Publications by authors named "Susan M Goodman"

111 Publications

Primary Care Provider Density and Elective Total Joint Replacement Outcomes.

Arthroplast Today 2021 Aug 9;10:73-78. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Primary care physicians (PCPs) are often gatekeepers to specialist care. This study assessed the relationship between PCP density and total knee (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes.

Methods: We obtained patient-level data from an institutional registry on patients undergoing elective primary TKA and THA for osteoarthritis, including Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function scores at baseline and 2 years. Using geocoding, we identified the number of PCPs in the patient's census tract (communities). We used Augmented Inverse Probability Weighting and Cross-validated Targeted Minimum Loss-Based Estimation to compare provider density and outcomes adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Our sample included 3606 TKA and 4295 THA cases. The median number of PCPs in each community was similar for both procedures: TKA 2 (interquartile range 1, 6) and for THA 2 (interquartile range 1, 7). Baseline and 2-year follow-up WOMAC pain, function, and stiffness scores were not statistically significantly different comparing communities with more than median number of PCPs to those with less than median number of PCPs. In sensitivity analyses, adding 1 PCP to a community with zero PCPs would not have statistically significantly improved baseline or 2-year follow-up WOMAC pain, function, and stiffness scores.

Conclusions: In this sample of patients who underwent elective TKA or THA for osteoarthritis, we found no statistically significant association between PCP density and pain, function, or stiffness outcomes at baseline or 2 years. Further studies should examine what other provider factors affect access and outcomes in THA and TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2021.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430425PMC
August 2021

Use of Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients Under 21 Years Old: A US Population Analysis.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate trends in the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the United States in patients under 21 years of age. Specifically, we examined the frequency of THA in this patient population over the past 2 decades, the epidemiologic characteristics of patients under 21 who underwent THA, and the characteristics of the hospitals where these procedures were performed.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the Kids' Inpatient Database, an inpatient US national weighted sample of hospital admissions in patients under 21 from approximately 4200 hospitals in 46 states. We queried the database using Current Procedural Terminology codes for elective and non-elective primary THA for the years 2000-2016. We utilized the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes to determine primary diagnoses.

Results: The weighted total number of THAs performed in patients under 21 in the Kids' Inpatient Database increased from 347 in 2000 to 551 in 2016. The most common diagnoses were osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The frequency of THA for osteonecrosis increased from 24% in 2000 to 38% in 2016, while the frequency of THA for inflammatory arthritis decreased from 27% in 2000 to 4% in 2016.

Conclusion: The number of THAs in patients under 21 in the United States has increased over the past 2 decades and these procedures are increasingly performed in urban teaching hospitals. The decrease in THA for inflammatory arthritis in this population likely reflects improvements in medical management during the study period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.08.004DOI Listing
August 2021

Sequencing of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA Can Identify Pathogens in Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Sep;103(18):1705-1712

Hospital for Special Surgery Research Institute, New York, NY.

Background: Over 1 million Americans undergo joint replacement each year, and approximately 1 in 75 will incur a periprosthetic joint infection. Effective treatment necessitates pathogen identification, yet standard-of-care cultures fail to detect organisms in 10% to 20% of cases and require invasive sampling. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from microorganisms in a periprosthetic joint infection can be found in the bloodstream and utilized to accurately identify pathogens via next-generation sequencing.

Methods: In this prospective observational study performed at a musculoskeletal specialty hospital in the U.S., we enrolled 53 adults with validated hip or knee periprosthetic joint infections. Participants had peripheral blood drawn immediately prior to surgical treatment. Microbial cfDNA from plasma was sequenced and aligned to a genome database with >1,000 microbial species. Intraoperative tissue and synovial fluid cultures were performed per the standard of care. The primary outcome was accuracy in organism identification with use of blood cfDNA sequencing, as measured by agreement with tissue-culture results.

Results: Intraoperative and preoperative joint cultures identified an organism in 46 (87%) of 53 patients. Microbial cfDNA sequencing identified the joint pathogen in 35 cases, including 4 of 7 culture-negative cases (57%). Thus, as an adjunct to cultures, cfDNA sequencing increased pathogen detection from 87% to 94%. The median time to species identification for cases with genus-only culture results was 3 days less than standard-of-care methods. Circulating cfDNA sequencing in 14 cases detected additional microorganisms not grown in cultures. At postoperative encounters, cfDNA sequencing demonstrated no detection or reduced levels of the infectious pathogen.

Conclusions: Microbial cfDNA from pathogens causing local periprosthetic joint infections can be detected in peripheral blood. These circulating biomarkers can be sequenced from noninvasive venipuncture, providing a novel source for joint pathogen identification. Further development as an adjunct to tissue cultures holds promise to increase the number of cases with accurate pathogen identification and improve time-to-speciation. This test may also offer a novel method to monitor infection clearance during the treatment period.

Level Of Evidence: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.02229DOI Listing
September 2021

Perioperative Glucocorticoids in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Having Total Joint Replacements: Help or Harm?

ACR Open Rheumatol 2021 Sep 20;3(9):654-659. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian Hospital and Hospital for Special Surgery, New York.

Objective: The optimal strategy for perioperative glucocorticoid (GC) management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on chronic GCs is unknown. Although there is a concern for hypotension if inadequate doses are used, higher GC exposure may increase perioperative complications. We aimed to investigate the relationships between perioperative GCs with hemodynamic instability and short-term postoperative complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with RA.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients with RA who underwent THA and TKA. GC exposure was assessed by the total cumulative dose (in prednisone equivalents) during hospitalization. Perioperative complications and hypotension were assessed.

Results: Of 432 patients, 387 (90%) received supraphysiologic perioperative GC. Thirty percent of patients were using chronic GCs (mean daily dose, 7 ± 4 mg). Half (54%) underwent TKA. The median age was 65 years, and 79% were women. The median cumulative GC dose during hospitalization was 37 mg (interquartile range, 27-53.3). A lower cumulative dose of GC did not increase odds of hypotension during hospitalization (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.00 [95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.01]; P = 0.66)]. However, postoperative complications were higher among patients who received higher cumulative doses after adjustment for age, body mass index, home GC use, smoking, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Risk of short-term complications increased by 8.4% (P = 0.017) for every 10-mg increase in GC dose.

Conclusion: A lower GC dose was not associated with increased hypotension. However, patients with higher GC exposure were more likely to have hyperglycemia and other complications. These findings suggest that harms may be associated with high perioperative GC doses. Further research is needed to determine the optimal perioperative regimen for patients with RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr2.11306DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessment of Racial Disparities in the Risks of Septic and Aseptic Revision Total Knee Replacements.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2117581. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Importance: Black patients are at higher risk of revision total knee replacement (TKR) than White patients, but whether racial disparities exist for both septic and aseptic revision TKR and the reason for any disparities are unknown.

Objective: To assess the risk of septic and aseptic revision TKR in Black and White patients and to examine interactions among race and socioeconomic and hospital-related variables that are associated with revision TKR risk.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included residents of New York, California, and Florida who underwent TKR. Patient-level data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System, California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Patient Discharge Database, and Florida's Healthcare Utilization Project State Inpatient Database from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014. Community characteristics were calculated from the US Census and linked to discharges by patient zip code. American Hospital Association Annual Survey data were linked to discharges using hospital identifiers. The analyses were performed from March 1 to October 30, 2020, with subsequent analyses in April 2021.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to measure the association of race with septic and aseptic revision TKR.

Results: A total of 722 492 patients underwent primary TKR, of whom 445 616 (61.68%) were female and 61 092 (8.46%) were Black. Black patients were at higher risk of septic (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20) and aseptic (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.33-1.46) revision TKR compared with White patients. Other risk factors for septic revision TKR were diabetes (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.30), obesity (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.17-1.30), kidney disease (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.29-1.57), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.30), inflammatory arthritis (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.39-1.69), surgical site complications during the index TKR (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.87-2.56), Medicaid insurance (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31), and low annual TKR volume at the hospital where the index TKR was performed (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.41-1.68). Risk factors for aseptic revision TKR were male sex (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06), workers' compensation insurance (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.51-1.72), and low hospital TKR volume (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.22). Patients with obesity had a lower risk of aseptic TKR revision (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.84). In an analysis within each category of hospital TKR volume, the HR for aseptic revision among Black vs White patients was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.37) at very-low-volume hospitals (≤89 TKRs annually) compared with 1.68 (95% CI, 1.48-1.90) at very-high-volume hospitals (≥645 TKRs annually).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, Black patients were at significantly higher risk of aseptic revision TKR and, to a lesser extent, septic revision TKR compared with White patients. Racial disparities in aseptic revision risk were greatest at hospitals with very high TKR volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295735PMC
July 2021

Improving benefit-harm assessment of glucocorticoid therapy incorporating the patient perspective: The OMERACT glucocorticoid core domain set.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 Oct 25;51(5):1139-1145. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, Rheumatology Research Group, Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, South Australia, Australia.

Objective: Our primary objective was to develop an Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) core domain set to capture the impact of glucocorticoids (GC), both positive and negative, on patients with Rheumatic conditions.

Methods: The OMERACT Filter 2.1 was used to guide core domain selection. Systematic literature reviews, qualitative studies and quantitative surveys were conducted by the OMERACT GC Impact working group to identify candidate domains for a core domain set. A summary of prior work and Delphi exercise were presented at the OMERACT 2020 virtual GC workshop. A proposed GC Impact core domain set derived from this work was presented for discussion in facilitated breakout groups. Participants voted on the proposed GC Impact core domain set.

Results: 113 people, including 23 patient research partners, participated in two virtual workshops conducted at different times on the same day. The proposed mandatory domains to be evaluated in clinical trials involving GCs were: infection, bone fragility, hypertension, diabetes, weight, fatigue, mood disturbance and death. In addition, collection of disease specific outcomes was included in the core domain set as "mandatory in specific circumstances". The proposed core domain set was endorsed by 100% (23/23) of the patient research partners and 92% (83/90) of the remaining participants, including clinicians, researchers and industry stakeholders.

Conclusion: A GC Impact core domain set was endorsed at the OMERACT 2020 virtual workshop. The OMERACT GC Impact working group will now progress to identify, develop and validate measurement tools to best address these domains in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.06.010DOI Listing
October 2021

Periprosthetic Joint Infection Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Following Revision Total Knee Replacement: An Analysis of Administrative Discharge Data.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul;103(14):1312-1318

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Little is known about the relationship between infection and the risk of risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following orthopaedic surgery. We assessed the 90-day risk of VTE following revision total knee replacement to measure the association between periprosthetic joint infection and the risk of postoperative VTE.

Methods: We used New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System data to identify all New York State residents undergoing revision total knee replacement from 1998 to 2014. ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) codes were used to identify comorbidities and to classify the indication for revision total knee replacement as aseptic, infection, or fracture. The primary outcome was any diagnosis code for VTE recorded for the revision surgery and/or subsequent admissions within 90 days. A multivariable logistic regression model that included demographic characteristics and comorbidities was used to estimate the risk of VTE after revision for infection or fracture, with aseptic revision as the reference group.

Results: The present study included 25,441 patients who were managed with revision total knee replacement; the indication for revision was aseptic for 17,563 patients (69%), infection for 7,075 (28%), and fracture for 803 (3%). The mean age (and standard deviation) was 66 ± 12 years, 15,592 (61%) of the patients were female, 3,198 (13%) were Black, 1,192 (5%) were smokers, and 4,222 (17%) were obese. Seven hundred and nineteen patients (2.8%) had VTE within the 90 days after revision total knee replacement, including 387 (1.5%) during the admission for the revision procedure. The 90-day incidence of VTE was 2.1% after aseptic revision, 4.3% after revision for infection, and 5.9% after revision for fracture. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for VTE relative to aseptic revision was 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 2.35) for septic revision total knee replacement and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.91 to 3.6) for fracture. A history of VTE was also a strong risk factor for VTE following revision total knee replacement (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.71).

Conclusions: We found that the odds of VTE after revision total knee replacement for infection were double those after aseptic revision total knee replacement. Although fracture accounts for a small percentage of revision total knee replacements, the risk of VTE was 2.6-fold higher after these procedures. The indication for revision total knee replacement should be considered when choosing postoperative VTE prophylaxis.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01486DOI Listing
July 2021

Perioperative Management of Rheumatic Disease and Therapies.

Med Clin North Am 2021 Mar 14;105(2):273-284. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA; Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

Patients with rheumatic disease, including those with systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, and spondyloarthritis, use total hip and knee arthroplasties at high rates. They represent a particularly vulnerable population in the perioperative setting because of their diseases and the immunosuppressant therapies used to treat them. Careful planning among internists, medical specialists, and the surgical team must therefore occur preoperatively to minimize risks in the postoperative period, particularly infection. Management of immunosuppressant medications, such as conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and targeted therapies including biologics, is one avenue by which this infectious risk can be mitigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2020.09.011DOI Listing
March 2021

American College of Rheumatology, American Academy of Dermatology, Rheumatologic Dermatology Society, and American Academy of Ophthalmology 2020 Joint Statement on Hydroxychloroquine Use With Respect to Retinal Toxicity.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 06 26;73(6):908-911. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.

Four major medical societies involved with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy concur on the need for common principles and cooperation to minimize the risk of ocular toxicity. At a daily dosage of ≤5 mg/kg/day actual body weight, the risk of retinal toxicity from HCQ is <2% for usage up to 10 years. Widespread adoption of more sensitive testing techniques, such as optical coherence tomography and automated visual fields, by eye care providers will allow the detection of early toxicity and thus preserve the patient's visual function. Baseline testing is advised to rule out confounding disease when a patient is started on HCQ. Annual screening with sensitive tests should begin no more than 5 years after treatment initiation. Providers should be sensitive to the medical value of HCQ, and not stop the drug for uncertain indications. It is important to note that effective communication among prescribing physicians, patients, and eye care providers will optimize the utility and safety of HCQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41683DOI Listing
June 2021

Incidence and Risk of Severe Ileus After Orthopedic Surgery: A Case-Control Study.

HSS J 2020 Dec 16;16(Suppl 2):272-279. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E. 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 USA.

Background: Post-operative ileus (POI) is common and can be associated with significant morbidity.

Questions/purposes: We aimed to identify the incidence of and risk factors associated with severe post-operative ileus (SPOI) after elective orthopedic surgery.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients undergoing elective orthopedic procedures at a single musculoskeletal specialty hospital. SPOI cases matched 1:2 to non-POI controls. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes were used to identify patients who were coded as having an episode of POI. After chart review, a subset was classified as clinical SPOI cases, based on set criteria. Regression models were constructed to identify variables associated with SPOI.

Results: Of 273 POI cases, 77 (28.2%) were classified as SPOI. Overall rates of SPOI were 2.74/1000 orthopedic discharges, with SPOI most common in spine surgeries (9.07/1000 spine procedure discharges). Hypothesis-generating multivariable conditional logistic regression suggested that, for hip and knee cases, not being on a full diet by post-operative day (POD) 2 posed an increased risk of SPOI. For spine cases, not being on a full diet on POD 2 and longer surgery times were associated with risk of SPOI.

Conclusions: In this retrospective case-control study, patients undergoing elective orthopedic procedures who had not progressed to full diet by POD 2 and spine patients with longer operative times were most at risk for SPOI. These data can be used clinically by peri-operative physicians to stratify patients according to risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11420-019-09712-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749875PMC
December 2020

Bilateral vs Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Racial Variation in Utilization and In-Hospital Major Complication Rates.

J Arthroplasty 2021 04 2;36(4):1310-1317. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: We sought to examine bilateral total knee arthroplasty (BTKA) vs unilateral TKA (UTKA) utilization and in-hospital complications comparing African Americans (AAs) and Whites.

Methods: In this retrospective analysis of patients ≥50 years who underwent elective primary TKA, the (2007-2016) database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (National Inpatient Sample) was used. We computed differences in temporal trends in utilization and major in-hospital complication rates of BTKA vs UTKA comparing AAs and Whites. We performed multivariable logistic regression models to assess racial differences in trends adjusting for individual-, hospital- and community-level variables. Discharge weights were used to enable nationwide estimates. We used multiple imputation procedures to impute values for 12% missing race information.

Results: An estimated 276,194 BTKA and 5,528,429 UTKA were performed in the US. The proportion of BTKA among all TKAs declined, and AAs were significantly less likely to undergo BTKA compared to Whites throughout the study period (trend P = .01). In-hospital complication rates for UTKA were higher in AAs compared to Whites throughout the study period (trend P < .0001). However, for BTKA, the in-hospital complication rates varied between Whites and AAs throughout the study period (trend P = .09).

Conclusion: In this nationwide sample of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty from 2007 to 2016, the utilization of BTKA was higher in Whites compared to AAs. On the other hand, while AAs have consistently higher in-hospital complication rates in UTKA over the time period, this pattern was not consistent for BTKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.10.057DOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable patients with rheumatic disease: results of a worldwide survey.

RMD Open 2020 10;6(3)

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: There is emerging evidence that COVID-19 disproportionately affects people from racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Many physicians across the globe are changing practice patterns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine the practice changes among rheumatologists and what they perceive the impact to be on their most vulnerable patients.

Methods: We administered an online survey to a convenience sample of rheumatologists worldwide during the initial height of the pandemic (between 8 April and 4 May 2020) via social media and group emails. We surveyed rheumatologists about their opinions regarding patients from low SES and racial/ethnic minority groups in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Mainly, what their specific concerns were, including the challenges of medication access; and about specific social factors (health literacy, poverty, food insecurity, access to telehealth video) that may be complicating the management of rheumatologic conditions during this time.

Results: 548 rheumatologists responded from 64 countries and shared concerns of food insecurity, low health literacy, poverty and factors that preclude social distancing such as working and dense housing conditions among their patients. Although 82% of rheumatologists had switched to telehealth video, 17% of respondents estimated that about a quarter of their patients did not have access to telehealth video, especially those from below the poverty line. The majority of respondents believed these vulnerable patients, from racial/ethnic minorities and from low SES groups, would do worse, in terms of morbidity and mortality, during the pandemic.

Conclusion: In this sample of rheumatologists from 64 countries, there is a clear shift in practice to telehealth video consultations and widespread concern for socially and economically vulnerable patients with rheumatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722380PMC
October 2020

The patient's perspective of the adverse effects of glucocorticoid use: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. From an OMERACT working group.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 10 13;50(5):996-1005. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Clinical Professor, Rheumatology Unit, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, Australia; Rheumatology Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.

Introduction: Glucocorticoids (GCs) remain widely used. However, the impact of GCs from the perspective of the patient, rather than of the clinician, remains relatively unexplored. Additionally, no general patient reported outcome measure has been developed to assess the effects of GCs across rheumatological conditions. The aim of this literature review was to identify the adverse effects of systemic GC use that are of importance to patients.

Methods: OVID EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL was searched relating to three concepts: GCs, the patient perspective and adverse effects. A meta-synthesis of the qualitative data was performed separately by two independent researchers before qualitative metasummary was utilized to quantitatively aggregate the findings (combining quantitative and qualitative results), including the derivation of frequency and intensity effect sizes to identify those outcomes most prominently featured across all reviewed articles.

Results: The initial search retrieved 1,356 articles, of which 25 (18 quantitative, 7 qualitative) were deemed suitable for quality assessment and data extraction. Four major themes emerged amongst the 71 discrete outcomes: physical symptoms (44), psychological symptoms (18), effect on participation (6) and contextual factors (3).

Conclusions: Patients with a broad range of inflammatory diseases and demographic features describe key cross-cutting themes in relation to GCs and their impact on health-related quality of life. This work will inform the development of a core domain set for clinical trials involving GCs and a patient reported outcome to measure impact of GCs from the patient's perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.06.019DOI Listing
October 2020

Geographical variations in COVID-19 perceptions and patient management: a national survey of rheumatologists.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 10 6;50(5):1049-1054. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Weill Cornell Health Policy and Research, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To investigate the perceptions and behaviors of rheumatologists in the United States (US) regarding the risk of COVID-19 for their autoimmune patients and the subsequent management of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory medications.

Methods: We administered an online survey to a convenience sample of rheumatologists in the US from 4/8/20-5/4/20 via social media and group emails. Survey respondents provided demographic information such as, age, gender, state of practice, and practice type. We asked questions about COVID-19 risk in rheumatic patients, as well as their medication management during the pandemic. We conducted descriptive analysis and Multivariable regression models.

Results: 271 respondents completed the survey nationally. 48% of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "Patients with rheumatic diseases are at a higher risk of COVID-19 irrespective of their immunosuppressive medications". 50% disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement "The pandemic has led you to reduce the use/dosage/frequency of biologics", while 56% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "The pandemic has led you to reduce the use/dosage/frequency of steroids". A third of respondents indicated that at least 10% of their patients had self-discontinued or reduced at least one immunosuppressive medication to mitigate their risk of COVID-19. Responses to these questions as well as to questions regarding NSAID prescription patterns were significantly different in the Northeast region of US compared to other regions.

Conclusion: In this national sample of rheumatologists, there are variations regarding perceptions of patients' risk of COVID-19, and how to manage medications such as NSAIDs, biologics and steroids during the pandemic. These variations are more pronounced in geographical areas where COVID-19 disease burden was high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342007PMC
October 2020

Response to Letter to the Editor on: Tranexamic Acid Does Not Reduce the Risk of Transfusion in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2020 12 7;35(12):3778-3779. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY; Department of Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.08.006DOI Listing
December 2020

'Should we stop or continue conventional synthetic (including glucocorticoids) and targeted DMARDs before surgery in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases?'

RMD Open 2020 07;6(2)

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Total hip and total knee arthroplasty) remain important interventions to treat symptomatic knee and hip damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, with little change in utilisation rates despite the increasingly widespread use of potent conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and targeted DMARDs including Janus kinase inhibitors and biologics. The majority of patients are receiving these immunosuppressing medications and glucocorticoids at the time they present for arthroplasty. There is minimal randomised controlled trial data addressing the use of DMARDs in the perioperative period, yet patients and their physicians face these decisions daily. This paper reviews what is known regarding perioperative management of targeted and csDMARDs and glucocorticoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722271PMC
July 2020

Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine in COVID-19: A Survey of Prescription Patterns Among Rheumatologists.

J Clin Rheumatol 2020 Sep;26(6):224-228

From the Hospital for Special Surgery.

Objective: With hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) emerging as potential therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), shortages have been reported. We aimed to understand how rheumatologists, one of the most common prescribers of HCQ/CQ, prescribed these medications to manage COVID-19 and to understand if their patients are affected by shortages.

Methods: Between April 8 and April 27, 2020, an online survey was distributed to a convenience sample of rheumatologists who practice medicine in a diverse range of settings globally, resulting in 506 responses. Adjusted Poisson regression models were calculated.

Results: Only 6% of respondents prescribed HCQ/CQ for COVID-19 prophylaxis, and only 12% for outpatient treatment of COVID-19. Compared to the United States, the likelihood of prescribing HCQ/CQ for prophylaxis was higher in India (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7-16.8; p < 0.001). Further, compared to the United States and those with 1 to 5 years of experience, rheumatologists in Europe (aRR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.3; p < 0.001) and those with 10+ years of experience (11-20 years: aRR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3; p = 0.015; 21+ years: aRR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.4; p = 0.004) had a higher likelihood of prescribing HCQ/CQ for outpatient treatment. Of note, 71% of all rheumatologists reported that their patients were directly affected by HCQ/CQ shortages.

Conclusion: The results suggest that only a small percentage of rheumatologists are prescribing HCQ/CQ for prophylaxis or outpatient treatment of COVID-19. Medication shortages experienced by large numbers of autoimmune disease patients are concerning and should play a role in decisions, especially given poor efficacy data for HCQ/CQ in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437433PMC
September 2020

Pop a pill or give myself a shot? Patient perspectives of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug choice for rheumatoid arthritis.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 01 15;88(1):105053. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E 70th Street, 10021 NY, NY, USA.

Objective: To assess how patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) decide whether to add oral disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus injectable biologic DMARDs when methotrexate response is inadequate.

Methods: Using nominal group technique (NGT), RA patients answered the question "What sort of things are important to you when you make a decision between adding pills versus injectable medications to treat rheumatoid arthritis when methotrexate fails to control RA disease activity?" Patients nominated, discussed, and voted for the responses.

Results: Forty-seven RA patients participated: Birmingham (n=6 NG; 21 patients) and New York City (n=4 NG; 26 patients). They were predominantly female (85%), 70% white, with a mean age of 64.5 years and 58% had>10-year RA duration. Present/past DMARDs included methotrexate only in 6%, other traditional DMARDs in 15%, glucocorticoids in combination with traditional DMARDs in 11%, and biologics and/or Jak-kinase inhibitors in 68% of participants. Voted domains in order were: (1) efficacy/effectiveness and the onset/mode of action (78/282 votes); (2) side effects/fear of side effects (84/282 votes); (3) cost including out of pocket, co-payments and patient responsibility (54/282 votes); (4) convenience/frequency of use (27/282 votes); (5) doctor's opinion (20/282 votes); (6) other drugs/comorbidity/other patient's experience/effects on other people (3/282 votes); (7) fear of needles (8/282 votes); and (8) newness of the medication (8/282 votes).

Conclusions: We identified the patient perspective regarding the choice between adding oral versus injectable DMARD once methotrexate failed to control RA disease activity. This knowledge can help in shared decision-making for DMARD choice in RA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2020.07.002DOI Listing
January 2021

Barriers and facilitators for screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia among patients with inflammatory arthritis.

BMC Rheumatol 2020 2;4:26. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Weill Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, 420 East 70yth Street - LH -363, New York, NY 10021 USA.

Background: Patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA), defined as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The frequency of screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia, a modifiable CVD risk factor, is low in these patients. The reasons for low screening and treatment rates in this population are poorly understood. Our objective was to elicit the barriers and facilitators for screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia from the perspective of patients with IA.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups of patients with IA, guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. We recruited patients with IA aged 40 years and older from a single academic center. Data were analyzed thematically.

Results: We conducted three focus groups with 17 participants whose mean age was 56 (range 45-81) years; 15 were women. Four themes emerged as barriers: 1) need for more information about arthritis, prognosis, and IA medications prior to discussing additional topics like CVD risk; 2) lack of knowledge about how IA increases CVD risk; 3) lifestyle changes to reduce overall CVD risk rather than medications; and 4) the need to improve doctor-patient communication about IA, medications, and CVD risk. One theme emerged as a facilitator: 5) potential for peer coaches (patients with IA who are trained about concepts of CVD risk and IA) to help overcome barriers to screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia to lower CVD risk.

Conclusion: Patients with IA identified educational needs about IA, increased CVD risk in IA and the need for improved doctor-patient communication about screening for hyperlipidemia and its treatment. Patients were receptive to working with peer coaches to facilitate achievement of these goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41927-020-00123-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265623PMC
June 2020

Tranexamic Acid Does Not Reduce the Risk of Transfusion in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2020 09 18;35(9):2367-2374. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receive transfusions more often than patients with osteoarthritis following lower extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA), but mitigating factors are not described. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing TJA, but its effect on transfusion rates in patients with RA has not been studied.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively collected cohort of patients with RA undergoing TJA. Disease activity measured by Clinical Disease Activity Index, patient-reported outcome measures, and serologies was obtained. Baseline characteristics were summarized and compared. Transfusion requirements and TXA usage were obtained from chart review. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with transfusion in RA patients undergoing TJA.

Results: The cohort included 252 patients, mostly women with longstanding RA and end-stage arthritis requiring TJA. In multivariate analysis, 1 g/dL decrease in baseline hemoglobin (odds ratio [OR] = 0.394, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.232, 0.669], P = .001), 1-minute increase in surgical duration (OR = 1.022, 95% CI [1.008, 1.037], P = .003), and 1-point increase in Clinical Disease Activity Index (OR = 1.079, 95% CI [1.001, 1.162]) were associated with increased risk of transfusion. TXA use was not associated with decreased risk of postoperative transfusion.

Conclusions: Preoperative health optimization should include assessment and treatment of anemia in RA patients before TJA, as preoperative hemoglobin level is the main risk factor for postoperative transfusion. Increased disease activity and increased surgical time were independent risk factors for postoperative transfusion but are less modifiable. While TXA did not decrease transfusion risk in this population, a prospective trial is needed to confirm this.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.04.029DOI Listing
September 2020

Assessment of a Satisfaction Measure for Use After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2020 07 27;35(7):1792-1799.e4. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Patient satisfaction after total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a core outcome selected by the Outcomes Measurement in Rheumatology. Up to 20% of THA/TKA patients are dissatisfied. Improving patient satisfaction is hindered by the lack of a validated measurement tool that can accurately measure change.

Methods: The psychometric properties of a proposed satisfaction instrument, consisting of 4 questions rated on a Likert scale, scored 1-100, were tested for validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change using data collected between 2007 and 2011 in an arthroplasty registry.

Results: We demonstrated construct validity by confirming our hypothesis; satisfaction correlated with similar constructs. Satisfaction correlated moderately with pain relief (TKA ρ = 0.61, THA ρ = 0.47) and function (TKA ρ = 0.65, THA ρ = 0.51) at 2 years; there was no correlation with baseline/preoperative pain/function values, as expected. Overall Cronbach's alpha >0.88 confirmed internal consistency. Test-retest reliability with weighted kappa ranged 0.60-0.75 for TKA and 0.36-0.56 for THA. Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score/Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores quality of life improvement (>30 points) corresponds to a mean satisfaction score of 93.2 (standard deviation, 11.5) after THA and 90.4 (standard deviation, 13.8) after TKA, and increasing relief of pain and functional improvement increased the strength of their association with satisfaction. The satisfaction measure has no copyright and is available free of cost and represents minimal responder burden.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction with THA/TKA can be measured with a validated 4-item questionnaire. This satisfaction measure can be included in a total joint arthroplasty core measurement set for total joint arthroplasty trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.02.039DOI Listing
July 2020

Views of primary care physicians and rheumatologists regarding screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

BMC Rheumatol 2020 5;4:14. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

1Division of General Internal Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, 420 E 70th Street, LH-363, New York, NY 10021 USA.

Background: Despite high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, screening and treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suboptimal. We asked primary care physicians (PCPs) and rheumatologists to identify barriers to screening and treatment for hyperlipidemia among patients with RA.

Methods: We recruited rheumatologists and PCPs nationally to participate in separate moderated structured group teleconference discussions using the nominal group technique. Participants in each group generated lists of barriers to screening and treatment for hyperlipidemia in patients with RA, then each selected the three most important barriers from this list. The resulting barriers were organized into physician-, patient- and system-level barriers, informed by the socioecological framework.

Results: Twenty-seven rheumatologists participated in a total of 3 groups (group size ranged from 7 to 11) and twenty PCPs participated in a total of 3 groups (group size ranged from 4 to 9). Rheumatologists prioritized physician level barriers (e.g. 'ownership' of hyperlipidemia screening and treatment), whereas PCPs prioritized patient-level barriers (e.g. complexity of RA and its treatments).

Conclusion: Rheumatologists were conflicted about whether treatment of CVD risk among patients with RA should fall within the role of the rheumatologist or the PCP. All participating PCPs agreed that CVD risk reduction was within their role. Factors that influenced PCPs' decisions for screening and treatment for CVD risk in patients with RA were mainly related to their concern about how treatment for CVD risk could influence RA symptomatology (myalgia from statins) or how inflammation from RA and RA medications influences lipid profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41927-020-0112-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057468PMC
March 2020

Important determinants of the patient choice between TNF- vs. non-TNF Biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Joint Bone Spine 2020 07 5;87(4):307-313. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Division of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA; Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E 70th Street, New York city, NY 10021.

Objective: To assess why patients choose TNF- versus non-TNF biologics for treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after methotrexate-failure.

Methods: Participants responded to the question "What sort of things help a patient decide the treatment choice between the two types of injectable biologics, TNF biologic versus non-TNF biologic, for treating active rheumatoid arthritis when methotrexate fails to control RA disease activity?" They nominated responses, discussed and then voted.

Results: Forty-four patients participated in 10 nominal groups (Birmingham; n=6; New York City: n=4), who were predominantly female (86%), 68% white, with a mean age of 65 (standard deviation [SD], 12) years. Present/past DMARDs included methotrexate in 91%, glucocorticoids in 11%, and biologics and/or Jak-inhibitors in 68% of participants. Pain and fatigue were mild-moderate with means of 3.9 (SD, 2.5) and 4.3 (SD, 2.5), respectively, on 0-10 scale; mean morning joint stiffness was 1.3hours (SD, 2.1). The number of groups that nominated each response and total votes were as follows: (1) Side effects/fear of side effects: 10/10; 31% votes (82/264); (2) Efficacy/ability to reduce joint damage: 9/10; 30% votes (80/264); (3) Doctor's opinion, 6/10; 12% votes (32/264); (4) Cost, 7/10; 9% votes (25/264); (5) Other drugs/comorbidity, 4/10; 12% votes (31/264); (6) Experience of others/information-seeking/own research, 2/10; 2% votes (5/264); (7) Newness, 1/10; 2% votes (6/264); and (8) Convenience/frequency of use, 1/10; 1% votes (3/264).

Conclusions: We identified the patient perspective of choice between TNF versus non-TNF biologic for treating active RA. This knowledge can help in informative shared decision-making in clinical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2020.02.009DOI Listing
July 2020

Feasibility and Face Validity of Outcome Measures for Use in Future Studies of Polymyalgia Rheumatica: An OMERACT Study.

J Rheumatol 2020 09 1;47(9):1379-1384. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

From the Epidemiology Centre Versus Arthritis, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Department of Rheumatology, East Suffolk and North Essex Foundation Trust, Ipswich, UK; Department of Rheumatology, Austin Health; Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Primary Care Centre Versus Arthritis, Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele; PMRGCA Scotland, Scotland, UK; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; Department of Rheumatology, and Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA; Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; Department of Rheumatology, Hospital of Bruneck, Bruneck, Italy; Department of Rheumatology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK; Department of Rheumatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; SDG LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leeds Biomedical Research Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Trust, Leeds, UK; Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide; the Rheumatology Unit, The Queen Elizabeth and Royal Adelaide Hospitals, Adelaide, Australia.

Objective: To survey participants with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) to evaluate the face validity, acceptability, and domain match of proposed candidate outcome measures.

Methods: A structured, online, anonymous survey was disseminated by patient support groups through their networks and online forums. The candidate outcome measures comprised (1) visual analog scale (VAS) and numerical rating score (NRS) to assess pain; (2) VAS, NRS, and duration to assess stiffness; (3) the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index to assess physical function; and (4) C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate to assess inflammation. Free-text answers were analyzed using descriptive thematic analysis to determine respondents' views of the candidate instruments.

Results: Seventy-eight people with PMR from 6 countries (UK, France, USA, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) participated in the survey. Most respondents agreed candidate instruments were acceptable or "good to go." Free-text analysis identified 5 themes that participants considered inadequately covered by the proposed instruments. These related to (1) the variability, context, and location of pain; (2) the variability of stiffness; (3) fatigue; (4) disability; and (5) the correlation of inflammatory marker levels and severity of symptoms, sometimes reflecting disease activity and other times not.

Conclusion: Participants reported additional aspects of their experience that are not covered by the proposed instruments, particularly for the experience of stiffness and effect of fatigue. New patient-reported outcome measures are required to increase the relevance of results from clinical trials to patients with PMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.190575DOI Listing
September 2020

The Patients' Perspective of Important Glucocorticoid Effects: A Nominal Group Study Among Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Myositis.

J Clin Rheumatol 2021 Sep;27(6):232-238

From the Hospital for Special Surgery.

Background/objective: The objective of this cohort study was to understand the positive and negative effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and myositis from the patients' perspective with the aim of developing a patient-reported outcome measure.

Methods: Included patients were asked to participate in 1 of 5 nominal groups where demographic information and a quality-of-life questionnaire were collected. Patients were asked 2 open-ended questions on (1) benefits and (2) harms related to GC use. We used the Nominal Group Technique, a highly structured consensus method in which responses are generated, shared, and ranked. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results. Nominal group sessions took place from April to May 2019.

Results: Of 206 patients who were approached, 21 patients participated, 17 with systemic lupus erythematosus and 4 with myositis, predominantly women with more than 10 years of steroid use. The domains ranked highest for GC benefits were disease control (55 votes), fast onset of action (30 votes), increased energy (10 votes), and pain relief (10 votes). The highest-ranked negative effects were bone loss (38 votes) and weight gain (16 votes); psychological effects and damaged internal organs each received 12 votes.

Conclusions: The top-ranked GC effects-both benefits and harms-among patients with systemic rheumatic disease are consistent with the top domains associated with GC use reported with other inflammatory diseases. This study informs the development of a comprehensive patient-reported outcome measure that can be used across inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377954PMC
September 2021

Validation of the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Pain and Function Subscales for Use in Total Hip Replacement and Total Knee Replacement Clinical Trials.

J Arthroplasty 2020 05 27;35(5):1200-1207.e4. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health, Department of Medicine at the School of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Total hip replacement (THR)/total knee replacement (TKR) studies do not uniformly measure patient centered domains, pain, and function. We aim to validate existing measures of pain and function within subscales of standard instruments to facilitate measurement.

Methods: We evaluated baseline and 2-year pain and function for THR and TKR using Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), with primary unilateral TKR (4796) and THR (4801). Construct validity was assessed by correlating HOOS/KOOS pain and activities of daily living (ADL), function quality of life (QOL), and satisfaction using Spearman correlation coefficients. Patient relevant thresholds for change in pain and function were anchored to improvement in QOL; minimally clinically important difference (MCID) corresponded to "a little improvement" and a really important difference (RID) to a "moderate improvement." Pain and ADL function scores were compared by quartiles using Kruskal-Wallis.

Results: Two-year HOOS/KOOS pain and ADL function correlated with health-related QOL (KOOS pain and Short Form 12 Physical Component Scale ρ = 0.54; function ρ = 0.63). Comparing QOL by pain and function quartiles, the highest levels of pain relief and function were associated with the most improved QOL. MCID for pain was estimated at ≥20, and the RID ≥29; MCID for function ≥14, and the RID ≥23. The measures were responsive to change with large effect sizes (≥1.8).

Conclusion: We confirm that HOOS/KOOS pain and ADL function subscales are valid measures of critical patient centered domains after THR/TKR, and achievable thresholds anchored to improved QOL. Cost-free availability and brevity makes them feasible, to be used in a core measurement set in total joint replacement trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.12.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193650PMC
May 2020
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