Publications by authors named "Susanne H Karbach"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ACE Inhibition Modulates Myeloid Hematopoiesis after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Reduces Cardiac and Vascular Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Failure.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Center for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Aims: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are a cornerstone of drug therapy after myocardial infarction (MI) and improve left ventricular function and survival. We aimed to elucidate the impact of early treatment with the ACE inhibitor ramipril on the hematopoietic response after MI, as well as on the chronic systemic and vascular inflammation. In a mouse model of MI, induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery, immediate initiation of treatment with ramipril (10 mg/k/d via drinking water) reduced cardiac inflammation and the number of circulating inflammatory monocytes, whereas left ventricular function was not altered significantly, respectively. This effect was accompanied by enhanced retention of hematopoietic stem cells, LinSca1c-KitCD34CD16/32 granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP) and LinSca1c-KitCD150CD48 multipotent progenitors (MPP) in the bone marrow, with an upregulation of the niche factors Angiopoetin 1 and Kitl at 7 d post MI. Long-term ACE inhibition for 28 d limited vascular inflammation, particularly the infiltration of Ly6C monocytes/macrophages, and reduced superoxide formation, resulting in improved endothelial function in mice with ischemic heart failure. ACE inhibition modulates the myeloid inflammatory response after MI due to the retention of myeloid precursor cells in their bone marrow reservoir. This results in a reduction in cardiac and vascular inflammation with improvement in survival after MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001011PMC
March 2021

Correlation of cardiac function and cerebral perfusion in a murine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 8;11(1):3317. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Cerebral hypoperfusion is a key factor for determining the outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A subset of SAH patients develop neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC), but it is unclear to what extent cerebral hypoperfusion is influenced by cardiac dysfunction after SAH. The aims of this study were to examine the association between cardiac function and cerebral perfusion in a murine model of SAH and to identify electrocardiographic and echocardiographic signs indicative of NSC. We quantified cortical perfusion by laser SPECKLE contrast imaging, and myocardial function by serial high-frequency ultrasound imaging, for up to 7 days after experimental SAH induction in mice by endovascular filament perforation. Cortical perfusion decreased significantly whereas cardiac output and left ventricular ejection fraction increased significantly shortly post-SAH. Transient pathological ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities, indicating NSC (right bundle branch block, reduced left ventricular contractility), were observed up to 3 h post-SAH in a subset of model animals. Cerebral perfusion improved over time after SAH and correlated significantly with left ventricular end-diastolic volume at 3, 24, and 72 h. The murine SAH model is appropriate to experimentally investigate NSC. We conclude that in addition to cerebrovascular dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction may significantly influence cerebral perfusion, with LVEDV presenting a potential parameter for risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82583-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870815PMC
February 2021

Nox2+ myeloid cells drive vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in heart failure after myocardial infarction via angiotensin II receptor type 1.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Jan;117(1):162-177

Center for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Aims: Heart failure (HF) ensuing myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by the initiation of a systemic inflammatory response. We aimed to elucidate the impact of myelomonocytic cells and their activation by angiotensin II on vascular endothelial function in a mouse model of HF after MI.

Methods And Results: HF was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Compared to sham, HF mice had significantly impaired endothelial function accompanied by enhanced mobilization of Sca-1+c-Kit+ haematopoietic stem cells and Sca-1-c-Kit+ common myeloid and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in the bone marrow as well as increased vascular infiltration of CD11b+Ly6G-Ly6Chigh monocytes and accumulation of CD11b+ F4/80+ macrophages, assessed by flow cytometry. Using mice with Cre-inducible expression of diphtheria toxin receptor in myeloid cells, we selectively depleted lysozyme M+ myelomonocytic cells for 10 days starting 28 days after MI. While the cardiac phenotype remained unaltered until 38 days post-MI, myeloid cell depletion attenuated vascular accumulation of Nox2+CD45+ cells, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and vascular expression of adhesion molecules and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R). Pharmacological blockade of this receptor for 4 weeks did not significantly alter cardiac function, but mimicked the effects of myeloid cell depletion: telmisartan (20 mg/kg/day, fed to C57BL/6J mice) diminished bone marrow myelopoesis and myeloid reactive oxygen species production, attenuated endothelial leucocyte rolling and vascular accumulation of CD11b+Ly6G-Ly6Chigh monocytes and macrophages, resulting in improved vascular function with less abundance of Nox2+CD45+ cells.

Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction in HF ensuing MI is mediated by inflammatory Nox2+ myeloid cells infiltrating the vessel wall that can be targeted by AT1R blockade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa042DOI Listing
January 2021

Cutting Edge: IL-6-Driven Immune Dysregulation Is Strictly Dependent on IL-6R α-Chain Expression.

J Immunol 2020 02 10;204(4):747-751. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

IL-6 binds to the IL-6R α-chain (IL-6Rα) and signals via the signal transducer gp130. Recently, IL-6 was found to also bind to the cell surface glycoprotein CD5, which would then engage gp130 in the absence of IL-6Rα. However, the biological relevance of this alternative pathway is under debate. In this study, we developed a mouse model, in which murine IL-6 is overexpressed in a CD11c-Cre-dependent manner. Transgenic mice developed a lethal immune dysregulation syndrome with increased numbers of Ly-6G neutrophils and Ly-6C monocytes/macrophages. IL-6 overexpression promoted activation of CD4 T cells while suppressing CD5 B-1a cell development. However, additional ablation of IL-6Rα protected IL-6-overexpressing mice from IL-6-triggered inflammation and fully phenocopied IL-6Rα-deficient mice without IL-6 overexpression. Mechanistically, IL-6Rα deficiency completely prevented downstream activation of STAT3 in response to IL-6. Altogether, our data clarify that IL-6Rα is the only biologically relevant receptor for IL-6 in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900876DOI Listing
February 2020

Age-Dependent and -Independent Effects of Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Its Paracrine Activities during Neointima Formation.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 31;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Center for Cardiology, Cardiology I, University Medical Center Mainz, D-55131 Mainz, Germany.

Cardiovascular risk factors may act by modulating the composition and function of the adventitia. Here we examine how age affects perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and its paracrine activities during neointima formation. Aortic tissue and PVAT or primary aortic smooth muscle cells from male C57BL/6JRj mice aged 52 weeks ("middle-aged") were compared to tissue or cells from mice aged 16 weeks ("adult"). Vascular injury was induced at the carotid artery using 10% ferric chloride. Carotid arteries from the middle-aged mice exhibited smooth muscle de-differentiation and elevated senescence marker expression, and vascular injury further aggravated media and adventitia thickening. Perivascular transplantation of PVAT had no effect on these parameters, but age-independently reduced neointima formation and lumen stenosis. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed a blunted increase in senescence-associated proinflammatory changes in perivascular tissue compared to visceral adipose tissue and higher expression of mediators attenuating neointima formation. Elevated levels of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) and lower expression of STAT1- or NFκB-regulated genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, and apoptosis/senescence were present in mouse PVAT, whereas PIAS1 was reduced in the PVAT of patients with atherosclerotic vessel disease. Our findings suggest that age affects adipose tissue and its paracrine vascular activities in a depot-specific manner. PIAS1 may mediate the age-independent vasculoprotective effects of perivascular fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981748PMC
December 2019

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction Is Linked to NADPH Oxidase-Derived Superoxide Formation in Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 10;2018:1860513. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

Center for Cardiology - Cardiology I, University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Pulmonary embolism (PE) results from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and can lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) involving vascular dysfunction. Mechanisms are incompletely understood, in part due to lack of mouse models. We induced PE in C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection of thrombin (166 U/kg BW), confirmed by a sudden bradycardia, bradypnea, and an increase in pulmonary artery (PA) pressure observed by high-frequency ultrasound. While symptoms resolved rapidly after single thrombin application, repeated PEs resulted in sustained PA-pressure increase, increased PA superoxide formation assessed by oxidative fluorescent microtopography, increased PA gp91 expression, and endothelial dysfunction assessed by isometric tension studies of isolated PA segments after 24 hours. DVT was modeled in C57BL/6 mice by ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Importantly, small pulmonary emboli could be detected along with a mild phenotype of PA endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the absence of PA-pressure elevation. mRNA expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was increased in PAs of mice with recurrent PE after repetitive thrombin injections and to a lesser extent in DVT mice. In summary, our data suggest that PA endothelial dysfunction, induced by gp91-derived ROS, is an early event upon repetitive PE. This phenomenon might help to elucidate the mechanisms of PA dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CTEPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1860513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015670PMC
October 2018

Lack of T-bet reduces monocytic interleukin-12 formation and accelerates thrombus resolution in deep vein thrombosis.

Sci Rep 2018 02 14;8(1):3013. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

The role of leukocytes in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution is incompletely understood. We determined how depletion of lysozyme positive (LysM) cells and a switched-off type 1 immune response influences thrombus resolution. DVT was induced in 12-week-old male mice by inferior vena cava (IVC) stenosis. Toxin mediated depletion of myeloid cells improved thrombus resolution in mice with Cre-inducible expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor in LysM cells. This correlated with decreased CD45 cells, a population shift of Gr-1 to Gr-1 CD11b myelomonocytic cells (flow cytometry) and an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 mRNA expressions. Tbx21 mice (lacking transcription factor T-bet and marked by an attenuated type 1 immune response) with DVT had faster thrombus resolution, a reduction of pro-inflammatory Ly6C monocytes in thrombi and decreased interleukin-12p40 mRNA expression than control mice resulting in increased vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and improved neovascularization of thrombotic veins. Transfer of Tbx21 bone marrow into irradiated Tbx21 recipients lead to accelerated thrombus resolution with lower T-bet-dependent interleukin-12p40 mRNA levels following IVC-stenosis. We conclude that inhibition of Tbet interleukin-12 forming myelomonocytic cells accelerated thrombus resolution. Modulating the inflammatory immune response might be an approach to improve therapy of DVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21273-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813037PMC
February 2018

Platelet-localized FXI promotes a vascular coagulation-inflammatory circuit in arterial hypertension.

Sci Transl Med 2017 02;9(375)

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis Mainz, University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Multicellular interactions of platelets, leukocytes, and the blood vessel wall support coagulation and precipitate arterial and venous thrombosis. High levels of angiotensin II cause arterial hypertension by a complex vascular inflammatory pathway that requires leukocyte recruitment and reactive oxygen species production and is followed by vascular dysfunction. We delineate a previously undescribed, proinflammatory coagulation-vascular circuit that is a major regulator of vascular tone, blood pressure, and endothelial function. In mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, tissue factor was up-regulated, as was thrombin-dependent endothelial cell vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and integrin αβ- and platelet-dependent leukocyte adhesion to arterial vessels. The resulting vascular inflammation and dysfunction was mediated by activation of thrombin-driven factor XI (FXI) feedback, independent of factor XII. The FXI receptor glycoprotein Ibα on platelets was required for this thrombin feedback activation in angiotensin II-infused mice. Inhibition of FXI synthesis with an antisense oligonucleotide was sufficient to prevent thrombin propagation on platelets, vascular leukocyte infiltration, angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction, and arterial hypertension in mice and rats. Antisense oligonucleotide against FXI also reduced the increased blood pressure and attenuated vascular and kidney dysfunction in rats with established arterial hypertension. Further, platelet-localized thrombin generation was amplified in an FXI-dependent manner in patients with uncontrolled arterial hypertension, suggesting that platelet-localized thrombin generation may serve as an inflammatory marker of high blood pressure. Our results outline a coagulation-inflammation circuit that promotes vascular dysfunction, and highlight the possible utility of FXI-targeted anticoagulants in treating hypertension, beyond their application as antithrombotic agents in cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4923DOI Listing
February 2017

Gut Microbiota Promote Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2016 08 30;5(9). Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis Mainz, Partner Site RheinMain, Mainz, Germany Center for Cardiology, Partner Site RheinMain, Mainz, Germany German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site RheinMain, Mainz, Germany

Background: The gut microbiome is essential for physiological host responses and development of immune functions. The impact of gut microbiota on blood pressure and systemic vascular function, processes that are determined by immune cell function, is unknown.

Methods And Results: Unchallenged germ-free mice (GF) had a dampened systemic T helper cell type 1 skewing compared to conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. Colonization of GF mice with regular gut microbiota induced lymphoid mRNA transcription of T-box expression in T cells and resulted in mild endothelial dysfunction. Compared to CONV-R mice, angiotensin II (AngII; 1 mg/kg per day for 7 days) infused GF mice showed reduced reactive oxygen species formation in the vasculature, attenuated vascular mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2, as well as a reduced upregulation of retinoic-acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t (Rorγt), the signature transcription factor for interleukin (IL)-17 synthesis. This resulted in an attenuated vascular leukocyte adhesion, less infiltration of Ly6G(+) neutrophils and Ly6C(+) monocytes into the aortic vessel wall, protection from kidney inflammation, as well as endothelial dysfunction and attenuation of blood pressure increase in response to AngII. Importantly, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and systolic dysfunction were attenuated in GF mice, indicating systemic protection from cardiovascular inflammatory stress induced by AngII.

Conclusion: Gut microbiota facilitate AngII-induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension, at least in part, by supporting an MCP-1/IL-17 driven vascular immune cell infiltration and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.003698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5079031PMC
August 2016

IL-6 Signaling in Myelomonocytic Cells Is Not Crucial for the Development of IMQ-Induced Psoriasis.

PLoS One 2016 21;11(3):e0151913. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes-Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease that is associated with aberrant activity of immune cells and keratinocytes. In mice, topical application of TLR7/8 agonist IMQ leads to a skin disorder resembling human psoriasis. Recently, it was shown that the IL-23/ IL-17 axis plays a deciding role in the pathogenesis of human psoriasis, as well as in the mouse model of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin disease. A consequence of IL-17A production in the skin includes increased expression and production of IL-6, resulting in the recruitment of neutrophils and other myelomonocytic cells to the site of inflammation. To further investigate and characterize the exact role of IL-6 signaling in myelomonocytic cells during experimental psoriasis, we generated mice lacking the IL-6 receptor alpha specifically in myelomonocytic cells (IL-6RαΔmyel). Surprisingly, disease susceptibility of these mice was not affected in this model. Our study shows that classical IL-6 signaling in myelomonocytic cells does not play an essential role for disease development of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151913PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4801375PMC
July 2016

Heme oxygenase-1 suppresses a pro-inflammatory phenotype in monocytes and determines endothelial function and arterial hypertension in mice and humans.

Eur Heart J 2015 Dec 29;36(48):3437-46. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Department of Medicine 2, University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site RhineMain, University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Aims: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers protection to the vasculature and suppresses inflammatory properties of monocytes and macrophages. It is unclear how HO-1 determines the extent of vascular dysfunction in mice and humans.

Methods And Results: Decreased HO-1 activity and expression was paralleled by increased aortic expression and activity of the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase Nox2 in HO-1 deficient Hmox1⁻/⁻ and Hmox1(⁺/⁻) compared with Hmox1⁺/⁺ mice. When subjected to angiotensin II-infusion, streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and aging, HO-1 deficient mice showed increased vascular dysfunction inversely correlated with HO activity. In a primary prevention population-based cohort, we assessed length polymorphisms of the HMOX1 promoter region and established a bipolar frequency pattern of allele length (long vs. short repeats) in 4937 individuals. Monocytic HMOX1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with flow-mediated dilation and inversely with CD14 mRNA expression indicating pro-inflammatory monocytes in 733 hypertensive individuals of this cohort. Hmox1⁻/⁻ mice showed drastically increased expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2 in monocytes and the aorta. Angiotensin II-infused Hmox1⁻/⁻ mice had amplified endothelial inflammation in vivo, significantly increased aortic infiltration of pro-inflammatory CD11b⁺ Ly6C(hi) monocytes and Ly6G⁺ neutrophils and were marked by Ly6C(hi) monocytosis in the circulation and an increased blood pressure response. Finally, individuals with unfavourable HMOX1 gene promoter length had increased prevalence of arterial hypertension and reduced cumulative survival after a median follow-up of 7.23 years.

Conclusions: Heme oxygenase-1 is a regulator of vascular function in hypertension via determining the phenotype of inflammatory circulating and infiltrating monocytes with possible implications for all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehv544DOI Listing
December 2015

Inflammatory monocytes determine endothelial nitric-oxide synthase uncoupling and nitro-oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II.

J Biol Chem 2014 Oct 20;289(40):27540-50. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

From the 2nd Medical Clinic, Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, and

Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and increased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity amplify vascular oxidative stress. The role of inflammatory myelomonocytic cells as mediators of these processes and their impact on tetrahydrobiopterin availability and function have not yet been defined. Angiotensin II (ATII, 1 mg/kg/day for 7 days) increased Ly6C(high) and CD11b(+)/iNOS(high) leukocytes and up-regulated levels of eNOS glutathionylation in aortas of C57BL/6 mice. Vascular iNOS-dependent NO formation was increased, whereas eNOS-dependent NO formation was decreased in aortas of ATII-infused mice as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation of lysozyme M-positive (LysM(+)) monocytes in ATII-infused LysM(iDTR) transgenic mice prevented eNOS glutathionylation and eNOS-derived N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive superoxide formation in the endothelial layer. ATII increased vascular guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I expression and biopterin synthesis in parallel, which was reduced in monocyte-depleted LysM(iDTR) mice. Vascular tetrahydrobiopterin was increased by ATII infusion but was even higher in monocyte-depleted ATII-infused mice, which was paralleled by a strong up-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase expression. EPR spectroscopy revealed that both vascular iNOS- and eNOS-dependent NO formation were normalized in ATII-infused mice following monocyte depletion. Additionally, deletion as well as pharmacologic inhibition of iNOS prevented ATII-induced endothelial dysfunction. In summary, ATII induces an inflammatory cell-dependent increase of iNOS, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I, tetrahydrobiopterin, NO formation, and nitro-oxidative stress as well as eNOS uncoupling in the vessel wall, which can be prevented by ablation of LysM(+) monocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.604231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4183794PMC
October 2014

Angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction depends on interferon-γ-driven immune cell recruitment and mutual activation of monocytes and NK-cells.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 Jun 21;33(6):1313-9. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

2nd Medical Clinic, Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.

Objective: Immune cells contribute to angiotensin II (ATII)-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), an inflammatory cytokine exclusively produced by immune cells, seems to be involved in ATII-driven cardiovascular injury, but the actions and cellular source of IFN-γ remain incompletely understood.

Approach And Results: IFN-γ(-/-) and Tbx21(-/-) mice were partially protected from ATII-induced (1 mg/kg per day of ATII, infused subcutaneously by miniosmotic pumps) vascular endothelial and smooth muscle dysfunction, whereas mice overexpressing IFN-γ showed constitutive vascular dysfunction. Absence of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), the IFN-γ transcription factor encoded by Tbx21, reduced vascular superoxide and peroxynitrite formation and attenuated expression of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits as well as inducible NO synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and interleukin-12 in aortas of ATII-infused mice. Compared with controls, IFN-γ(-/-) and Tbx21(-/-) mice were characterized by reduced ATII-mediated vascular recruitment of both natural killer (NK)1.1(+) NK-cells as the major producers of IFN-γ and CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) interleukin-12 secreting monocytes. Selective depletion and adoptive transfer experiments identified NK-cells as essential contributors to vascular dysfunction and showed that T-bet(+)lysozyme M(+) myelomonocytic cells were required for NK-cell recruitment into vascular tissue and local IFN-γ production.

Conclusions: We provide first evidence that NK-cells play an essential role in ATII-induced vascular dysfunction. In addition, we disclose the T-bet-IFN-γ pathway and mutual monocyte-NK-cell activation as potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301437DOI Listing
June 2013

An alternative pathway of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in the absence of interleukin-17 receptor a signaling.

J Invest Dermatol 2013 Feb 6;133(2):441-51. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Topical application of imiquimod (IMQ) on the skin of mice induces inflammation with common features found in psoriatic skin. Recently, it was postulated that IL-17 has an important role both in psoriasis and in the IMQ model. To further investigate the impact of IL-17RA signaling in psoriasis, we generated IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA)-deficient mice (IL-17RA(del)) and challenged these mice with IMQ. Interestingly, the disease was only partially reduced and delayed but not abolished when compared with controls. In the absence of IL-17RA, we found persisting signs of inflammation such as neutrophil and macrophage infiltration within the skin. Surprisingly, already in the naive state, the skin of IL-17RA(del) mice contained significantly elevated numbers of Th17- and IL-17-producing γδ T cells, assuming that IL-17RA signaling regulates the population size of Th17 and γδ T cells. Upon IMQ treatment of IL-17RA(del) mice, these cells secreted elevated amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-22, accompanied by increased levels of the chemokine CXCL2, suggesting an alternative pathway of neutrophil and macrophage skin infiltration. Hence, our findings have major implications in the potential long-term treatment of psoriasis by IL-17-targeting drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2012.318DOI Listing
February 2013

Lysozyme M-positive monocytes mediate angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction.

Circulation 2011 Sep 29;124(12):1370-81. Epub 2011 Aug 29.

2(nd) Medical Clinic, University Medical Center Mainz, Germany.

Background: Angiotensin II (ATII), a potent vasoconstrictor, causes hypertension, promotes infiltration of myelomonocytic cells into the vessel wall, and stimulates both vascular and inflammatory cell NADPH oxidases. The predominant source of reactive oxygen species, eg, vascular (endothelial, smooth muscle, adventitial) versus phagocytic NADPH oxidase, and the role of myelomonocytic cells in mediating arterial hypertension have not been defined yet.

Methods And Results: Angiotensin II (1 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) for 7 days) increased the number of both CD11b(+)Gr-1(low)F4/80(+) macrophages and CD11b(+)Gr-1(high)F4/80(-) neutrophils in mouse aorta (verified by flow cytometry). Selective ablation of lysozyme M-positive (LysM(+)) myelomonocytic cells by low-dose diphtheria toxin in mice with inducible expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor (LysM(iDTR) mice) reduced the number of monocytes in the circulation and limited ATII-induced infiltration of these cells into the vascular wall, whereas the number of neutrophils was not reduced. Depletion of LysM(+) cells attenuated ATII-induced blood pressure increase (measured by radiotelemetry) and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle dysfunction (assessed by aortic ring relaxation studies) and reduced vascular superoxide formation (measured by chemiluminescence, cytochrome c assay, and oxidative fluorescence microtopography) and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits gp91(phox) and p67(phox) (assessed by Western blot and mRNA reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction). Adoptive transfer of wild-type CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) monocytes into depleted LysM(iDTR) mice reestablished ATII-induced vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and arterial hypertension, whereas transfer of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) neutrophils or monocytes from gp91(phox) or ATII receptor type 1 knockout mice did not. CONCLUSIONS- Infiltrating monocytes with a proinflammatory phenotype and macrophages rather than neutrophils appear to be essential for ATII-induced vascular dysfunction and arterial hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.034470DOI Listing
September 2011