemophilia B (HB) in the eastern part of Germany. This study provides data about the development of treatment in these patients over the past 10 years.

Methods:  Data from 12 haemophilia centres in eastern Germany were retrospectively collected for the year 2015 from patients' records.

Results:  We evaluated 413 patients (115 children, 298 adults) with HA or HB. A total of 286 patients (69.2%) had severe haemophilia (patients with severe haemophilia, PWSH). Compared with 2005, the proportion PWSH on prophylaxis increased from 90% to 98.8% in children and from 64% to 80.2% in adults. The use of plasma-derived factor concentrates decreased from >70% to 55.3% in children and to 55.1% in adults. Mean annual factor consumption in PWSH without inhibitor was higher in 2015 compared with 2005 (children with HA: 151,489 vs. 98,894; adults with HA: 217,151 vs. 151,394; children with HB: 105,200 vs. 64,256; adults with HB: 159,185 vs. 85,295). Median annualized bleeding (annualized bleeding rate, ABR) and joint bleeding rates (annualized joint bleeding rate, AJBR) in 2015 were 2 and 0 in children and 3 and 0 in adults, respectively. In 2015 only one child (1.2%) but 101 (53.2%) adults with severe haemophilia were anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) positive. The rate of anti-HCV positive patients with active hepatitis C dropped from 63.8% to 12.9%.

Conclusions:  Within the last decade more patients with severe haemophilia were switched to a prophylactic regimen going along with a moderate increase in factor consumption achieving a low ABR and AJBR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3399493DOI Listing
February 2020

Rivaroxaban compared with standard anticoagulants for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in children: a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jan 5;7(1):e18-e27. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Clinical Haematology, Royal Children's Hospital, Haematology Research Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Treatment of venous thromboembolism in children is based on data obtained in adults with little direct documentation of its efficacy and safety in children. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulants in children with venous thromboembolism.

Methods: In a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised study, children (aged 0-17 years) attending 107 paediatric hospitals in 28 countries with documented acute venous thromboembolism who had started heparinisation were assigned (2:1) to bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban (tablets or suspension) in a 20-mg equivalent dose or standard anticoagulants (heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). Randomisation was stratified by age and venous thromboembolism site. The main treatment period was 3 months (1 month in children <2 years of age with catheter-related venous thromboembolism). The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (assessed by intention-to-treat), and the principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (assessed in participants who received ≥1 dose), were centrally assessed by investigators who were unaware of treatment assignment. Repeat imaging was obtained at the end of the main treatment period and compared with baseline imaging tests. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02234843 and has been completed.

Findings: From Nov 14, 2014, to Sept 28, 2018, 500 (96%) of the 520 children screened for eligibility were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 91 days (IQR 87-95) in children who had a study treatment period of 3 months (n=463) and 31 days (IQR 29-35) in children who had a study treatment period of 1 month (n=37), symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in four (1%) of 335 children receiving rivaroxaban and five (3%) of 165 receiving standard anticoagulants (hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·11-1·41). Repeat imaging showed an improved effect of rivaroxaban on thrombotic burden as compared with standard anticoagulants (p=0·012). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding in participants who received ≥1 dose occurred in ten (3%) of 329 children (all non-major) receiving rivaroxaban and in three (2%) of 162 children (two major and one non-major) receiving standard anticoagulants (HR 1·58, 95% CI 0·51-6·27). Absolute and relative efficacy and safety estimates of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation estimates were similar to those in rivaroxaban studies in adults. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: In children with acute venous thromboembolism, treatment with rivaroxaban resulted in a similarly low recurrence risk and reduced thrombotic burden without increased bleeding, as compared with standard anticoagulants.

Funding: Bayer AG and Janssen Research & Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30219-4DOI Listing
January 2020

Severe infections of Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus in children.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Sep;98(38):e17185

Department of Pediatric Pneumology, Immunology and Intensive Care.

Infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA) mostly present as recurrent skin abscesses and furunculosis. However, life-threatening infections (eg, necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and osteomyelitis) caused by PVL-SA have also been reported.We assessed the clinical phenotype, frequency, clinical implications (surgery, length of treatment in hospitals/intensive care units, and antibiotic treatments), and potential preventability of severe PVL-SA infections in children.Total, 75 children treated for PVL-SA infections in our in- and outpatient units from 2012 to 2017 were included in this retrospective study.Ten out of 75 children contracted severe infections (PVL-methicillin resistant S aureus n = 4) including necrotizing pneumonia (n = 4), necrotizing fasciitis (n = 2), pyomyositis (n = 2; including 1 patient who also had pneumonia), mastoiditis with cerebellitis (n = 1), preorbital cellulitis (n = 1), and recurrent deep furunculosis in an immunosuppressed patient (n = 1). Specific complications of PVL-SA infections were venous thrombosis (n = 2), sepsis (n = 5), respiratory failure (n = 5), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 3). The median duration of hospital stay was 14 days (range 5-52 days). In 6 out of 10 patients a history suggestive for PVL-SA colonization in the patient or close family members before hospital admission was identified.PVL-SA causes severe to life-threatening infections requiring lengthy treatments in hospital in a substantial percentage of symptomatic PVL-SA colonized children. More than 50% of severe infections might be prevented by prompt testing for PVL-SA in individuals with a history of abscesses or furunculosis, followed by decolonization measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756729PMC
September 2019

Bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban for children with venous thromboembolism (EINSTEIN-Jr): results from three multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 studies.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Oct 13;6(10):e500-e509. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany.

Background: Rivaroxaban has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of venous thromboembolism in adults, and has a reduced risk of bleeding compared with standard anticoagulants. We aimed to develop paediatric rivaroxaban regimens for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in children and adolescents.

Methods: In this phase 2 programme, we did three studies to evaluate rivaroxaban treatment in children younger than 6 months, aged 6 months to 5 years, and aged 6-17 years. Our studies used a multicentre, single-arm design at 54 sites in Australia, Europe, Israel, Japan, and north America. We included children with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism previously treated with low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist for at least 2 months or, in children who had catheter-related venous thromboembolism for at least 6 weeks. We administered rivaroxaban orally in a bodyweight-adjusted 20 mg-equivalent dose, based on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling predictions and EINSTEIN-Jr phase 1 data in young adults, in either a once-daily (tablets; for those aged 6-17 years), twice-daily (in suspension; for those aged 6 months to 11 years), or three times-daily (in suspension; for those younger than 6 months) dosing regimen for 30 days (or 7 days for those younger than 6 months). The primary aim was to define rivaroxaban treatment regimens that match the target adult exposure range. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Analyses were per-protocol. The predefined efficacy outcomes were symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism, asymptomatic deterioration on repeat imaging at the end of the study treatment period. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02564718, NCT02309411, and NCT02234843.

Findings: Between Feb 11, 2013, and Dec 20, 2017, we enrolled 93 children (ten children younger than 6 months; 15 children aged 6 months to 1 year; 25 children aged 2-5 years; 32 children aged 6-11 years; and 11 children aged 12-17 years) into our study. 89 (96%) children completed study treatment (30 days of treatment, or 7 days in those younger than 6 months), and 93 (100%) children received at least one dose of study treatment and were evaluable for the primary endpoints. None of the children had a major bleed, and four (4%, 95% CI 1·2-10·6) of these children had a clinically relevant non-major bleed (three children aged 12-17 years with menorrhagia and one child aged 6-11 years with gingival bleeding). We found no symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism in any patients (0%, 0·0-3·9). 24 (32%) of 75 patients with repeat imaging had their thrombotic burden resolved, 43 (57%) patients improved, and eight (11%) patients were unchanged. No patient deteriorated. We confirmed therapeutic rivaroxaban exposures with once-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 30 kg and with twice-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and less than 30 kg. Children with low bodyweights (<20 kg, particularly <12 kg) showed low exposures so, for future studies, rivaroxaban dosages were revised for these weight categories, to match the target adult exposure range. 61 (66%) of 93 children had adverse events during the study. Pyrexia was the most common adverse event (ten [11%] events), and anaemia and neutropenia or febrile neutropenia were the most frequent grade 3 or worse events (four [4%] events each). No children died or were discontinued from rivaroxaban because of adverse events.

Interpretation: Treatment with bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban appears to be safe in children. The treatment regimens that we confirmed in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and the revised treatment regimens that we predicted in those with bodyweights less than 20 kg will be evaluated in the EINSTEIN-Jr phase 3 trial in children with acute venous thromboembolism.

Funding: Bayer AG, Janssen Research and Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30161-9DOI Listing
October 2019

Impact of prophylaxis on health-related quality of life of boys with hemophilia: An analysis of pooled data from 9 countries.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Jul 23;3(3):397-404. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Child Health Evaluative Sciences Program, Research Institute The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) Toronto Ontario Canada.

Background: Prophylaxis reduces the frequency of bleeds in boys with severe hemophilia and is the standard care for their management in resource-abundant countries. The effect of prophylaxis on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) has not been established, because the sample sizes of most studies are too small to explore the relationship of multiple factors that influence HRQoL.

Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of hemophilia severity and treatment regimen on HRQoL and to establish the minimum important difference (MID) using the international level of score distributions. HRQoL data were pooled from 7 studies across 9 countries. HRQoL was measured using the Canadian Hemophilia Outcomes-Kids' Life Assessment Tool (CHO-KLAT). A mixed-effect linear regression analysis was employed to assess the impact of prophylaxis on the CHO-KLAT score.

Results: Data from 401 boys with hemophilia were analyzed (57.6% severe hemophilia and 57.6% receiving prophylaxis). The model revealed that receiving prophylaxis was significantly associated with higher HRQoL (regression coefficient 8.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-13.1). Boys with severe hemophilia had a significantly lower HRQoL as compared to boys with moderate and mild hemophilia whose CHO-KLAT scores were 7.0 and 6.6 points higher, respectively. There was a significant interaction between treatment and disease severity (=0.023), indicating prophylaxis has the most significant impact in boys with severe hemophilia. Based on these pooled data, the MID of the CHO-KLAT was established at 6.5.

Conclusions: This study confirms the positive effect of prophylaxis on HRQoL in boys with hemophilia in a real-world setting and provides initial benchmarks for interpreting HRQoL scores based on use of the CHO-KLAT instrument.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6611476PMC
July 2019

Arteriopathy Influences Pediatric Ischemic Stroke Presentation, but Sickle Cell Disease Influences Stroke Management.

Stroke 2019 05;50(5):1089-1094

Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas and Children's Health Dallas (M.M.D.).

Background and Purpose- Sickle cell disease (SCD) and arteriopathy are pediatric stroke risk factors that are not mutually exclusive. The relative contributions of sickled red blood cells and arteriopathy to stroke risk are unknown, resulting in unclear guidelines for primary and secondary stroke prevention when both risk factors are present. We hypothesized that despite similarities in clinical presentation and radiographic appearance of arteriopathies, stroke evaluation and management differ in children with SCD compared with those without SCD. Methods- We compared presentation and management of children with and without SCD enrolled in the IPSS (International Pediatric Stroke Study) with acute arterial ischemic stroke, according to SCD and arteriopathy status. Regression modeling determined relative contribution of SCD and arteriopathy in variables with significant frequency differences. Results- Among 930 childhood arterial ischemic strokes, there were 98 children with SCD, 67 of whom had arteriopathy, and 466 without SCD, 392 of whom had arteriopathy. Arteriopathy, regardless of SCD status, increased likelihood of hemiparesis (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.46-2.56) and speech abnormalities (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.29-2.19). Arteriopathy also increased likelihood of headache but only among those without SCD (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.40-2.55). Echocardiograms were less frequently obtained in children with SCD (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93), but the frequency of identified cardiac abnormalities was similar in both groups ( P=0.57). Children with SCD were less likely to receive antithrombotic therapy, even in the presence of arteriopathy (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.08-0.22). Arteriopathy was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of antithrombotic therapy in children without SCD (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 3.55-8.09). Conclusions- Arteriopathy, and not SCD status, was most influential of stroke presentation. However, SCD status influenced stroke management because children with SCD were less likely to have echocardiograms or receive antithrombotic therapy. Further work is needed to determine whether management differences are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481313PMC
May 2019

Clinical spectrum of pyruvate kinase deficiency: data from the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Natural History Study.

Blood 2018 05 16;131(20):2183-2192. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

An international, multicenter registry was established to collect retrospective and prospective clinical data on patients with pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, the most common glycolytic defect causing congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Medical history and laboratory and radiologic data were retrospectively collected at enrollment for 254 patients with molecularly confirmed PK deficiency. Perinatal complications were common, including anemia that required transfusions, hyperbilirubinemia, hydrops, and prematurity. Nearly all newborns were treated with phototherapy (93%), and many were treated with exchange transfusions (46%). Children age 5 years and younger were often transfused until splenectomy. Splenectomy (150 [59%] of 254 patients) was associated with a median increase in hemoglobin of 1.6 g/dL and a decreased transfusion burden in 90% of patients. Predictors of a response to splenectomy included higher presplenectomy hemoglobin ( = .007), lower indirect bilirubin ( = .005), and missense mutations ( = .0017). Postsplenectomy thrombosis was reported in 11% of patients. The most frequent complications included iron overload (48%) and gallstones (45%), but other complications such as aplastic crises, osteopenia/bone fragility, extramedullary hematopoiesis, postsplenectomy sepsis, pulmonary hypertension, and leg ulcers were not uncommon. Overall, 87 (34%) of 254 patients had both a splenectomy and cholecystectomy. In those who had a splenectomy without simultaneous cholecystectomy, 48% later required a cholecystectomy. Although the risk of complications increases with severity of anemia and a genotype-phenotype relationship was observed, complications were common in all patients with PK deficiency. Diagnostic testing for PK deficiency should be considered in patients with apparent congenital hemolytic anemia and close monitoring for iron overload, gallstones, and other complications is needed regardless of baseline hemoglobin. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02053480.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-10-810796DOI Listing
May 2018

A comparative prospective observational study of children and adults with immune thrombocytopenia: 2-year follow-up.

Am J Hematol 2018 06 30;93(6):751-759. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Comparative clinical studies of children and adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are poorly covered in the literature. However, the accepted classification of ITP-childhood ITP and adult ITP-results in considerable differences in treatment protocols and practice guidelines. The analysis of the Pediatric and Adult Registry on Chronic ITP (PARC-ITP) of patients at first presentation demonstrated fewer differences in clinical and laboratory findings at initial diagnosis between children and adults than expected. The present report of 2-year follow-up data supports the hypothesis that there are common aspects of childhood and adult ITP. Data of 3360 children and 420 adults were collected during the time of 2004 until 2015 at initial diagnosis. Follow-up information was available for 51% and 33% of children and 66% and 49% of adults at 12- and 24-months, respectively. Similarities were found in unexpected areas of ITP, such as the rate of late remission at 12 and 24 months, reported bleeding sites, platelet count in bleeders, and the frequency of treated patients with persistent or chronic ITP. Differences were confirmed for the overall rate of remission and treatment modalities. Unexpected differences were found in the percentage of nonbleeders, with more adults in the nonbleeder group. More studies are needed to investigate different age groups with the aim to optimize their management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25086DOI Listing
June 2018

Impact of high risk thrombophilia status on recurrence among children and adults with VTE: An observational multicenter cohort study.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2016 11 5;62:24-31. Epub 2016 Nov 5.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. Hospital Kiel, Germany; Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. Hospital Lübeck, Germany; Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Univ. Children Hospital Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Antithrombin [AT]-, protein C [PC]- or protein S [PS]-deficiency [D] constitutes a major risk factor for venous thromboembolism [VTE]. Primary study objective was to evaluate if the clinical presentation at first VTE onset differs between children and adults and to compare the individual recurrence risk among patients with respect to age at onset and their thrombophilia status ATD, PCD or PSD.

Methods/patients/results: In 137 of 688 consecutively enrolled pediatric and adult VTE patients we calculated the absolute risk of VTE recurrence and event-free-survival adjusted for thrombophilia and positive family VTE history. At first VTE children manifested i) with a lower rate of pulmonary embolism, ii) a higher rate of cerebral vascular events or multiple VTEs, and iii) showed a higher proportion of unprovoked VTE compared to adolescents and adults. Adult patients reported more often a positive VTE history compared to younger study participants. The adjusted odds of recurrence in adults was 2.05 compared to children.

Conclusion: At disease manifestation children and adults differ with respect to i) thrombotic locations, ii) percentage of unprovoked versus provoked VTE, and iii) different rates of positive VTE family histories. Furthermore, adults showed a two-fold increase risk of VTE recurrence compared to children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2016.10.024DOI Listing
November 2016

Impact of high-risk thrombophilia status on recurrence among children with a first non-central-venous-catheter-associated VTE: an observational multicentre cohort study.

Br J Haematol 2016 Oct 22;175(1):133-40. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Deficiency of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) or protein S (PS) constitutes a major risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Individuals at high risk for recurrence who benefit from screening need to be identified. The primary study objective was to determine the individual recurrence risk among children with a first non-central-venous-catheter-associated VTE with respect to their thrombophilia status and to evaluate if the clinical presentation at first VTE onset differs between children with AT, PC or PS deficiency versus no thrombophilia. We calculated the absolute risk of VTE recurrence and event-free-survival adjusted for thrombophilia, age, sex and positive family VTE history in 161 consecutively enrolled paediatric VTE patients. The presence of a deficiency relative to no thrombophilia was evaluated as a potential predictor of recurrence. Predictors for recurrence were AT deficiency (hazard ratio/95% CI: 6·5/2·46-17·2) and female gender (2·6/1·1-6·35). The annual recurrence rates (95% CIs) were 5·4% (2·6-10) in AT-deficient children, 1·3% (0·3-3·8) in patients with PC deficiency, 0·7% (0·08-2·4) in the PS-deficient cohort and 0·9% (0·4-1·8) in patients with no thrombophilia. Positive family VTE history or combined thrombophilias did not predict recurrence. Given the overall annual incidence rate of recurrence of 1·5% we suggest screening for AT deficiency in children with VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14192DOI Listing
October 2016

Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Hereditary Bleeding Disorders and in Children and Adolescents with Stroke: Cross-Sectional Comparison to Siblings and Peers.

Biomed Res Int 2016 15;2016:1579428. Epub 2016 May 15.

Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany; Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Objectives. To investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in children and adolescents with chronic medical conditions compared with siblings/peers. Methods. Group 1 (6 treatment centers) consisted of 74 children/adolescents aged 8-16 years with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD), 12 siblings, and 34 peers. Group 2 (one treatment center) consisted of 70 children/adolescents with stroke/transient ischemic attack, 14 siblings, and 72 peers. HrQoL was assessed with the "revised KINDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen" (KINDL-R) questionnaire. Multivariate analyses within groups were done by one-way ANOVA and post hoc pairwise single comparisons by Student's t-tests. Adjusted pairwise comparisons were done by hierarchical linear regressions with individuals nested within treatment centers (group 1) and by linear regressions (group 2), respectively. Results. No differences were found in multivariate analyses of self-reported HrQoL in group 1, while in group 2 differences occurred in overall wellbeing and all subdimensions. These differences were due to differences between patients and peers. After adjusting for age, gender, number of siblings, and treatment center these differences persisted regarding self-worth (p = .0040) and friend-related wellbeing (p < .001). Conclusions. In children with HBD, HrQoL was comparable to siblings and peers. In children with stroke/TIA HrQoL was comparable to siblings while peers, independently of relevant confounder, showed better self-worth and friend-related wellbeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1579428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884589PMC
March 2017

Eltrombopag for children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (PETIT2): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2015 Oct 28;386(10004):1649-58. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Background: The thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag has been shown to be safe, tolerable, and effective for adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of eltrombopag for children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia.

Methods: PETIT2 was a two part, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study done at 38 centres in 12 countries (Argentina, Czech Republic, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Italy, Russia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, UK, and USA). Paediatric patients aged 1-17 years who had chronic immune thrombocytopenia and platelet counts less than 30 × 10(9) per L were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive eltrombopag or placebo. We stratified patients by age into three cohorts (patients aged 12-17 years, 6-11 years, and 1-5 years) before randomly entering them into a 13 week, double-blind period. Randomisation was done by the GlaxoSmithKline Registration and Medication Ordering System and both patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignments. Patients who were allocated eltrombopag received tablets (except for those aged 1-5 years who received an oral suspension formulation) once per day for 13 weeks. Starting doses for patients aged 6-17 were based on bodyweight, and ethnic origin and ranged between 50 mg/day and 25 mg/day (starting dose for patients aged 1-5 years was 1·2 mg/kg/day or 0·8 mg/kg/day for east Asian patients). Patients who completed the double-blind period entered a 24 week open-label treatment period in which all patients received eltrombopag at either the starting dose (if they were formerly on placebo) or their established dose. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving platelet counts of at least 50 × 10(9) per L in the absence of rescue therapy for 6 or more weeks from weeks 5 to 12 of the double-blind period. The intention-to-treat population included in the efficacy assessment consisted of all patients who were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups, and the safety population included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01520909.

Findings: Beginning in March 15, 2012, 92 patients were enrolled, and the trial was completed on Jan 2, 2014. 63 patients were assigned to receive eltrombopag and 29 were assigned to receive placebo. In the double-blind period, three patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events: two patients in the eltrombopag group withdrew because of increased liver aminotransferases and one in the placebo group withdrew because of abdominal haemorrhage. 25 (40%) patients who received eltrombopag compared with one (3%) patient who received placebo achieved the primary outcome of platelet counts of at least 50 × 10(9) per L for 6 of the last 8 weeks of the double-blind period (odds ratio 18·0, 95% CI, 2·3-140·9; p=0·0004). Responses were similar in all cohorts (eltrombopag vs placebo: 39% vs 10% for patients aged 12-17 years, 42% vs 0% for patients aged 6-11 years, and 36% vs 0% for patients aged 1-5 years). Proportionately fewer patients who received eltrombopag (23 [37%] of 63 patients) had WHO grades 1-4 bleeding at the end of the double-blind period than did those who received placebo (16 [55%] of 29 patients); grades 2-4 bleeding were similar (three [5%] patients who received eltrombopag vs two [7%] patients who received placebo). During the 24-week open-label treatment period, 70 [80%] of 87 patients achieved platelet counts of 50 × 10(9) per L or more at least once. Adverse events that occurred more frequently with eltrombopag than with placebo included nasopharyngitis (11 [17%] patients), rhinitis (10 [16%] patients), upper respiratory tract infection (7 [11%] patients), and cough (7 [11%] patients). Serious adverse events occurred in five (8%) patients who received eltrombopag and four (14%) who received placebo. Safety was consistent between the open-label and double-blind periods. No deaths, malignancies, or thromboses occurred during the trial.

Interpretation: Eltrombopag, which produced a sustained platelet response in 40% of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia, is a suitable therapeutic option for children with chronic symptomatic immune thrombocytopenia. We identified no new safety concerns and few patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61107-2DOI Listing
October 2015

Type and intensity of FVIII exposure on inhibitor development in PUPs with haemophilia A. A patient-level meta-analysis.

Thromb Haemost 2015 May 29;113(5):958-67. Epub 2015 Jan 29.

Maura Marcucci, Via Pace 9, 20122 Milan, Italy, Tel.: +39 328 0344384, Fax: +39 02 50320746, E-mail:

The impact of treatment-related factors on inhibitor development in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with haemophilia A is still debated. We present the results of a collaborative, individual patient data meta-analytic project. Eligible data sources were published cohorts of PUPs for which patient-level data were available. The exposures of interest were factor (F)VIII type (recombinant [rFVIII] vs plasma-derived [pdFVIII]) and treatment intensity (≥ vs < 150 IU/kg/week) at first treatment. Family history of inhibitors, F8 mutations, age, treatment regimen (on-demand vs prophylaxis), secular trend and surgery were analysed as putative confounders using different statistical approaches (multivariable Cox regression, propensity score analyses, CART). Analyses accounted for the multi-centre origin of the data. We included 761 consecutive, unselected PUPs with moderate to severe haemophilia A from 10 centres in Egypt, Germany, Israel and Italy. A total of 27 % of patients developed inhibitors; 40 % and 22 % of patients treated with rFVIII and pdFVIII (unadjusted HR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.6-2.9), respectively; 51 % and 24 % of patients receiving high- and low-intensity treatment (unadjusted HR 2.9, 95 % CI 2.0-4.2), respectively. In adjusted analyses, only treatment intensity remained an independent predictor; the effect of FVIII type was largely due to confounding, but with a significant interaction between FVIII type and treatment intensity. This patient-level meta-analysis confirms, across different statistical approaches, that high-intensity treatment is a strong risk factor for inhibitor development. The possible role of FVIII type in subgroups is suggested by the test for interactions but could not be proven because of the limited subgroups sample sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH14-07-0621DOI Listing
May 2015

Role of protein S deficiency in children with venous thromboembolism. An observational international cohort study.

Thromb Haemost 2015 Feb 2;113(2):426-33. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

Ulrike Nowak-Göttl, Center of Thrombosis & Hemostasis, Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Univ.Hospital Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, building 17, 24105 Kiel, Germany, E-mail:

Venous thromboembolism [TE] is a multifactorial disease, and protein S deficiency [PSD] constitutes a major risk factor. In the present study the prevalence of PSD and the clinical presentation at TE onset in a cohort of children is reported. In 367 unselected paediatric patients with TE (age 0.1-18 years) recruited between July 1996 and December 2013, a comprehensive thrombophilia screening was performed along with recording of anamnestic data. Thirty of 367 paediatric patients (8.2 %) derived from 27 families had PSD. Mean age at first TE onset was 14.5 years (range 0.1 to 18). Thrombotic locations were cerebral veins (n=8), calf vein TE (n=3) deep veins (DVT) of the leg (n=12), DVT & pulmonary embolism (n=5) and intra-cardiac veins (n=1) or purpura fulminans (n=1). PSD co-occurred with the factor 5 mutation at rs6025 or the homozygous factor 2 susceptibility variant at rs1799963 in one case each. The Heerlen polymorphism detected in five children presented with milder PSD. In 18 patients (60 %) a concomitant risk factor for TE was identified. A second TE event within primarily healthy siblings occurred in three of 27 PSD families (11.0 %). In this cohort of children with symptomatic TE, the prevalence of PSD adjusted for family status was 7.4 %. Given its clinical implication for patients and family members, thrombophilia testing should be performed and the benefit of medical or educational interventions should be evaluated in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH14-06-0533DOI Listing
February 2015

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with venous thromboembolism and protein C-deficiency: an observational Israeli-German cohort study.

Br J Haematol 2014 Nov 18;167(3):385-93. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital of Kiel & Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Venous thromboembolism [TE] is a multifactorial disease and protein C deficiency [PCD] constitutes a major risk factor. In the present study the prevalence of PCD and the clinical presentation at TE onset, including neonatal purpura fulminans, in a cohort of children are reported. In 367 unselected children (0·1-19 years) recruited between July 1996 and December 2013, a comprehensive thrombophilia screening was performed along with recording of anamnestic data. Twenty-five of 338 children (7·4%) had PCD. Mean age at first TE onset was 10 years (range 0·1-18). Leading thromboembolic manifestations were neonatal purpura fulminans (n = 5), TE of cerebral veins (n = 3), stroke (n = 2) deep veinthrombosis (DVT) of the leg (n = 10), DVT & pulmonary embolism (n = 2) and DVT & pelvic veins (n = 3). Concomitant risk factors for TE were identified in 12 patients, whereas 13 children spontaneously developed TE. A positive family history of DVT was found in 10 children. In this unselected cohort of paediatric patients with symptomatic TE the overall prevalence of PCD was 7·4%; 1·5% presented with neonatal purpura fulminans. Given its clinical implication for patients and family members, thrombophilia testing should be performed and the benefit of medical or educational interventions should be evaluated in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13039DOI Listing
November 2014

Influence of factor 5 rs6025 and factor 2 rs1799963 mutation on inhibitor development in patients with hemophilia A--an Israeli-German multicenter database study.

Thromb Res 2014 Apr 17;133(4):544-9. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Thrombosis & Hemophilia Treatment Center, Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: The present cohort study was performed to investigate the impact of the factor 5 rs6025 [F5] and the factor 2 rs1799963 [F2] mutations on high-titer inhibitor development [HRI] in patients with severe/moderate-severe hemophilia A [HA].

Patients And Methods: 216 patients with F8<2% born between 1980 and 2011 were followed after initial HA diagnosis over the first 200 exposure days. The first HA patient per family who presented for diagnosis was included in the present study.

Results: 32 of 216 children [14.8%] tested for F5/F2 carried either the F5 or the F2 variant. HRI occurred in 14 out of 32F5/F2-carriers compared with 40 of 184 without F5/F2. Multivariate analysis adjusted for F8 genotype, treatment intensity, first-line use of plasma derived FVIII versus recombinant FVIII concentrates revealed that the presence of F5/F2 independently increases the risk of HRI development to odds [OR] of 3.4. Large deletions in the F8 gene [OR: 5.10], patients from Israel [OR: 4.0], the increase of FVIII per one IU/kgbw [OR: 1.05] and birth year [OR: 1.12] were significantly associated with the risk to develop HRI.

Conclusion: Data presented here suggest that HRI development is of multifactorial origin and that F5 and F2 mutations may contribute to this risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2014.01.005DOI Listing
April 2014

Beriate® P in the treatment of patients with haemophilia A: results of a long-term pharmacovigilance study.

Thromb Res 2014 Nov 10;134 Suppl 1:S16-21. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

Zentrum für Pädiatrische Hämostaseologie, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Klinikum der Universität, Campus Innenstadt, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The German Beriate(®) P pharmacovigilance study started in 2003 and is planned to run until December 2013.

Materials And Methods: This analysis included data from 84 haemophilia A patients treated with the high-purity, plasma-derived coagulation factor VIII concentrate Beriate(®) P. Prior to study start, 69 of the 80 patients for whom data were available had received previous treatment with Beriate(®) P (mean treatment period 7.1 ± 5.4 years). The mean study duration from the start of pharmacovigilance was 43.3 ± 30.3 months (median 43.5 months; range 0-101.9months). The most common treatment at the last visit was prophylaxis (65.7% of patients), which was most commonly administered at a frequency of three infusions/week in 47.3% of patients.

Results: Most patients experienced up to six minor bleeds/year. For 1,311 bleeding episodes, a median of one infusion/bleed was administered (mean 2.8 ± 4.7; range 0-83). The clinical response to Beriate(®) P was rated "excellent"/"good" in 94% of 32 visits of patients with major bleeding. The clinical response for patients with minor bleeding was rated "excellent"/"good" in 98.5% of 377 visits. One clinically relevant inhibitor in a previously untreated patient was documented during the study course. There were no reports of virus transmissions suspected to be caused by Beriate(®) P prior to the study start or during the study.

Conclusions: These findings confirm the excellent efficacy, safety, and tolerability of Beriate(®) P in the treatment of a wide spectrum of previously untreated patients up to adult patients with haemophilia A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2013.10.014DOI Listing
November 2014

Risk factors for high-titer inhibitor development in children with hemophilia A: results of a cohort study.

Biomed Res Int 2013 2;2013:901975. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Gerinnungszentrum Rhein-Ruhr (GZRR), 47051 Duisburg, Germany.

Among the discussed risk factors for high-titre inhibitor (HRI) development in patients with hemophilia A (HA) are high dose FVIII replacement therapy and use of recombinant FVIII concentrates (rFVIII). The aim of this study was to evaluate the aforementioned risk factors for HRI development in children with hemophilia A ≤2%. About 288 ascertained PUPs (Israel and Germany) were followed after initial HA diagnosis over 200 exposure days. Inhibitor-free survival, hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Adjustment was performed for factor VIII concentrates, median single dose over the first three months of treatment, first FVIII administration before the age of three months, presence of risk HA gene mutations, "intensive treatment moments" and "year of birth" (proxy for different treatment periods). HRI occurred in 71/288 children (24.7%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for "year of birth", underlying risk gene mutations (HR/CI: 2.37/1.40-3.99), FVIII dose, measured per one IU increase per kgbw (HR/CI: 1.05/1.04-1.07), and first FVIII administration before the age of three months showed a significant impact on HR development. The risk of HRI development was similar for recombinant or plasmatic FVIII products. Children at risk should be treated with carefully calculated lower dose regimens, adapted to individual bleeding situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/901975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3807559PMC
June 2014

Inherited thrombophilia in children with venous thromboembolism and the familial risk of thromboembolism: an observational study.

Blood 2012 Aug 11;120(7):1510-5. Epub 2012 May 11.

Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Charité, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany.

Screening for inherited thrombophilia (IT) is controversial; persons at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) who benefit from screening need to be identified. We tested 533 first- and second-degree relatives of 206 pediatric VTE patients for IT (antithrombin, protein C, protein S, factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A) and determined the incidence of symptomatic VTE relative to their IT status. The risk for VTE was significantly increased among family members with, versus without, IT (hazard ratio = 7.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-14.5; P < .001) and highest among carriers of antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency (hazard ratio = 25.7; 95% CI, 12.2-54.2; P < .001). Annual incidences of VTE were 2.82% (95% CI, 1.63%-4.80%) among family members found to be carriers of antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency, 0.42% (0.12%-0.53%) for factor II G202010A, 0.25% (0.12%-0.53%) for factor V G1691A, and 0.10% (0.06%-0.17%) in relatives with no IT. Given the high absolute risk of VTE in relatives with protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiency, we suggest screening for these forms of hereditary thrombophilia in children with VTE and their relatives. Interventional studies are required to assess whether thromboembolism can be prevented in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-01-405514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3423787PMC
August 2012

Impact of persistent antiphospholipid antibodies on risk of incident symptomatic thromboembolism in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2011 Oct 20;37(7):802-9. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

The Israel National Haemophilia Centre, Sheba Medical Centre, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies on the risk of incident thromboembolism (TE; arterial and venous) in children via meta-analysis of published observational studies. A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, OVID, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library) for studies published from 1966 to 2010 was conducted using keywords in combination both as MeSH terms and text words. Two authors independently screened citations and those meeting the a priori defined inclusion criteria were retained. Data on year of publication, study design, country of origin, number of patients/controls, ethnicity, TE type, and frequency of recurrence were abstracted. Heterogeneity across studies was evaluated, and summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using either fixed-effects or random-effects models. Of 504, 16 pediatric studies met the inclusion criteria. In total 1403 patients and 1667 population-based controls ≤18 years were enrolled. No significant heterogeneity was discerned across studies, and no publication bias was detected. Thus, data from arterial and venous TE were analyzed together. In addition, meta-regression analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences between site of TE, age at first TE, country, or publication year. A statistically significant association with a first TE was demonstrated for persistent aPL antibodies, with an overall summary ORs/CI of 5.9/3.6-9.7 (arterial 6.6/3.5-12.4; deep vein thrombosis 4.9/2.2-10.9). The present meta-analysis indicates that detection of persistent aPL is clinically meaningful in children with, or at risk for, TE and underscores the importance of pediatric thrombophilia screening programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1297171DOI Listing
October 2011

Diagnosis and management of neonatal thrombocytopenia.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Dec 10;16(6):305-10. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

Department of Paediatric Oncology and Haematology, Charité - University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Thrombocytopenia is the most common haematological abnormality in newborns admitted to neonatal care units and serves as an important indicator of underlying pathological processes of mother or child. In most cases thrombocytopenia is mild to moderate and resolves within the first weeks of life without any intervention. However, in some neonates thrombocytopenia is severe or may reflect an inborn platelet disorder. As clinical course and outcome of thrombocytopenia depend on the aetiology of thrombocytopenia, an appropriate work-up is essential to guide therapy in neonates with thrombocytopenia and to avoid severe bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2011.07.008DOI Listing
December 2011

Impact of thrombophilia on risk of arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in neonates and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Circulation 2010 Apr 12;121(16):1838-47. Epub 2010 Apr 12.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Str 33, D-48149 Münster, Germany.

Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of thrombophilia on risk of first childhood stroke through a meta-analysis of published observational studies.

Methods And Results: A systematic search of electronic databases (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library) for studies published from 1970 to 2009 was conducted. Data on year of publication, study design, country of origin, number of patients/control subjects, ethnicity, stroke type (arterial ischemic stroke [AIS], cerebral venous sinus thrombosis [CSVT]) were abstracted. Publication bias indicator and heterogeneity across studies were evaluated, and summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects models. Twenty-two of 185 references met inclusion criteria. Thus, 1764 patients (arterial ischemic stroke [AIS], 1526; cerebral sinus venous thrombosis [CSVT], 238) and 2799 control subjects (neonate to 18 years of age) were enrolled. No significant heterogeneity was discerned across studies, and no publication bias was detected. A statistically significant association with first stroke was demonstrated for each thrombophilia trait evaluated, with no difference found between AIS and CSVT. Summary ORs (fixed-effects model) were as follows: antithrombin deficiency, 7.06 (95% CI, 2.44 to 22.42); protein C deficiency, 8.76 (95% CI, 4.53 to 16.96); protein S deficiency, 3.20 (95% CI, 1.22 to 8.40), factor V G1691A, 3.26 (95% CI, 2.59 to 4.10); factor II G20210A, 2.43 (95% CI, 1.67 to 3.51); MTHFR C677T (AIS), 1.58 (95% CI, 1.20 to 2.08); antiphospholipid antibodies (AIS), 6.95 (95% CI, 3.67 to 13.14); elevated lipoprotein(a), 6.27 (95% CI, 4.52 to 8.69), and combined thrombophilias, 11.86 (95% CI, 5.93 to 23.73). In the 6 exclusively perinatal AIS studies, summary ORs were as follows: factor V, 3.56 (95% CI, 2.29 to 5.53); and factor II, 2.02 (95% CI, 1.02 to 3.99).

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicates that thrombophilias serve as risk factors for incident stroke. However, the impact of thrombophilias on outcome and recurrence risk needs to be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.913673DOI Listing
April 2010

Validation of a predictive model for identifying an increased risk for thromboembolism in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of a multicenter cohort study.

Blood 2010 Jun 25;115(24):4999-5004. Epub 2010 Mar 25.

Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, AB.

Among risk factors for developing thromboembolism (VTE) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were Escherichia coli asparaginase, concomitant steroid use, presence of central venous lines, and thrombophilic abnormalities. Developing a predictive model for determining children at increased risk would be beneficial in targeting interventional studies to high-risk groups (HRGs). Predictive variables were incorporated into a risk assessment model, which was evaluated in 456 children and then validated in 339 patients. VTE risk by score was no greater than 2.5 for low-risk group (LRG) and greater than 2.5 for HRG. VTE rates at 3.5 months (validation cohorts) were 2.5% in LRG and 64.7% in HRG. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, duration of asparaginase administration, enoxaparin prophylaxis, and T-immunophenotype, the HRG was significantly associated with VTE compared with the LRG (hazard/95% confidence interval [CI], 8.22/1.85-36.53). Model specificity was 96.2% and sensitivity was 63.2%. As secondary objective we investigated the use of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in the HRG. HRG patients without enoxaparin prophylaxis showed a significantly reduced thrombosis-free survival compared with children on low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). On the basis of the high specificity, the model may identify children with leukemia at risk of VTE. LMWH may help prevent VTE in the HRG; this warrants assessment in larger cooperative clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-01-263012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890143PMC
June 2010

Growth in foetal life and infancy is associated with abdominal adiposity at the age of 2 years: the generation R study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2010 May 21;72(5):633-40. Epub 2009 Sep 21.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Early weight gain is associated with an increased risk of obesity. It is not known whether rapid weight gain in foetal life and infancy is also associated with increased abdominal adiposity. We examined the associations of foetal and postnatal growth characteristics with abdominal fat mass at the age of 2 years.

Design: This study was performed in 481 children participating in a prospective cohort study from early foetal life onward.

Measurements: Foetal and postnatal growth characteristics in second and third trimester, at birth and at the age of 2 years were related to abdominal fat mass (subcutaneous distance and area, preperitoneal distance and area) measured by ultrasound at the age of 2 years.

Results: Foetal and birth weight were not associated with abdominal subcutaneous fat mass. Estimated foetal weight in second trimester of pregnancy was inversely associated with preperitoneal fat area [-3.73% (95% confidence interval -7.23, -0.10)] per standard deviation score increase in weight. Weight gain from birth to the age of 2 years was positively associated with preperitoneal fat mass measures. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, breastfeeding and body mass index. Positive associations were found between catch-up growth in weight and abdominal fat mass measures.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that rapid growth rates during foetal life and infancy are associated with increased abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass in healthy children. Further studies need to explore whether these associations persist in later life and are related to metabolic syndrome outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03708.xDOI Listing
May 2010