Publications by authors named "Susan M Russo"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of an Emergent Pathogen, Bartonella vinsonii, Using Next-Generation Sequencing in a Patient With Culture-Negative Endocarditis.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 Feb 24. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Dell Children's Medical Center, Austin, Texas, USA.

Diagnosis and treatment of culture negative endocarditis remains a challenge. This report describes a rare cause of endocarditis in humans, Bartonella vinsonii, identified through next generation sequencing of plasma microbial cell-free DNA with confirmation of cardiac valve tissue infection through immunohistochemical staining and polymerase chain reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa014DOI Listing
February 2020

Gene Model Annotations for Drosophila melanogaster: Impact of High-Throughput Data.

G3 (Bethesda) 2015 Jun 24;5(8):1721-36. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138.

We report the current status of the FlyBase annotated gene set for Drosophila melanogaster and highlight improvements based on high-throughput data. The FlyBase annotated gene set consists entirely of manually annotated gene models, with the exception of some classes of small non-coding RNAs. All gene models have been reviewed using evidence from high-throughput datasets, primarily from the modENCODE project. These datasets include RNA-Seq coverage data, RNA-Seq junction data, transcription start site profiles, and translation stop-codon read-through predictions. New annotation guidelines were developed to take into account the use of the high-throughput data. We describe how this flood of new data was incorporated into thousands of new and revised annotations. FlyBase has adopted a philosophy of excluding low-confidence and low-frequency data from gene model annotations; we also do not attempt to represent all possible permutations for complex and modularly organized genes. This has allowed us to produce a high-confidence, manageable gene annotation dataset that is available at FlyBase (http://flybase.org). Interesting aspects of new annotations include new genes (coding, non-coding, and antisense), many genes with alternative transcripts with very long 3' UTRs (up to 15-18 kb), and a stunning mismatch in the number of male-specific genes (approximately 13% of all annotated gene models) vs. female-specific genes (less than 1%). The number of identified pseudogenes and mutations in the sequenced strain also increased significantly. We discuss remaining challenges, for instance, identification of functional small polypeptides and detection of alternative translation starts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.115.018929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528329PMC
June 2015

Gene Model Annotations for Drosophila melanogaster: The Rule-Benders.

G3 (Bethesda) 2015 Jun 24;5(8):1737-49. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138.

In the context of the FlyBase annotated gene models in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the many exceptional cases we have curated from the literature or identified in the course of FlyBase analysis. These range from atypical but common examples such as dicistronic and polycistronic transcripts, noncanonical splices, trans-spliced transcripts, noncanonical translation starts, and stop-codon readthroughs, to single exceptional cases such as ribosomal frameshifting and HAC1-type intron processing. In FlyBase, exceptional genes and transcripts are flagged with Sequence Ontology terms and/or standardized comments. Because some of the rule-benders create problems for handlers of high-throughput data, we discuss plans for flagging these cases in bulk data downloads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.115.018937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528330PMC
June 2015

Polytene chromosomal maps of 11 Drosophila species: the order of genomic scaffolds inferred from genetic and physical maps.

Genetics 2008 Jul 13;179(3):1601-55. Epub 2008 Jul 13.

Department of Biology and Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

The sequencing of the 12 genomes of members of the genus Drosophila was taken as an opportunity to reevaluate the genetic and physical maps for 11 of the species, in part to aid in the mapping of assembled scaffolds. Here, we present an overview of the importance of cytogenetic maps to Drosophila biology and to the concepts of chromosomal evolution. Physical and genetic markers were used to anchor the genome assembly scaffolds to the polytene chromosomal maps for each species. In addition, a computational approach was used to anchor smaller scaffolds on the basis of the analysis of syntenic blocks. We present the chromosomal map data from each of the 11 sequenced non-Drosophila melanogaster species as a series of sections. Each section reviews the history of the polytene chromosome maps for each species, presents the new polytene chromosome maps, and anchors the genomic scaffolds to the cytological maps using genetic and physical markers. The mapping data agree with Muller's idea that the majority of Drosophila genes are syntenic. Despite the conservation of genes within homologous chromosome arms across species, the karyotypes of these species have changed through the fusion of chromosomal arms followed by subsequent rearrangement events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.086074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2475758PMC
July 2008

Chromosomal rearrangement inferred from comparisons of 12 Drosophila genomes.

Genetics 2008 Jul 13;179(3):1657-80. Epub 2008 Jul 13.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

The availability of 12 complete genomes of various species of genus Drosophila provides a unique opportunity to analyze genome-scale chromosomal rearrangements among a group of closely related species. This article reports on the comparison of gene order between these 12 species and on the fixed rearrangement events that disrupt gene order. Three major themes are addressed: the conservation of syntenic blocks across species, the disruption of syntenic blocks (via chromosomal inversion events) and its relationship to the phylogenetic distribution of these species, and the rate of rearrangement events over evolutionary time. Comparison of syntenic blocks across this large genomic data set confirms that genetic elements are largely (95%) localized to the same Muller element across genus Drosophila species and paracentric inversions serve as the dominant mechanism for shuffling the order of genes along a chromosome. Gene-order scrambling between species is in accordance with the estimated evolutionary distances between them and we find it to approximate a linear process over time (linear to exponential with alternate divergence time estimates). We find the distribution of synteny segment sizes to be biased by a large number of small segments with comparatively fewer large segments. Our results provide estimated chromosomal evolution rates across this set of species on the basis of whole-genome synteny analysis, which are found to be higher than those previously reported. Identification of conserved syntenic blocks across these genomes suggests a large number of conserved blocks with varying levels of embryonic expression correlation in Drosophila melanogaster. On the other hand, an analysis of the disruption of syntenic blocks between species allowed the identification of fixed inversion breakpoints and estimates of breakpoint reuse and lineage-specific breakpoint event segregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.086108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2475759PMC
July 2008

Genome-scale analysis of positionally relocated genes.

Genome Res 2007 Dec 7;17(12):1880-7. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

During evolution, genome reorganization includes large-scale events such as inversions, translocations, and segmental or even whole-genome duplications, as well as fine-scale events such as the relocation of individual genes. This latter category, which we will refer to as positionally relocated genes (PRGs), is the subject of this report. Assessment of the magnitude of such PRGs and of possible contributing mechanisms is aided by a comparative analysis of related genomes, where conserved chromosomal organization can aid in identifying genes that have acquired a new location in a lineage of these genomes. Here we utilize two methods to comprehensively identify relocated protein-coding genes in the recently sequenced genomes of 12 species of genus Drosophila. We use exceptions to the general rule of maintenance of chromosome arm (Muller element) association for most Drosophila genes to identify one major class of PRGs. We also identify a partially overlapping set of PRGs among "embedded genes," located within the extents of other surrounding genes. We provide evidence that PRG movements have at least two different origins: Some events occur via retrotransposition of processed RNAs and others via a DNA-based transposition mechanism. Overall, we identify several hundred PRGs that arose within a lineage of the genus Drosophila phylogeny and provide suggestive evidence that a few thousand such events have occurred within the radiation of the insect order Diptera, thereby illustrating the magnitude of the contribution of PRG movement to chromosomal reorganization during evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.7062307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2099595PMC
December 2007