Publications by authors named "Susanne Delecluse"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Somatostatin receptor 2 expression in nasopharyngeal cancer is induced by Epstein Barr virus infection: impact on prognosis, imaging and therapy.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):117. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK.

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), endemic in Southeast Asia, lacks effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Even in high-income countries the 5-year survival rate for stage IV NPC is less than 40%. Here we report high somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression in multiple clinical cohorts comprising 402 primary, locally recurrent and metastatic NPCs. We show that SSTR2 expression is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) via the NF-κB pathway. Using cell-based and preclinical rodent models, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of SSTR2 targeting using a cytotoxic drug conjugate, PEN-221, which is found to be superior to FDA-approved SSTR2-binding cytostatic agents. Furthermore, we reveal significant correlation of SSTR expression with increased rates of survival and report in vivo uptake of the SSTR2-binding Ga-DOTA-peptide radioconjugate in PET-CT scanning in a clinical trial of NPC patients (NCT03670342). These findings reveal a key role in EBV-associated NPC for SSTR2 in infection, imaging, targeted therapy and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20308-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785735PMC
January 2021

EBV-tissue positive primary CNS lymphoma occurring after immunosuppression is a distinct immunobiological entity.

Blood 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Princess Alexandra Hospital, brisbane, Australia.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is confined to the brain, eyes, and cerebrospinal fluid without evidence of systemic spread. Rarely, PCNSL occurs in the context of immunosuppression, e.g. post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) or HIV (AIDS-related PCNSL). These cases are poorly characterized, have dismal outcome and are typically Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-tissue positive. We used targeted sequencing and digital multiplex gene expression to compare the genetic landscape and tumor microenvironment (TME) of 91 PCNSL tissues all with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma histology. 47 were EBV-tissue negative: 45 EBV(-) HIV(-) PCNSL, 2 EBV(-) HIV(+) PCNSL; and 44 were EBV-tissue positive: 23 EBV(+) HIV(+) PCNSL, 21 EBV(+) HIV(-) PCNSL. As with prior studies, EBV(-) HIV(-) PCNSL had frequent MYD88, CD79B and PIM1 mutations, and enrichment for the activated B-cell (ABC) cell-of-origin (COO) sub-type. In contrast, these mutations were absent in all EBV-tissue positive cases and ABC frequency was low. Furthermore, copy number loss in HLA-class I/II and antigen presenting/processing genes were rarely observed, indicating retained antigen presentation. To counter this, EBV(+) HIV(-) PCNSL had a tolerogenic TME with elevated macrophage and immune-checkpoint gene expression, whereas AIDS-related PCNSL had low CD4 gene counts. EBV-tissue positive PCNSL in the immunosuppressed is immunobiologically distinct from EBV(-) HIV(-) PCNSL, and despite expressing an immunogenic virus retains the ability to present EBV-antigens. Results provide a framework for targeted treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008520DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification and Cloning of a New Western Epstein-Barr Virus Strain That Efficiently Replicates in Primary B Cells.

J Virol 2020 05 4;94(10). Epub 2020 May 4.

German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Unit F100, Heidelberg, Germany

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes human cancers, and epidemiological studies have shown that lytic replication is a risk factor for some of these tumors. This fits with the observation that EBV M81, which was isolated from a Chinese patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, induces potent virus production and increases the risk of genetic instability in infected B cells. To find out whether this property extends to viruses found in other parts of the world, we investigated 22 viruses isolated from Western patients. While one-third of the viruses hardly replicated, the remaining viruses showed variable levels of replication, with three isolates replicating at levels close to that of M81 in B cells. We cloned one strongly replicating virus into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC); the resulting recombinant virus (MSHJ) retained the properties of its nonrecombinant counterpart and showed similarities to M81, undergoing lytic replication and after 3 weeks of latency. In contrast, B cells infected with the nonreplicating Western B95-8 virus showed early but abortive replication accompanied by cytoplasmic BZLF1 expression. Sequencing confirmed that rMSHJ is a Western virus, being genetically much closer to B95-8 than to M81. Spontaneous replication in rM81- and rMSHJ-infected B cells was dependent on phosphorylated Btk and was inhibited by exposure to ibrutinib, opening the way to clinical intervention in patients with abnormal EBV replication. As rMSHJ contains the complete EBV genome and induces lytic replication in infected B cells, it is ideal to perform genetic analyses of all viral functions in Western strains and their associated diseases. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects the majority of the world population but causes different diseases in different countries. Evidence that lytic replication, the process that leads to new virus progeny, is linked to cancer development is accumulating. Indeed, viruses such as M81 that were isolated from Far Eastern nasopharyngeal carcinomas replicate strongly in B cells. We show here that some viruses isolated from Western patients, including the MSHJ strain, share this property. Moreover, replication of both M81 and of MSHJ was sensitive to ibrutinib, a commonly used drug, thereby opening an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Sequencing of MSHJ showed that this virus is quite distant from M81 and is much closer to nonreplicating Western viruses. We conclude that Western EBV strains are heterogeneous, with some viruses being able to replicate more strongly and therefore being potentially more pathogenic than others, and that the virus sequence information alone cannot predict this property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01918-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199418PMC
May 2020

Spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with Epstein-Barr virus infection show highly variable proliferation characteristics that correlate with the expression levels of viral microRNAs.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(9):e0222847. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) Unit F100, Heidelberg, Germany.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces B-cell proliferation with high efficiency through expression of latent proteins and microRNAs. This process takes place in vivo soon after infection, presumably to expand the virus reservoir, but can also induce pathologies, e.g. an infectious mononucleosis (IM) syndrome after primary infection or a B-cell lymphoproliferation in immunosuppressed individuals. In this paper, we investigated the growth characteristics of EBV-infected B-cells isolated from transplant recipients or patients with IM. We found that these cells grew and withstood apoptosis at highly variable rates, suggesting that the expansion rate of the infected B-cells widely varies between individuals, thereby influencing the size of the B-cell reservoir and the ability to form tumors in infected individuals. All viruses investigated were type 1 and genetically close to western strains. EBV-infected B-cells expressed the transforming EBV latent genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) at variable levels. We found that the B-cell growth rates positively correlated with the BHRF1 miRNA levels. Comparative studies showed that infected B-cells derived from transplant recipients with iEBVL on average expressed higher levels of EBV miR-BHRF1 miRNAs and grew more rapidly than B-cells from IM patients, suggesting infection by more transforming viruses. Altogether, these findings suggest that EBV infection has a highly variable impact on the B-cell compartment that probably reflects the genetic diversity of both the virus and the host. It also demonstrates the unexpected finding that B-cells from different individuals can grow at different speed under the influence of the same virus infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222847PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768455PMC
March 2020

Epstein-Barr Virus Induces Expression of the LPAM-1 Integrin in B Cells and .

J Virol 2019 03 19;93(5). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Unit F100, Heidelberg, Germany

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects the oropharynx but, surprisingly, frequently induces B cell proliferation in the gut of immunosuppressed individuals. We found that EBV infection induces the expression of the LPAM-1 integrin on tonsillar B cells and increases it on peripheral blood cells. Similarly, LPAM-1 was induced in the tonsils of patients undergoing primary infectious mononucleosis. EBV-induced LPAM-1 bound to the MAdCAM-1 addressin, which allows B cell homing to the gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Thus, we hypothesized that EBV-induced LPAM-1 could induce relocation of infected B cells from the tonsil to the GALT. hybridization with an EBER-specific probe revealed the frequent presence of EBV-infected cells in the pericolic lymph nodes of healthy individuals. Relocation of infected B cells into the GALT would expand the EBV reservoir, possibly protecting it from T cells primed in the oropharynx, and explain why EBV induces lymphoid tumors in the gut. EBV causes tumors in multiple organs, particularly in the oro- and nasopharyngeal area but also in the digestive system. This virus enters the body in the oropharynx and establishes a chronic infection in this area. The observation that the virus causes tumors in the digestive system implies that the infected cells can move to this organ. We found that EBV infection induces the expression of integrin beta 7 (ITGB7), an integrin that associates with integrin alpha 4 to form the LPAM-1 dimer. LPAM-1 is key for homing of B cells to the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that induction of this molecule is the mechanism through which EBV-infected cells enter this organ. In favor of this hypothesis, we could also detect EBV-infected cells in the lymph nodes adjacent to the colon and in the appendix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01618-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384065PMC
March 2019