Publications by authors named "Susan Read"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sensory Stimulation of the Foot and Ankle Early Post-stroke: A Pilot and Feasibility Study.

Front Neurol 2021 5;12:675106. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

School of Allied Health Professions, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.

Somatosensory stimulation of the lower extremity could improve motor recovery and walking post-stroke. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of a subsequent randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether task-specific gait training is more effective following either (a) intensive hands-on somatosensory stimulation or (b) wearing textured insoles. Determine recruitment and attrition rates, adherence to intervention, acceptability and viability of interventions and outcome measures, and estimate variance of outcome data to inform sample size for a subsequent RCT. Design: randomized, single-blinded, mixed-methods pilot study. In-patient rehabilitation ward and community. = 34, 18+years, 42-112 days following anterior or posterior circulation stroke, able to follow simple commands, able to walk independently pre-stroke, and providing informed consent. Twenty 30-min sessions of task-specific gait training (TSGT) (delivered over 6 weeks) in addition to either: (a) 30-60 min mobilization and tactile stimulation (MTS); or (b) unlimited textured insole (TI) wearing. Ankle range of movement (electrogoniometer), touch-pressure sensory thresholds (Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments), motor impairment (Lower Extremity Motricity Index), walking ability and speed (Functional Ambulation Category, 5-m walk test, pressure insoles) and function (modified Rivermead Mobility Index), measured before randomization, post-intervention, and 1-month thereafter (follow-up). Adherence to allocated intervention and actual dose delivered (fidelity) were documented in case report forms and daily diaries. Focus groups further explored acceptability of interventions and study experience. Recruitment, attrition, and dose adherence rates were calculated as percentages of possible totals. Thematic analysis of daily diaries and focus group data was undertaken. Standard deviations of outcome measures were calculated and used to inform a sample size calculation. Recruitment, attrition, and adherence rates were 48.57, 5.88, and 96.88%, respectively. Focus groups, daily-diaries and case report forms indicated acceptability of interventions and outcome measures to participants. The 5-m walk was selected as primary outcome measure for a future trial [mean (SD) at end of intervention: 16.86 (11.24) MTS group and 21.56 (13.57) TI group]; sample size calculation indicated 60 participants are required per group. Recruitment, attrition and adherence rates and acceptability of interventions and outcomes justify a subsequent powered RCT of MTS+TSGT compared with TI+TSGT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.675106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287025PMC
July 2021

Generalized anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of U.S. internal medicine physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2021 Jul-Aug;71:142-144. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB#7005, 125 MacNider Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7005, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142739PMC
July 2021

Qualitative assessment of knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among male Latino immigrants in Houston, Texas.

BMC Womens Health 2020 07 6;20(1):141. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Boulevard, MDC 2040A, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Background: Male spouses and partners play an important role in determining a woman's willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening. However, the attitudes and behaviors by which they influence a woman's decision to undergo Pap testing remain poorly understood.

Methods: A series of semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted in Spanish with 19 recent Latino immigrants in Houston, Texas. The interview format was designed to establish each individual's pattern of engagement with the United States healthcare system, assess baseline knowledge of cervical cancer screening and evaluate attitudes and patterns of communication with their female partners regarding health care. Interview questions were constructed using principles of the Theory of Reasoned Action. All interviews were conducted in Spanish. After translation, responses were coded and scored with the goal of identifying themes and key observations.

Results: Most subjects reported few, if any, interactions with the healthcare system since their arrival in the United States. Although most participants reported being aware that women should be seen by their doctors regularly, fewer than half could clearly indicate the purpose of a Pap test or could state with certainty the last time their female partner had undergone screening. Multiple subjects expressed a general distrust of the health care system and concern for its costs. Approximately half of subjects reported that they accompanied their female partner to the health care provider's office and none of the participants reported that they were present in examination rooms at the time their partner underwent screening. Multiple participants endorsed that there may be some concerns within their community regarding women receiving frequent gynecologic care and distrust of the healthcare system. Almost all interviewed subjects stated that while they would allow their female partners to see male physicians, they also expressed the opinion that other men might be uncomfortable with this and that women would likely be more comfortable with female physicians.

Conclusions: Strategies to enhance knowledge of HPV and cancer screening and improve trust in the health care system among male spouses or partners should be explored with the goal of promoting cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinx populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-01006-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339392PMC
July 2020

U.S. Internists' Perspectives on Discussing Cost of Care With Patients: Structured Interviews and a Survey.

Ann Intern Med 2019 05;170(9_Suppl):S39-S45

American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (A.W., S.R., C.D.S., W.N.).

Background: Rising out-of-pocket costs are creating a need for cost conversations between patients and physicians.

Objective: To understand the factors that influence physicians to discuss and consider cost during a patient encounter.

Design: Mixed-methods study using semistructured interviews and a survey.

Setting: United States.

Participants: 20 internal medicine physicians were interviewed; 621 internal medicine physician members of the American College of Physicians completed the survey.

Measurements: Interviews were analyzed by using thematic analysis, and surveys were analyzed by using descriptive statistics.

Results: From the interviews, 4 themes were identified: Physicians are 1) aware that patients are struggling to afford medical care; 2) relying on clues from patients that hint at their cost sensitivity; 3) relying on experience to anticipate potentially high-cost treatments; and 4) aware that patients are making financial trade-offs to afford their care. Three quarters (n = 466) of survey respondents stated that they consider out-of-pocket costs when making most clinical decisions. For 31% (n = 191) of participants, there were times in the past year that they wanted to discuss out-of-pocket prescription drug costs with patients but did not. The most influential factors for ordering a test are the desire to be as thorough as possible (71% [n = 422]) and insurance coverage for the test (68% [n = 422]).

Limitation: Findings are self-reported, the sample is limited to a single specialty, the survey response rate was low, information on the patient population was limited, and the survey instrument is not validated.

Conclusion: Physicians are attuned to the burden of health care costs and are willing to consider alternative options based on a patient's cost sensitivity.

Primary Funding Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M18-2136DOI Listing
May 2019

Compensation Disparities by Gender in Internal Medicine.

Ann Intern Med 2018 11 7;169(9):658-661. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (S.R., A.W., D.V.M.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M18-0693DOI Listing
November 2018

Nursing research's ivory tower was knocked down long ago.

Authors:
Susan Read

Nurs Stand 2016 Apr;30(34):32

Derbyshire.

As a retired research nurse whose career spanned nearly 50 years, I am well qualified to challenge the view that nursing research used to consist of 'obscure studies carried out in distant ivory towers' with little connection to actual nurses (editorial, April 6).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns.30.34.32.s38DOI Listing
April 2016

Use of reflexivity in a mixed-methods study.

Nurse Res 2013 Jan;20(3):38-43

Institute of Social Sciences, Keele University, UK.

Aim: To present a novice researcher's use of a reflective research diary in the quantitive measure of a mixed methods study and to recommend resulting changes to practice.

Background: Reflexivity is often regarded as a useful tool for ensuring the standard of qualitative research. Reflexivity provides transparent information about the positionality and personal values of the researcher that could affect data collection and analysis; this research process is deemed to be best practice. A reflective research diary also allows researchers to record observations about the research process. However, such diaries are rarely used in quantitative research and are even contraindicated.

Data Sources: A reflective research diary maintained while conducting a retrospective audit of 150 hospice casenotes.

Review Methods: A reflective research diary was written at the end of every research session to keep a detailed history of the research process and to critically reflect on the researcher's thoughts, feelings and observations on the day's work.

Discussion: This paper raises questions about whether reflexivity is appropriate in quantitative research, whether it has the capacity to add something of value or whether it endangers the robustness of the method. The authors consider the place of grounded theory's commitment to reflexivity in this mixed-methods study and discuss whether reflexivity offers any benefits to researcher development.

Conclusion: Use of reflexivity had a positive impact on the progress of the quantitative measure of this study: it enabled work to be reviewed efficiently and served to inform future research practice. Reflexivity stimulated the acquisition of researcher skills and contributed positively to the development of confidence in the novice researcher.

Implications For Research/practice: Reflexivity in quantitative research practice can be an effective, ongoing means of critically reviewing work, process and researcher development. Reflexivity is recommended to other quantitative researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nr2013.01.20.3.38.c9496DOI Listing
January 2013

A question of quality.

Authors:
Susan Read

Nurs Stand 2010 Mar 24-30;24(29):23-4

RCN fellows consider the challenges to care in their areas of expertise in a series of six articles, starting this week with education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns.24.29.23.s26DOI Listing
May 2010

Patients' opinions of acute chest pain care: a qualitative evaluation of Chest Pain Units.

J Adv Nurs 2009 Jan 14;65(1):120-9. Epub 2008 Nov 14.

School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, UK.

Aim: This paper is a report of a study to explore the experiences of individuals receiving Chest Pain Unit care and routine Emergency Department care for acute chest pain.

Background: Chest Pain Units were established in the United States of America with the aim of reducing admissions and costs, whilst improving quality of life and care satisfaction. Trials showed these units to be safe and practical; however, there was a need to establish whether Chest Pain Units could be cost-effective in the United Kingdom, and whether use of a nurse-led protocol could be acceptable to patients.

Method: We carried out 26 semi-structured interviews in 2005-2006 with patients across seven trial Chest Pain Units in the United Kingdom (14 in intervention sites and 12 in control sites) to explore issues that patients considered were important in their care experiences, and to develop possible explanations for the main trial outcomes. We analysed transcripts using the Framework approach to identify themes relating to care experiences.

Findings: Differences in care experiences were more distinct between individual sites than between control and intervention sites. Satisfaction with care was high overall. Interactions with healthcare professionals, in particular specialist nurses, were valued in terms of reassurance, calming effect and competence. Indications for care improvement concerned information-giving about investigations, diagnosis, and self-care advice. Patients with non-cardiac causes needed to feel more supported after discharge.

Conclusion: Differences between modes of care may not coincide with identified trial outcomes. Qualitative methods can identify aspects of care that improve patient acceptability. The specialist nurse role appears particularly important in providing satisfactory individualized chest pain care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04849.xDOI Listing
January 2009

The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review.

Can J Public Health 2008 Mar-Apr;99(2):145-55

Policy Advice and Effectiveness Program, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, ON.

Background: The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has been debated for almost a century because of similarities between Johne's Disease (JD) in cattle and Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. Our objective was to evaluate scientific literature investigating the potential association between these two diseases (MAP and CD) and the presence of MAP in retail milk or dairy products using a qualitative systematic review.

Method: The search strategy included 19 bibliographic databases, 8 conference proceedings, reference lists of 15 articles and contacting 28 topic-related scientists. Two independent reviewers performed relevance screening, quality assessment and data extraction stages of the review.

Results: Seventy-five articles were included. Among 60 case-control studies that investigated the association between MAP and CD, 37 were of acceptable quality. Twenty-three studies reported significant positive associations, 23 reported non-significant associations, and 14 did not detect MAP in any sample. Different laboratory tests, test protocols, types of samples and source populations were used in these studies resulting in large variability among studies. Seven studies investigated the association between CD and JD, two challenge trials reported contradictory results, one cross-sectional study did not support the association, and four descriptive studies suggested that isolated MAP is often closely related to cattle isolates. MAP detection in raw and pasteurized milk was reported in several studies.

Conclusions: Evidence for the zoonotic potential of MAP is not strong, but should not be ignored. Interdisciplinary collaboration among medical, veterinary and other public health officials may contribute to a better understanding of the potential routes of human exposure to MAP.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975835PMC
June 2008

Applicability of phylogenetic methods for characterizing the public health significance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2008 Mar 28;74(5):1671-5. Epub 2007 Dec 28.

Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Ontario N1G 3W4, Canada.

Two phylogenetic methods (multilocus sequence typing [MLST] and a multiplex PCR) were investigated to determine whether phylogenetic classification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes correlates with their classification into groups (seropathotypes A to E) based on their relative incidence in human disease and on their association with outbreaks and serious complications. MLST was able to separate 96% of seropathotype D and E serotypes from those that cause serious disease (seropathotypes A to C), whereas the multiplex PCR lacked this level of seropathotype discrimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01619-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2258608PMC
March 2008

An overview of microbial food safety programs in beef, pork, and poultry from farm to processing in Canada.

J Food Prot 2007 May;70(5):1286-94

Policy Advice and Effectiveness Program, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, 160 Research Lane, Unit 206, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5B2, Canada.

Canada's vision for the agri-food industry in the 21st century is the establishment of a national food safety system employing hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles and microbiological verification tools, with traceability throughout the gate-to-plate continuum. Voluntary on-farm food safety (OFFS) programs, based in part on HACCP principles, provide producers with guidelines for good production practices focused on general hygiene and biosecurity. OFFS programs in beef cattle, swine, and poultry are currently being evaluated through a national recognition program of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Mandatory HACCP programs in federal meat facilities include microbial testing for generic Escherichia coli to verify effectiveness of the processor's dressing procedure, specific testing of ground meat for E. coli O157:H7, with zero tolerance for this organism in the tested lot, and Salmonella testing of raw products. Health Canada's policy on Listeria monocytogenes divides ready-to-eat products into three risk categories, with products previously implicated as the source of an outbreak receiving the highest priority for inspection and compliance. A national mandatory identification program to track livestock from the herd of origin to carcass inspection has been established. Can-Trace, a data standard for all food commodities, has been designed to facilitate tracking foods from the point of origin to the consumer. Although much work has already been done, a coherent national food safety strategy and concerted efforts by all stakeholders are needed to realize this vision. Cooperation of many government agencies with shared responsibility for food safety and public health will be essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028x-70.5.1286DOI Listing
May 2007

Evaluating the role of modern matrons.

Nurs Manag (Harrow) 2005 May;12(2):22-6

RCN Institute.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nm2005.05.12.2.22.c2022DOI Listing
May 2005

Bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies in Southern Alberta, Canada.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2004 Oct 22-Nov 26;67(20-22):1643-53

Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta was tested for the presence of two bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., over the last 2 yr (2000-2001). The number of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolated from raw water peaked during the summer months. While E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 11/802 (1.35%) of raw water samples over the entire sampling season in 2000 and from 16/806 (2.05%) of the samples in 2001, the pathogen was isolated one or more times from 10/35 (28.55%) sampling sites in 2000 and from 13/40 (32.55%) sampling sites in 2001. Salmonella was isolated from 44/802 (5.55%) of raw water samples in 2000 and from 122/822 (14.95%) of the samples in 2001; the pathogen was isolated one or more times from 25/35 (71.45%) sampling sites in 2000 and from 29/40 (72.55%) sampling sites in 2001. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations in the same year and from year to year. Salmonella Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years, accounting for 52.45% of isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287390490492421DOI Listing
October 2004

Acute Pain Teams in England: current provision and their role in postoperative pain management.

J Clin Nurs 2003 May;12(3):387-93

Medical Care Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

This survey describes the current provision of multidisciplinary Acute Pain Teams (APTs) in acute English hospitals performing adult in-patient surgery (excluding maternity). Associations between the presence of an APT and a number of organizational and clinical initiatives for the management of postoperative pain are also explored. Postal questionnaires were sent to the Clinical Director of Anaesthetics or head of the APT at every acute English hospital providing separate anaesthetic services. After written and telephone reminders, the response rate was 86% (n = 226). Eighty-four per cent (n = 190) of respondents had an APT in their hospital. The presence of an APT was associated (P
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00748.xDOI Listing
May 2003

Effectiveness of appropriately trained nurses in preoperative assessment: randomised controlled equivalence/non-inferiority trial.

BMJ 2002 Dec;325(7376):1323

University Surgery, University of Southampton School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD.

Objective: To determine whether preoperative assessments carried out by appropriately trained nurses are inferior in quality to those carried out by preregistration house officers.

Design: Randomised controlled equivalence/non-inferiority trial.

Setting: Four NHS hospitals in three trusts. Three of the four were teaching hospitals.

Participants: All patients attending for assessment before general anaesthesia for general, vascular, urological, or breast surgery between April 1998 and March 1999.

Intervention: Assessment by one of three appropriately trained nurses or by one of several preregistration house officers.

Main Outcome Measures: History taken, physical examination, and investigations ordered. Measures evaluated by a specialist registrar in anaesthetics and placed in four categories: correct, overassessment, underassessment not affecting management, and underassessment possibly affecting management (primary outcome).

Results: 1907 patients were randomised, and 1874 completed the study; 926 were assessed by house officers and 948 by nurses. Overall 121/948 (13%) assessments carried out by nurses were judged to have possibly affected management compared with 138/926 (15%) of those performed by house officers. Nurses were judged to be non-inferior to house officers in assessment, although there was variation among them in terms of the quality of history taking. The house officers ordered considerably more unnecessary tests than the nurses (218/926 (24%) v 129/948 (14%).

Conclusions: There is no reason to inhibit the development of nurse led preoperative assessment provided that the nurses involved receive adequate training. However, house officers will continue to require experience in preoperative assessment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC137803PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7376.1323DOI Listing
December 2002

Evaluation of PCR and PCR-RFLP protocols for identifying Shiga toxins.

Res Microbiol 2002 Jun;153(5):289-300

Health Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON.

This study evaluated two generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols, and nine subtyping protocols and three PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) protocols for detection of stx genes. The PCR protocols were evaluated by testing 12 reference isolates and 496 field strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Both generic methods detected all stx genes. In tests with the reference isolates, all methods detected stx1 and stx2, seven subtyping methods detected stx2v(EH250), seven detected stx2e and only two detected stx2f. Four of the subtyping protocols identified stx genes in all of the field isolates. The PCR-RFLP protocols gave contradictory results for approximately 20% of the strains tested. The observed limitations of the protocols were shown to be due to nucleotide sequence variation in the region of the PCR primers. One subtyping protocol that detected the virulence-related genes, eae and ehxA, and all stx except for the stx2f gene, was modified by newly designed primers so that it identified all stx genes. This modified protocol provides comprehensive characterization of STEC in a single multiplex reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0923-2508(02)01322-0DOI Listing
June 2002

Growing Concerns and Recent Outbreaks Involving Non-O157:H7 Serotypes of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

J Food Prot 1996 Oct;59(10):1112-1122

Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph.

Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) of serotype O157:H7 have been shown to be important agents of foodborne disease in humans worldwide. While the majority of research effort has been targeted on this serotype it is becoming more evident that other serotypes of VTEC can also be associated with human disease. An increasing number of these non-O157:H7 VTEC have been isolated from humans suffering from HUS and diarrhea. Recently a number of foodborne outbreaks in the USA, Australia, and other countries have been attributed to non-O157:H7 VTEC serotypes. Surveys of animal populations in a variety of countries have shown that the cattle reservoir contains more than 100 serotypes of VTEC, many of which are similar to those isolated from humans. The diversity and complexity of the VTEC family requires that laboratories and public health surveillance systems have the ability to detect and monitor all serotypes of VTEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-59.10.1112DOI Listing
October 1996

The Strategy for Research in Nursing in England: Initial impact.

Authors:
Susan Read

Nurse Res 1994 Apr;1(3):72-84

Medical Care Research Unit and Sheffield Centre for Health and Related Research at Sheffield University.

Researchers have often been criticised for their lack of responsibility for disseminating or implementing their findings ( 2 - 4 ). People speak of volumes of research gathering dust on forgotten shelves, and research reports being incomprehensible to the ordinary reader. Researchers too have sometimes criticised sponsoring bodies for taking no notice of their recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nr.1.3.72.s10DOI Listing
April 1994

A Canadian Comparative Study of Modified Versions of the "FDA" and "USDA" Methods for the Detection of Listeria monocytogenes.

J Food Prot 1991 Sep;54(9):669-676

Health of Animals Laboratory, Agriculture Canada, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 3W4.

Eleven laboratories across Canada took part in a comparative study of modified versions of the "FDA" and "USDA" methods for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods and environmental samples. Both were modified by the inclusion of additional plating media and the use of modified Fraser broth in the modified "FDA" method. Approximately 92% of the positive samples were detected after 24 h of enrichment. Testing of routine samples by the participating laboratories showed no significant difference (p<0.05) in ability to isolate L. monocytogenes by either the modified "FDA" or "USDA" methods. However, the modified "FDA" method isolated significantly more positives (16.8%) from the spiked foods/controls than the modified "USDA" method (p<0.05). For all samples tested by both methods in the same laboratory, again the modified "FDA" method significantly out performed the "USDA" version by approximately 6% (p<0.05). However, the spiked foods/controls tested by both methods in the same laboratory showed no difference (p<0.05) in their ability to isolate L. monocytogenes . Overall, the modified "FDA" and "USDA" methods were comparable (within 1.0%) in their ability to isolate this microorganism. The "USDA" preenrichment broth maintained its initial pHbetter. Modified Fraser broth, in principle, proved to be useful as a screening tool but is not very selective. Oxford agar proved to be marginally better than lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam medium and significantly (p<0.05) better than modified Oxford agar in isolating L. monocytogenes .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-54.9.669DOI Listing
September 1991
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