Publications by authors named "Susana Cedres"

21 Publications

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Molecular profiling of long-term responders to immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Mol Oncol 2021 Apr 6;15(4):887-900. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Thoracic Cancers Translational Genomics Unit, Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Vall d, Barcelona, Spain.

Immunotherapy has transformed advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment strategies and has led to unprecedented long-lasting responses in some patients. However, the molecular determinants driving these long-term responses remain elusive. To address this issue, we performed an integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic features of long-term immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-associated responders. We assembled a cohort of 47 patients with NSCLC receiving ICIs that was enriched in long-term responders [>18 months of progression-free survival (PFS)]. We performed whole-exome sequencing from tumor samples, estimated the tumor mutational burden (TMB), and inferred the somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). We also obtained gene transcription data for a subset of patients using Nanostring, which we used to assess the tumor immune infiltration status and PD-L1 expression. Our results indicate that there is an association between TMB and benefit to ICIs, which is driven by those patients with long-term response. Additionally, high SCNAs burden is associated with poor response and negatively correlates with the presence of several immune cell types (B cells, natural killers, regulatory T cells or effector CD8 T cells). Also, CD274 (PD-L1) expression is increased in patients with benefit, mainly in those with long-term response. In our cohort, combined assessment of TMB and SCNAs burden enabled identification of long-term responders (considering PFS and overall survival). Notably, the association between TMB, SCNAs burden, and PD-L1 expression with the outcomes of ICIs treatment was validated in two public datasets of ICI-treated patients with NSCLC. Thus, our data indicate that TMB is associated with long-term benefit following ICIs treatment in NSCLC and that TMB, SCNAs burden, and PD-L1 are complementary determinants of response to ICIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024716PMC
April 2021

Clinical Activity of Afatinib in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring Uncommon EGFR Mutations: A Spanish Retrospective Multicenter Study.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 09 25;21(5):428-436.e2. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (u-EGFRm) are a heterogeneous group of molecular alterations and have also been reported as comutations with other EGFR mutations (complex mutations) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Afatinib has shown activity against some u-EGFRm, and we examined its efficacy in Spanish clinical practice.

Patients And Methods: Data of 67 patients with advanced NSCLC with u-EGFRm treated with afatinib between 2012 and 2017 at 23 Spanish institutions were reviewed. u-EGFRm were analyzed as complex mutations (group A), EGFR exon 20 insertions (ins20; group B), or single mutations (group C). Efficacy was evaluated in terms of overall survival (OS) and tumor response.

Results: Group A complex u-EGFRm consisted of double mutations of G719X+E709F, G719X+S768I, G719X+L861Q, L858R+T790M, L858R+S768I, L858R+S765I, del19+S768I, del19+L747S, or R776C+L861Q. No differences in clinical characteristics were found between groups A (n = 20), B (n = 23), and C (n = 24). Afatinib was administered as first-line therapy in 80% of patients. Median time of receipt of therapy was 4.2 months (range, 2.0-12.9 months). Median OS for the entire cohort was 19.9 months (95% confidence interval, 9.7, 30.1). Hazard ratios for OS were 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.10, 0.71; P = .008) and 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.17, 0.95; P = .037) for groups A and C compared to B, respectively. Response was significantly higher in groups A (70%) and C (54%) compared to B (13%; pairwise comparison P < .001 and .008, respectively).

Conclusion: In clinical practice, afatinib was active in patients with u-EGFRm NSCLC, particularly in complex and single mutations. Further strategies are needed for patients with ins20, a subgroup u-EGFRm with a lower clinical benefit with afatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.04.011DOI Listing
September 2020

A randomized, phase 2 study of deoxyuridine triphosphatase inhibitor, TAS-114, in combination with S-1 versus S-1 alone in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2020 10 3;38(5):1588-1597. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Medical Oncology Department, Vall d´Hebron University Hospital/Vall d´Hebron Institute of Oncology, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 119-129, Barcelona, 08035, Spain.

Introduction TAS-114 is a potent inhibitor of deoxyuridine triphosphatase, which is a gatekeeper protein preventing uracil and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) misincorporation into DNA. TAS-114 has been suggested to enhance the antitumor activity of 5-FU. This randomized, phase 2 study investigated TAS-114 plus S-1 (TAS-114/S-1) vs. S-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Patients with advanced NSCLC, previously treated with ≥ 2 regimens, were randomized 1:1 to receive TAS-114 (400 mg)/S-1 (30 mg/m) or S-1 (30 mg/m). Progression-free survival (PFS, independent central review) was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety. Results In total, 127 patients received treatment. Median PFS was 3.65 and 4.17 months in the TAS-114/S-1 and S-1 groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.88; P = 0.2744). DCR was similar between groups (TAS-114/S-1 80.3%, S-1 75.9%) and median OS was 7.92 and 9.82 months for the TAS-114/S-1 and S-1 groups, respectively (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80-2.14; P = 0.1431). The ORR was higher in the TAS-114/S-1 group than the S-1 group (19.7% vs. 10.3%), and more patients with tumor shrinkage were observed in the TAS-114/S-1 group. Incidence rates of anemia, skin toxicities, and Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events were higher in the TAS-114/S-1 group compared with the monotherapy group. Conclusions Although the TAS-114/S-1 combination improved the response rate, this did not translate into improvements in PFS. Clinical Trial Registration No. NCT02855125 (ClinicalTrials.gov) registered on 4 August 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00930-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497678PMC
October 2020

Tumour Treating Fields in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin or carboplatin as first-line treatment for unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (STELLAR): a multicentre, single-arm phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 12 15;20(12):1702-1709. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Mesothelioma Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy.

Background: Tumour Treating Fields (TTFields) are a regional, antimitotic treatment for solid tumours, which is based on the delivery of low-intensity alternating electric fields. The aim of the STELLAR study was to test the activity of TTFields delivered to the thorax in combination with systemic chemotherapy for the front-line treatment of patients with unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Methods: STELLAR was a prospective, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 12 European academic and non-academic sites (five in Italy, three in Poland, one in France, one in Belgium, one in Spain, and one in the Netherlands) for treatment-naive patients with histologically confirmed unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma. Patients were aged at least 18 years, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and at least one measurable or evaluable lesion according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors for mesothelioma. Patients received continuous TTFields at a frequency of 150 kHz to the thorax and concomitant chemotherapy with intravenous pemetrexed (500 mg/m on day 1) plus intravenous platinum (either cisplatin 75 mg/m on day 1 or carboplatin area under the curve 5 on day 1) every 21 days for up to six cycles. Patients not progressing after completion of chemotherapy received TTFields as maintenance treatment until progression, patient or physician decision, or unacceptable toxic effects. The primary endpoint of the trial was overall survival. Survival analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least 1 day of TTFields treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02397928.

Findings: Between Feb 9, 2015 and March 21, 2017, 80 patients were enrolled in the study. Median follow-up was 12·5 months (IQR 7·4-16·6). Median overall survival was 18·2 months (95% CI 12·1-25·8). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were anaemia (nine [11%] patients), neutropenia (seven [9%]), and thrombocytopenia (four [5%]). Skin reaction was the only adverse event associated with TTFields and was reported as grade 1-2 in 53 (66%) patients, and as grade 3 in four (5%) patients. No treatment-related deaths were observed.

Interpretation: The trial showed encouraging overall survival results, with no increase in systemic toxicity. TTFields (150 kHz) delivered to the thorax concomitant with pemetrexed and platinum was an active and safe combination for front-line treatment of unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma. Further investigation in a randomised trial is warranted.

Funding: Novocure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30532-7DOI Listing
December 2019

Nintedanib in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin for chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma (LUME-Meso): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2019 07 15;7(7):569-580. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Nintedanib targets VEGF receptors 1-3, PDGF receptors α and β, FGF receptors 1-3, and Src and Abl kinases, which are all implicated in malignant pleural mesothelioma pathogenesis. Here, we report the final results of the phase 3 part of the LUME-Meso trial, which aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed plus cisplatin combined with nintedanib or placebo in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Methods: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was done at 120 academic medical centres and community clinics in 27 countries across the world. Chemotherapy-naive adults (aged ≥18 years) with unresectable epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma and ECOG performance status 0-1 were randomly assigned 1:1 via an independently verified random number-generating system to receive up to six 21-day cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m) on day 1, then nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or matched placebo on days 2-21. Patients without disease progression after six cycles received nintedanib or placebo maintenance on days 1-21 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (investigator-assessed according to mRECIST) in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01907100.

Findings: Between April 14, 2016, and Jan 5, 2018, 541 patients were screened and 458 were randomly assigned to either the nintedanib group (n=229) or the placebo group (n=229). Median treatment duration was 5·3 months (IQR 2·8-7·3) in the nintedanib group and 5·1 months (2·7-7·8) in the placebo group. After 250 events, progression-free survival was not different between the nintedanib group (median 6·8 months [95% CI 6·1-7·0]) and the placebo group (7·0 months [6·7-7·2]; HR 1·01 [95% CI 0·79-1·30], p=0·91). The most frequently reported grade 3 or worse adverse event in both treatment groups was neutropenia (73 [32%] in the nintedanib group vs 54 [24%] in the placebo group). Serious adverse events were reported in 99 (44%) patients in the nintedanib group and 89 (39%) patients in the placebo group. The only serious adverse event occurring in at least 5% of patients in either group was pulmonary embolism (13 [6%] vs seven [3%]).

Interpretation: The primary progression-free survival endpoint of the phase 3 part of LUME-Meso was not met and phase 2 findings were not confirmed. No unexpected safety findings were reported.

Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30139-0DOI Listing
July 2019

Maintenance Defactinib Versus Placebo After First-Line Chemotherapy in Patients With Merlin-Stratified Pleural Mesothelioma: COMMAND-A Double-Blind, Randomized, Phase II Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 04 20;37(10):790-798. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

14 Erasmus Medical College, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase has been shown to selectively kill mesothelioma cells that express low levels of moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein (merlin). On this basis, we designed a randomized, phase II trial to investigate whether defactinib as maintenance therapy after standard first-line chemotherapy could improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

Methods: This global, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients with advanced MPM and disease control after at least four cycles of first-line chemotherapy. Patients were stratified for merlin and then randomly assigned (in a 1:1 fashion) to receive either oral defactinib or placebo until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal occurred. The coprimary end points were PFS and overall survival (OS). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma tool.

Results: Three hundred forty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive either defactinib (n = 173) or placebo (n = 171). The median PFS was 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 5.6 months) for defactinib versus 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 4.2 months) for placebo. The median OS was 12.7 months (95% CI, 9.1 to 21 months) for defactinib versus 13.6 months (95% CI, 9.6 to 21.2 months) for placebo (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.4). Although shorter survival for both defactinib- and placebo-treated patients was observed, in the patients who had merlin-low MPM compared with the patients who had merlin-high MPM, there were no statistical differences in response rate, PFS, OS, or QoL between the treatment groups. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, dyspnea, and decreased appetite.

Conclusion: Neither PFS nor OS was improved by defactinib after first-line chemotherapy in patients with merlin-low MPM. Defactinib cannot be recommended as maintenance therapy for advanced MPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.79.0543DOI Listing
April 2019

Activity of HSP90 Inhibiton in a Metastatic Lung Cancer Patient With a Germline BRCA1 Mutation.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 08;110(8):914-917

Cancer Genomic Group, Barcelona, Spain.

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that maintain proteins in their correct conformation to ensure stability and protect carcinoma cells from apoptosis. HSP90 inhibitors (HSP90i) block multiple targets simultaneously, and despite responses in a selected population, no HSP90i have yet been approved. We present a patient with a lung tumor with an exceptional response to cisplatin/gemcitabine in combination with HSP90i, which nowadays continues with HSP90i maintenance after three years. Whole-exome sequencing of the lung tumor unveiled a BRCA1/2 deficiency mutational signature, and mutation analysis confirmed a germline BRCA1 mutation. The striking efficacy of HSP90i plus chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone was reproduced in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model from a breast cancer patient with a BRCA1 mutation (mean tumor volume [SD], No. of tumors: vehicle 8.38 [7.07] mm3, n = 3; HSP90i 4.18 [1.93] mm3, n = 5; cisplatin plus gemcitabine 3.31 [1.95] mm3, n = 5; cisplatin plus gemcitabine plus HSP90i 0.065 [0.076] mm3, n = 6). This case and the PDX demonstrate the efficacy for therapeutic inhibition of HSP90 in a BRCA-mutated patient, opening a new potential avenue for better identifying patients who might benefit most from HSP90i.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093313PMC
August 2018

Immune-Related Gene Expression Profiling After PD-1 Blockade in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Melanoma.

Cancer Res 2017 07 9;77(13):3540-3550. Epub 2017 May 9.

Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Antibody targeting of the immune checkpoint receptor PD1 produces therapeutic activity in a variety of solid tumors, but most patients exhibit partial or complete resistance to treatment for reasons that are unclear. In this study, we evaluated tumor specimens from 65 patients with melanoma, lung nonsquamous, squamous cell lung or head and neck cancers who were treated with the approved PD1-targeting antibodies pembrolizumab or nivolumab. Tumor RNA before anti-PD1 therapy was analyzed on the nCounter system using the PanCancer 730-Immune Panel, and we identified 23 immune-related genes or signatures linked to response and progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, we evaluated intra- and interbiopsy variability of PD1, PD-L1, CD8A, and CD4 mRNAs and their relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 IHC expression. Among the biomarkers examined, PD1 gene expression along with 12 signatures tracking CD8 and CD4 T-cell activation, natural killer cells, and IFN activation associated significantly with nonprogressive disease and PFS. These associations were independent of sample timing, drug used, or cancer type. TIL correlated moderately (∼0.50) with PD1 and CD8A mRNA levels and weakly (∼0.35) with CD4 and PD-L1. IHC expression of PD-L1 correlated strongly with PD-L1 (0.90), moderately with CD4 and CD8A, and weakly with PD1. Reproducibility of gene expression in intra- and interbiopsy specimens was very high (total SD <3%). Overall, our results support the hypothesis that identification of a preexisting and stable adaptive immune response as defined by mRNA expression pattern is reproducible and sufficient to predict clinical outcome, regardless of the type of cancer or the PD1 therapeutic antibody administered to patients. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-3556DOI Listing
July 2017

The IASLC Mesothelioma Staging Project: Proposals for Revisions of the T Descriptors in the Forthcoming Eighth Edition of the TNM Classification for Pleural Mesothelioma.

J Thorac Oncol 2016 12 26;11(12):2089-2099. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Thoracic Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Introduction: The current T component for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been predominantly informed by surgical data sets and consensus. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer undertook revision of the seventh edition of the staging system for MPM with the goal of developing recommendations for the eighth edition.

Methods: Data elements including detailed T descriptors were developed by consensus. Tumor thickness at three pleural levels was also recorded. An electronic data capture system was established to facilitate data submission.

Results: A total of 3519 cases were submitted to the database. Of those eligible for T-component analysis, 509 cases had only clinical staging, 836 cases had only surgical staging, and 642 cases had both available. Survival was examined for T categories according to the current seventh edition staging system. There was clear separation between all clinically staged categories except T1a versus T1b (hazard ratio = 0.99, p = 0.95) and T3 versus T4 (hazard ratio = 1.22, p = 0.09), although the numbers of T4 cases were small. Pathological staging failed to demonstrate a survival difference between adjacent categories with the exception of T3 versus T4. Performance improved with collapse of T1a and T1b into a single T1 category; no current descriptors were shifted or eliminated. Tumor thickness and nodular or rindlike morphology were significantly associated with survival.

Conclusions: A recommendation to collapse both clinical and pathological T1a and T1b into a T1 classification will be made for the eighth edition staging system. Simple measurement of pleural thickness has prognostic significance and should be examined further with a view to incorporation into future staging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2016.08.147DOI Listing
December 2016

Analysis of expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

PLoS One 2015 16;10(3):e0121071. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Medical Oncology Service/Vall d´Hebron Institute Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The increasing incidence and poor outcome associated with MPM requires finding effective treatment for this disease. PD1/PD-L1 pathway plays a central role in tumor immune evasion and appears to be predictive and prognostic marker. PD-L1 is expressed in many different human cancers but its role in MPM has yet to be established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of PD-L1 in MPM.

Methods: 119 MPM patients (p) from two institutions between November 2002 and February 2014 were reviewed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was stained with anti-PD-L1 (clone E1L3N). Cases showing more than 1% of tumor cells expression of PD-L1 were considered positive.

Results: PD-L1 was analyzed in 77 p with tumor tissue available and was positive in 20.7% p (14 samples in membrane, 16 in cytoplasm and 4 in immune infiltrate). PD-L1 intensity was weak in 56.2%, moderate in 25% and strong in 18.7% p. There was a significant relationship between PD-L1 expression and histology (PD-L1 expression 37.5% in no-epithelioid tumor and 13.2% in epithelioid; p=0.033). The median survival in p PD-L1 positive was 4.79 vs 16.3 months in p PD-L1 negative (p=0.012).

Conclusions: We have shown PD-L1 is expressed in 20% of patients, associated with no epithelioid histology and poor prognostic in MPM. Our results suggest PD-L1 warrants further exploration in selecting p for immunotherapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0121071PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361537PMC
October 2015

Molecular targeted therapy for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: will it increase the cure rate?

Lung Cancer 2014 May 30;84(2):97-100. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

Vall d́Hebron University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases, with a world-wide annual incidence of around 1.3 million. Surgery remains the corner stone of treatment in early-stage NSCLC when feasible, and the addition of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy has improved these results in resected NSCLC patients. For those patients with non-metastatic NSCLC not suitable for complete surgical resection, chemotherapy plus radiotherapy remains the best treatment option. For patients with metastatic NSCLC, molecular targeted agents have become part of the therapeutic arsenal in recent years. However, to date no targeted agent has been approved for patients with early or locally-advanced stages of NSCLC. Here, we review the rationale, literature and studies addressing the role of targeted agents used in the adjuvant setting or as part of chemoradiotherapy regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.01.018DOI Listing
May 2014

Bone metastases with nerve root compression as a late complication in patient with epithelial pleural mesothelioma.

J Thorac Dis 2013 Apr;5(2):E35-7

Medical Oncology Service, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain ; Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with dismal prognoses and poor response to treatments. The most frequent symptoms are due to local invasion. Distant metastases are not uncommon and usually appear at late stage of the disease. However, metastases in bone have rarely been well documented. Here we report the case of a MPM patient with nerve root compression due to bone metastases 18 months after the first diagnoses of MPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.07.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3621936PMC
April 2013

Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry as diagnostic methods for ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer patients.

PLoS One 2013 24;8(1):e52261. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) positivity represents a novel molecular target in a subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC). We explore Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic methods for ALK positive patients and to describe its prevalence and outcomes in a population of NSCLC patients.

Methods: NSCLC patients previously screened for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) at our institution were selected. ALK positive patients were identified by FISH and the value of IHC (D5F3) was explored.

Results: ninety-nine patients were identified. Median age was 61.5 years (range 35-83), all were caucasians, eighty percent were adenocarcinomas, fifty-one percent were male and thirty-eight percent were current smokers. Seven (7.1%) patients were ALK positive by FISH, thirteen (13.1%) were EGFR mutant, and 65 (65.6%) were negative/Wild Type (WT) for both ALK and EGFR. ALK positivity and EGFR mutations were mutually exclusive. ALK positive patients tend to be younger than EGFR mutated or wt patients. ALK positive patients were predominantly never smokers (71.4%) and adenocarcinoma (71.4%). ALK positive and EGFR mutant patients have a better outcome than negative/WT. All patients with ALK FISH negative tumours were negative for ALK IHC. Out of 6 patients positive for ALK FISH with more tissue available, 5 were positive for ALK IHC and 1 negative.

Conclusions: ALK positive patients represent 7.1% of a population of selected NSCLC. ALK positive patients have different clinical features and a better outcome than EGFR WT and ALK negative patients. IHC is a promising method for detecting ALK positive NSCLC patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0052261PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3554741PMC
September 2013

Adjuvant treatment of resected nonsmall cell lung cancer: state of the art and new potential developments.

Curr Opin Oncol 2013 Mar;25(2):115-20

Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: Approximately 50% of surgically resected early stage lung cancer patients will relapse and die of recurrent disease within 5 years. In order to reduce the risk of relapse and improve survival, efforts have been focused on the use of chemotherapy before or after surgery. The benefit of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy is widely accepted for patients with resected stage II-IIIA, although its impact on survival is limited. There is, therefore, a need to find other strategies to further improve survival outcomes.

Recent Findings: In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting signaling pathways, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and immunotherapy in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer. The potential contribution of these strategies in the adjuvant setting is now being analyzed in randomized clinical trials.

Summary: At present, the challenge for research in early stage disease is to define subsets of patients who benefit from certain targeting agents and establish how to integrate such agents into the adjuvant setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0b013e32835ca1b0DOI Listing
March 2013

A phase Ib, dose-finding study of erlotinib in combination with a fixed dose of pertuzumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2012 Nov 19;13(6):432-41. Epub 2012 May 19.

Medical Oncology Service, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Pertuzumab, a dimerization inhibitor of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), has demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity, with stable disease in non-small-cell lung cancer. Combining erlotinib and pertuzumab may enhance antitumor activity. This study aimed to establish the recommended dosing of the erlotinib and pertuzumab combination; assess safety, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics; and analyze biomarkers.

Patients And Methods: Fifteen patients with stage IIIb/IV non-small-cell lung cancer who failed chemotherapy were recruited. The patients received erlotinib (days -8 to -1), then combination therapy (21-day cycles for 6 cycles). Pertuzumab was given intravenous at 840 mg, then 420 mg once every three weeks, with erlotinib given daily (100 or 150 mg).

Results: No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Adverse events were generally grade 1/2 and manageable. The objective response rate was 20% (3/15 patients; 2 responders had mutant HER1, 1 responder had wild-type HER1), median overall progression-free survival was 9.3 weeks. High HER1, HER2, and HER3 messenger RNA expression correlated with increased progression-free survival. Combination therapy did not affect erlotinib's pharmacokinetics; however, pertuzumab mean exposures (maximum concentration, 231 mg/L; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 21 days, 1780 mg*d/L) were slightly higher than in previous studies.

Conclusions: Combination therapy was well tolerated in patients with good performance status, with encouraging efficacy. A loading dose of pertuzumab 840 mg followed by 420 mg once every three weeks plus daily erlotinib 150 mg appears to be the most appropriate regimen for this combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2012.03.004DOI Listing
November 2012

Serum tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA-125 are associated with worse prognosis in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Clin Lung Cancer 2011 May 24;12(3):172-9. Epub 2011 Apr 24.

Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Serum tumor markers are considered a negative prognostic factor in early-stages NSCLC but its role in advanced disease is controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic value of tumor markers in advanced NSCLC.

Patients And Methods: Two hundred and seventy seven patients diagnosed in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline prognostic factors analyzed were gender, histology and brain metastases.

Results: Baseline patients characteristics: median age 63 years (30-81 years); males 84.4%, stage IV: 61.7%; adenocarcinoma 38.6%, squamous carcinoma 22.4%. High levels of CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA125 levels were detected in 179 (55.9%), 119 (65%), and 129 (46.6%) patients respectively. Significant higher levels of CEA and CA125 at baseline were present in adenocarcinoma (P < .05). PFS in patients with elevated CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA125 was 5.3 months (m), 3.5 m and 4.6 m versus 7.4 m, 6.2 m and 7.5 m in patients with normal levels (P < .05). The OS in patients with high and normal levels of tumor markers was 10.0 m vs 14.0 m (P = 0.085) for CEA; 5.6 vs 12.1 m for CYFRA21-1 (P = .002), and 8.7 vs 14.0 (P = .03) for CA125. In the multivariate analysis high levels of tumor markers, histology and clinical stage were significant correlated with worse prognostic. Patients with all the tumor markers elevated presented the worst prognosis (3.6 m for PFS and 7.1 m for OS, P < .001).

Conclusion: In our analysis, high levels of tumor markers at baseline are correlated with worse survival in stage III-IV NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2011.03.019DOI Listing
May 2011

Computed tomography (CT) predicts accurately the pathologic tumour size in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Clin Transl Oncol 2010 Dec;12(12):829-35

Medical Oncology Service, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: In stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumour size has been the most consistent determinant of survival. The choice of therapy option is based on accurate definition of the stage. The aim of our study is to correlate tumour size by computed tomography scan (CT) with pathologic size and to determine possible prognostic factors in surgically resected pathologic stage IA and IB NSCLC patients.

Methods: Retrospective review of CT scans and medical history data from 89 pathologic stage I NSCLC patients. Clinical prognostic factors analysed were age, gender, smoking status, pulmonary function, performance status (PS), surgical procedure, histopathology, vessel invasion, pleural infi ltration, tumour size and number of lymph nodes resected. According to the new TNM classification for lung cancer, tumour size was divided into five groups (I: <2 cm, II: 2-3 cm, III: 3-5 cm, IV: 5-7 cm and V: >7 cm).

Results: After a median surveillance of 55.2 months, 42 patients relapsed and 55 had died. The 5-year progressionfree survival was 55.7% and 5-year overall survival (OS) 49.9% (median 58.97 months). None of the clinical parameters analysed were predictors of OS. Significant correlation was found between tumour size in CT scan and pathologic stage (Pearson 0.75).

Conclusions: In our analysis with 89 surgically resected stage IA and IB NSCLC patients we found a good correlation between clinical and pathologic tumour size by CT scan. The prognoses factors analysed had no significant impact on survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-010-0605-6DOI Listing
December 2010

Sunitinib in combination with gemcitabine plus cisplatin for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase I dose-escalation study.

Lung Cancer 2010 Nov 25;70(2):180-7. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Hospital Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf 22927, Germany.

Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of sunitinib plus gemcitabine/cisplatin for first-line treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activities were evaluated.

Methods: Patients ≥18 years with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1 and stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were included in this open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation phase I study. Treatment was administered in 3-week cycles: oral sunitinib 37.5 or 50mg/day intermittently (Schedule 2/1: 2 weeks on treatment, 1 week off treatment) or 25mg continuous daily dosing (CDD) schedule with intravenous infusions of gemcitabine (1000 or 1250 mg/m(2) days 1, 8) and cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) day 1).

Results: A total of 28 evaluable patients were assigned to four dose levels. Most adverse events (AEs) on the Schedule 2/1 MTD were mild to moderate. Dose delays due to myelosuppression occurred on both schedules, limiting treatment to a median of four cycles. Four of 18 evaluable patients (22%) on Schedule 2/1 and 1 of 6 patients (17%) on the CDD schedule had confirmed partial responses.

Conclusions: The MTD was identified as sunitinib 37.5mg (Schedule 2/1), gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2), and cisplatin 80 mg/m(2), with most AEs being mild to moderate. However, frequent dose delays due to myelosuppression occurred. There was evidence of antitumor activity with this combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2010.01.016DOI Listing
November 2010

Clinical surrogate markers of survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with second-third line erlotinib.

Lung Cancer 2009 Nov 23;66(2):257-61. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Medical Oncology Service, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Inhibition of the EGFR pathway is a useful strategy in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. The aim of this study is to assess predictive clinical parameters of efficacy.

Methods And Patients: Sixty-two patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with erlotinib as second-third line (150 mg/day). Baseline patient characteristics were: performance status (PS) 1: 92%; median age, 58 years; males, 73%; adenocarcinoma, 45%; current/former smokers, 83%. During erlotinib treatment, 35% of patients had no rash, 32.3% had grade 1 rash, 26% had grade 2 rash and 6.5% patients developed grade 3 rash.

Results: For patients with grades 2-3 rash vs. those with grades 0-1 rash, time to tumor progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 92 vs. 41 days (p=0.0381) and 244 vs. 131 days (p=0.011), respectively. For patients with non-smoking history and current/former smokers, TTP and OS were 136 vs. 42 days (p=0.0015) and 324 vs. 133 days (p=0.0242), respectively. In addition, rash grade and smoking history were found to have a highly significant impact on TTP and OS, according to the Cox model.

Conclusions: Grade > or =2 rash and non-smoking history are associated with improved TTP and OS in advanced NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2009.01.014DOI Listing
November 2009

A phase II pharmacodynamic study of erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 Jun;14(12):3867-74

Medical Oncology Service and Pathology Service, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: To examine potential markers of clinical benefit and the effects of erlotinib on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients refractory to platinum-based chemotherapy.

Experimental Design: Patients were given erlotinib (150 mg/d). Tumor biopsies were done immediately before treatment and in a subgroup of patients after 6 weeks' treatment.

Results: Of 73 evaluable patients, 7 (10%) had partial response and 28 (38%) had stable disease. In 53 patients with baseline tumor samples, no relationship was observed between pretreatment levels of EGFR, phosphorylated (p)-EGFR, p-AKT, p-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p27 and clinical benefit (i.e., response, or stable disease >/=12 weeks). Tumors from 15 of 57 patients had high EGFR gene copy number, assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH positive), 10 of whom had clinical benefit, compared with 5 of 42 FISH-negative patients. FISH-positive patients had longer median progression-free [137 versus 43 days, P = 0.002; hazard ratio (HR), 0.37] and overall (226 versus 106 days, P = 0.267; HR, 0.70) survival than FISH-negative patients. In paired biopsy samples from 14 patients, p-EGFR (P = 0.002), p-MAPK (P = 0.001), and Ki-67 (P = 0.025) levels were significantly reduced after 6 weeks' treatment. Apoptosis was significantly increased in patients with clinical benefit (P = 0.029), and may be a marker of clinical benefit.

Conclusion: In this study, EGFR FISH-positive status was associated with improved outcome after erlotinib therapy. Erlotinib led to reduced levels of p-EGFR, p-MAPK, and Ki-67, and stimulated apoptosis in tumor samples from patients with clinical benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-5186DOI Listing
June 2008

Successful treatment of pulmonary metastatic salivary ductal carcinoma with trastuzumab-based therapy.

Head Neck 2008 May;30(5):680-3

Department of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Salivary ductal carcinoma (SDC) is an uncommon malignant tumor of the salivary glands. Although there is no known standard of care for the treatment of advanced disease, the vast majority of patients with SDC may be offered palliative systemic therapy. We report a case of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic submandibular SDC with a complete and durable clinical response to treatment with trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy.

Methods And Results: A 62-year-old man was diagnosed with SDC of the left submandibular gland with extensive cervical lymph node involvement. The lesion was completely resected, and the patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. After 6 months, multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions were detected. A complete response was reached with trastuzumab-based combination therapy, and no evidence of disease progression has been observed after 14 months of initiation of systemic therapy.

Conclusion: Trastuzumab-based combination therapies should be considered for advanced SDC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.20714DOI Listing
May 2008