Publications by authors named "Susan Compton"

52 Publications

Animal Models of COVID-19. I. Comparative Virology and Disease Pathogenesis.

ILAR J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Comparative Medicine, John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled unprecedented development of animal models to understand disease pathogenesis, test therapeutics, and support vaccine development. Models previously developed to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been rapidly deployed to study SARS-CoV-2. However, it has become clear that despite the common use of ACE2 as a receptor for both viruses, the host range of the 2 viruses does not entirely overlap. Distinct ACE2-interacting residues within the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as species differences in additional proteases needed for activation and internalization of the virus, are likely sources of host differences between the 2 viruses. Spontaneous models include rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, African Green monkeys, hamsters, and ferrets. Viral shedding and transmission studies are more frequently reported in spontaneous models. Mice can be infected with SARS-CoV; however, mouse and rat ACE2 does not support SARS-CoV-2 infection. Murine models for COVID-19 are induced through genetic adaptation of SARS-CoV-2, creation of chimeric SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, use of human ACE2 knock-in and transgenic mice, and viral transfection of wild-type mice with human ACE2. Core aspects of COVID-19 are faithfully reproduced across species and model. These include the acute nature and predominantly respiratory source of viral shedding, acute transient and nonfatal disease with a largely pulmonary phenotype, similar short-term immune responses, and age-enhanced disease. Severity of disease and tissue involvement (particularly brain) in transgenic mice varies by promoter. To date, these models have provided a remarkably consistent template on which to test therapeutics, understand immune responses, and test vaccine approaches. The role of comorbidity in disease severity and the range of severe organ-specific pathology in humans remains to be accurately modeled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ilar/ilab007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083356PMC
April 2021

Cutaneous and Pulmonary Mucormycosis in Rag1- and Il2rg-deficient Rats.

Comp Med 2020 08 31;70(4):390-395. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Immunodeficient rats are valuable in transplantation studies, but are vulnerable to infection from opportunistic organisms such as fungi. Immunodeficient Rag1- and Il2rg-deficient (RRG) rats housed at our institution presented with dark, proliferative, keratinized dermal growths. Histologic and PCR results indicated that the predominant organism associated with these lesions was fungus from the family mostly of the genus The family of fungi are environmental saprophytes and are often found in rodent bedding. These fungi can cause invasive opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed humans and animals. We discuss husbandry practices for immunosuppressed rodents with a focus on controlling fungal contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-20-000015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446636PMC
August 2020

PCR and RT-PCR in the Diagnosis of Laboratory Animal Infections and in Health Monitoring.

Authors:
Susan R Compton

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 09 24;59(5):458-468. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine;, Email:

Molecular diagnostics (PCR and RT-PCR) have become commonplace in laboratory animal research and diagnostics, augmenting or replacing serological and microbiologic methods. This overview will discuss the uses of molecular diagnostics in the diagnosis of pathogenic infections of laboratory animals and in monitoring the microbial status of laboratory animals and their environment. The article will focus primarily on laboratory rodents, although PCR can be used on samples from any laboratory animal species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-20-000008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479767PMC
September 2020

Norovirus Changes Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes by Altering Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Cell Functions.

Front Immunol 2019 12;10:2654. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.

Environmental factors contribute to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. The gut microbiome, which includes bacteria, viruses, and fungi, contributes to this environmental influence, and can induce immunological changes. The gut viral component of the microbiome, related to T1D has mostly focused on coxsackieviruses and rotavirus. The role of norovirus, another common enteric virus, in susceptibility to T1D was hitherto unknown. Norovirus is highly infectious and encountered by many children. We studied the mouse norovirus 4 (MNV4), related to human noroviruses, in the Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, to determine its role in influencing susceptibility to T1D. We infected MNV-free NOD mice with MNV4 by exposing the mice to MNV4-positive bedding from an endemically-infected mouse colony to mimic a natural infection. Control MNV-free NOD mice were exposed to MNV-free bedding from the same colony. Interestingly, MNV4 infection protected NOD mice from the development of T1D and was associated with an expansion of Tregs and reduced proinflammatory T cells. We also found MNV4 significantly modified the gut commensal bacteria composition, promoting increased α-diversity and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. To elucidate whether T1D protection was directly related to MNV4, or indirectly through modulating gut microbiota, we colonized germ-free (GF) NOD mice with the MNV4-containing or non-MNV4-containing viral filtrate, isolated from filtered fecal material. We found that MNV4 induced significant changes in mucosal immunity, including altered Tuft cell markers, cytokine secretion, antiviral immune signaling markers, and the concentration of mucosal antibodies. Systemically, MNV4-infection altered the immune cells including B cell subsets, macrophages and T cells, and especially induced an increase in Treg number and function. Furthermore, primary exposure of the norovirus filtrate to naïve splenocytes identified significant increases in the proportion of activated and CTLA4-expressing Tregs. Our data provide novel knowledge that norovirus can protect NOD mice from T1D development by inducing the expansion of Tregs and reducing inflammatory T cells. Our study also highlights the importance of distinguishing the mucosal immunity mediated by bacteria from that by enteric viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863139PMC
November 2020

Transverse myelitis following measles vaccination in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

J Med Primatol 2020 04 2;49(2):103-106. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

A 16-year-old rhesus macaque presented with progressive, ascending quadriparesis following measles vaccination. He was diagnosed with transverse myelitis following MRI, gross necropsy, and histopathology. This is the first report of transverse myelitis in a rhesus macaque following measles vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12453DOI Listing
April 2020

Human PI3Kγ deficiency and its microbiota-dependent mouse model reveal immunodeficiency and tissue immunopathology.

Nat Commun 2019 09 25;10(1):4364. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-gamma (PI3Kγ) is highly expressed in leukocytes and is an attractive drug target for immune modulation. Different experimental systems have led to conflicting conclusions regarding inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions of PI3Kγ. Here, we report a human patient with bi-allelic, loss-of-function mutations in PIK3CG resulting in absence of the p110γ catalytic subunit of PI3Kγ. She has a history of childhood-onset antibody defects, cytopenias, and T lymphocytic pneumonitis and colitis, with reduced peripheral blood memory B, memory CD8+ T, and regulatory T cells and increased CXCR3+ tissue-homing CD4 T cells. PI3Kγ-deficient macrophages and monocytes produce elevated inflammatory IL-12 and IL-23 in a GSK3α/β-dependent manner upon TLR stimulation. Pik3cg-deficient mice recapitulate major features of human disease after exposure to natural microbiota through co-housing with pet-store mice. Together, our results emphasize the physiological importance of PI3Kγ in restraining inflammation and promoting appropriate adaptive immune responses in both humans and mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12311-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761123PMC
September 2019

The Aalas Journals: 2018 in Review.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 05;58(3):273-278

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May 2019

Lack of Effect of Murine Astrovirus Infection on Dextran Sulfate-induced Colitis in NLRP3-deficient Mice.

Comp Med 2017 Oct;67(5):400-406

Section of Comparative Medicine, Animal Resources Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. MuAstV is found predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Human and turkey astroviruses have been shown to disrupt tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium. The potential of MuAstV to alter research results was tested in a well-established dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-deficient mice. This model offers a direct approach to determine whether MuAstV, as a component of the mouse microbiome, contributes to the issue of poor reproducibility in murine inflammatory bowel disease research. In this model, defective inflammasome activation causes loss of epithelial integrity, resulting in leakage of intestinal bacteria and colitis. Our goal was to determine whether MuAstV, which also may affect intestinal permeability, altered the onset or severity of colitis. Male and female mice (age, 8 to 12 wk) homozygous or heterozygous for an NLRP3 mutation were inoculated orally with MuAstV or mock-inoculated with media 3 or 20 d prior to being exposed to 2% DSS in their drinking water for 9 d. MuAstV infection alone did not cause clinical signs or histopathologic changes in NLRP3-/- or NLRP3+/- mice. No significant difference was seen in weight loss, clinical disease, intestinal inflammation, edema, hyperplasia, or mucosal ulceration between MuAstV- infected and mock-infected mice that received 2% DSS for 9 d. Therefore, MuAstV does not appear to be a confounding variable in the DSS colitis model in NLRP3 mice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621567PMC
October 2017

Murine Astrovirus Infection and Transmission in Neonatal CD1 Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2017 Jul;56(4):402-411

Section of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Animal Resources Center, Yale University.

Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. Our goal was to determine the duration of MuAstV infection, susceptibility of pups, and efficacy of soiled-bedding sentinels and environmental monitoring. Eight CD1 dams and their litters of 3-d-old pups and 8 CD1 dams and their litters of 13-d-old mice were inoculated orally with MuAstV. Neither dams nor offspring demonstrated any clinical signs, and MuAstV had little to no effect on weight gain in pups. MuAstV RNA was detected in feces from 15 of the 16 dams through postnatal day (PND) 21, and 9 dams were still shedding MuAstV at PND 42. MuAstV RNA was highest in intestines of mice. Low levels of MuAstV RNA were sporadically detected in the spleen, liver, and kidney. MuAstV was detected in 97% of feces from 3- to 9-wk-old mice born to infected dams. Several weanlings became pregnant, and intestines from their pups were MuAstV-negative at PND 0 through 5. Weekly swabs of cages housing MuAstV-infected mice were MuAstV-positive through PND 42. Swabs of the rear exhaust manifold of the ventilated rack were MuAstV-positive at 21 through 56 d after inoculation. In addition, 98% of sentinels that received soiled bedding from dams and their litters and 83% of sentinels that received soiled bedding from weaned mice were MuAstV-positive. Feces from most sentinels exposed to soiled bedding that had been stored for 1, 2 or 3 wk before addition of the sentinels were MuAstV-positive.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517330PMC
July 2017

Effect of Cage-Wash Temperature on the Removal of Infectious Agents from Caging and the Detection of Infectious Agents on the Filters of Animal Bedding-Disposal Cabinets by PCR Analysis.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2015 Nov;54(6):745-55

Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, Animal Resources Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Efficient, effective cage decontamination and the detection of infection are important to sustainable biosecurity within animal facilities. This study compared the efficacy of cage washing at 110 and 180 °F on preventing pathogen transmission. Soiled cages from mice infected with mouse parvovirus (MPV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages did not seroconvert to either virus, whereas sentinels in unwashed cages seroconverted to both agents. Soiled cages from mice harboring MPV, Helicobacter spp., Mycoplasma pulmonis, Syphacia obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus were washed at 110 or 180 °F or were not washed. Sentinels from washed cages remained pathogen-free, whereas most sentinels in unwashed cages became infected with MPV and S. obvelata. Therefore washing at 110 or 180 °F is sufficient to decontaminate caging and prevent pathogen transmission. We then assessed whether PCR analysis of debris from the bedding disposal cabinet detected pathogens at the facility level. Samples were collected from the prefilter before and after the disposal of bedding from cages housing mice infected with both MPV and MHV. All samples collected before bedding disposal were negative for parvovirus and MHV, and all samples collected afterward were positive for these agents. Furthermore, all samples obtained from the prefilter before the disposal of bedding from multiply infected mice were pathogen-negative, and all those collected afterward were positive for parvovirus, M. pulmonis, S. obvelata, and Myocoptes musculinus. Therefore the debris on the prefilter of bedding-disposal cabinets is useful for pathogen screening.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671790PMC
November 2015

Pathology in practice. HaPyV infection in a pet Syrian hamster.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 May;244(9):1037-9

Section of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.244.9.1037DOI Listing
May 2014

Effect of immunodeficiency on MPV shedding and transmission.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2013 Jul;52(4):467-74

Section of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

C57BL/6 (B6) mice briefly shed low levels of MPV, and transmission is inefficient. To determine whether deficits in B or T cells or in interferon γ on a B6 background increased the duration of MPV shedding or transmission, B-cell-deficient (Igh), interferon-γ-deficient (Ifnγ), B- and T-cell-deficient (Rag), and B6 mice were inoculated with MPV. At 1 and 2 wk postinoculation (wpi), 11% to 94% of mice shed MPV. From 4 to 18 wpi, 80% to 100% of Rag mice and 0% of B6 and Ifnγ mice shed MPV; Igh mice sporadically shed MPV through 20 wpi. MPV was transmitted from B6 mice and Ifnγ mice at 2 to 4 wpi. Rag and Igh mice transmitted MPV to sentinels at all or most time points, respectively, between 2 to 16 wpi. Once transmission ceased from B6, Ifnγ, and Igh mice, breeding trios were setup and showed that MPV was transmitted to offspring in only one cage of Igh mice. In another experiment, MPV shedding ceased from B6, CD8-deficient (CD8), CD4-deficient (CD4), and T-cell-receptor-deficient (TCR) mice by 2, 6, 8, and 8 wpi, respectively. MPV was transmitted to sentinels only at 1 to 4 wpi. Mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 61% to 100% of B6, Ifnγ, TCR, CD4, CD8, and Rag mice were MPV DNA-positive. In conclusion, MPV transmission did not differ between mice deficient in T cell functions or Ifnγ and B6 mice. In contrast, B-cell deficiency posed an increased risk for MPV transmission in mice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725932PMC
July 2013

Transmission of mouse parvovirus to neonatal mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2012 Nov;51(6):797-802

Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

To investigate the infection of newborn mice with mouse parvovirus (MPV), a single MPV-infected mouse was added to each of 15 cages, each of which housed an uninfected breeding pair of Swiss Webster mice just before parturition. Seven litters were left with their parents, and the remaining 8 litters were fostered at postpartum day 1. All dams were shedding MPV at 1 and 2 wk after exposure. Soiled-bedding transmission did not differ between cages with and without litters. Half the foster dams but none of the fostered pups seroconverted to MPV. None of the pups left with their birth mothers had MPV DNA in their feces at 3 or 6 wk after exposure, but pups in 6 of 7 litters were MPV seropositive at 6 wk. To investigate MPV infection of older neonatal mice, 9 dams with 7-d-old litters and 9 dams with 14-d-old litters each were exposed to an MPV-infected mouse. At weaning, pups exposed to MPV at 7 or 14 d of age were shedding MPV and were seronegative but became seropositive by 6 wk of age and transmitted the infection to sentinels. In conclusion, fostering of pups had no benefit and may spread infection because the pups may act as fomites, infecting the foster dam. Infection of 7- or 14-d-old mice likely occurred because maternal antibodies had not been transferred to the progeny before they began to ingest MPV-laden feces.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508184PMC
November 2012

Age-associated variability in susceptibility of Swiss Webster mice to MPV and other excluded murine pathogens.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2012 Nov;51(6):789-96

Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Detection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) and other murine pathogens in research colonies is dependent on the transmissibility of the agents and the sensitivity of sentinels to those agents. Transmissibility is based on several agent-dependent properties including mode of transmission, infectivity, and environmental stability, whereas host susceptibility can vary according to mouse age, strain, and sex. In this study, 4-wk-old, 12-wk-old, and aged Swiss Webster female sentinel mice were compared for their ability to detect infectious agents by using a standardized health surveillance program, to determine whether sentinels should be replaced more frequently to improve the efficiency of detection of infectious agents within a murine colony. Both experimentally and naturally infected mice were used to transmit MPV and other infectious agents from index mice to sentinels. First, Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV, and transmission to 4-, 12-, and 24-wk-old contact and soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. Second, mice naturally infected with 9 infectious agents were obtained from 2 local pet stores, and transmission to 4-wk-old contact sentinels and 4-, 12-, and 44-wk-old soiled-bedding sentinels was determined. For agents that were transmitted via soiled bedding (MPV, mouse hepatitis virus, murine norovirus, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus, and pinworms), transmission did not differ in regard to the age of the sentinels. In conclusion, susceptibility to several infectious agents did not differ according to sentinel age in a health-surveillance protocol that used mice older than 12 wk.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508183PMC
November 2012

Transmission of mouse parvovirus by fomites.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2012 Nov;51(6):775-80

Section of Comparative Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

The goal of the current studies was to determine the risk of transmission of mouse parvovirus (MPV) by caging and husbandry practices. To determine whether MPV can be transmitted during cage changes in a biologic safety cabinet without the use of disinfectants, 14 cages of Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV. Cages containing infected mice were interspersed among 14 cages housing naïve Swiss Webster mice. At 1, 2, and 4 wk after inoculation of the mice, cages were changed across each row. All naïve mice housed adjacent to infected mice remained seronegative. To determine the risk of environmental contamination, nesting pads that were used to sample the room floor during husbandry procedures at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after inoculation of the mice were placed in cages with naïve mice. None of the mice exposed to the pads became MPV seropositive. To determine whether components from cages that had housed MPV-infected mice could transmit MPV, Swiss Webster mice were exposed to soiled bedding or used cages, drinking valves, food, cage bottoms, wire bars and filter tops, nesting material, or shelters. With the exception of drinking valves, all mice exposed to other components became MPV seropositive. Fourteen cages that had housed MPV-infected mice were washed but not autoclaved; mice housed in the washed cages did not become MPV seropositive. In conclusion, all cage components can serve as fomites, with the drinking valve being the least risky. Cage washing alone was sufficient to remove or inactivate MPV.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508181PMC
November 2012

Preimplantation factor reduces graft-versus-host disease by regulating immune response and lowering oxidative stress (murine model).

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013 Apr 21;19(4):519-28. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cancer Immunotherapy, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to treat severe hematologic malignancies often leads to potentially fatal acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), despite attempts at better donor-recipient matching and/or use of immunosuppressive agents. We report that embryo-derived PreImplantation Factor (PIF) plays a determining role in developing maternal/host tolerance toward the semiallogeneic or total allogeneic embryo and in regulating systemic immune response. Synthetic PIF treatment has proven effective in preventing immune attacks in nonpregnant models of autoimmunity. In this study, we tested the capability of PIF to prevent the development of acute GVHD in semiallogeneic or totally allogeneic murine BMT models. We examined the regulatory effect of PIF both in vivo and in vitro to control deleterious GVHD while maintaining its ability to preserve the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Bone marrow and spleen cells from C57BL/6 donors were transplanted in semiallogeneic (C57BL/6xBALB/c) F1 or allogeneic (BALB/c) mice, which were then treated with PIF 1 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Short-term PIF administration reduced acute GVHD in both models and increased survival for up to 4 months after semiallogeneic or totally allogeneic BMT. This effect was coupled with decreased skin inflammation (semiallogeneic model) and decreased liver inflammation (both models), as well as reduced colon ulceration (allogeneic model). GVHD-associated cytokine and chemokine gene expression were decreased in the liver. PIF further lowered circulating IL-17 levels, but not IFN-γ levels. Both in vivo and in vitro, PIF treatment was demonstrated to lead to decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages to lower nitric oxide secretion. Significantly, PIF did not diminish the beneficial GVL effect in the B cell leukemia model. PIF acts primarily by inducing the regulatory phenotype on monocytes/antigen-presenting cells, which controls T cell proliferation. Overall, our data demonstrate that PIF protects against semiallogeneic and allogeneic GVHD long term by reducing both target organ and systemic inflammation and by decreasing oxidative stress, while preserving the beneficial GVL effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.12.011DOI Listing
April 2013

Fungal polymerase chain reaction testing in equine ulcerative keratitis.

Vet Ophthalmol 2013 Sep 10;16(5):341-51. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic utility of fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in forty-three horses with naturally acquired corneal ulcers presenting to a private practice.

Methods: Routine evaluation of cytologic, histologic, and microbiologic samples was performed. Two PCR approaches were compared - generic and specific fungal nested PCR followed by sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR). PCRs were applied to pure control fungal cultures, corneal tissue from ulcerated eyes and in a subset of 9 horses, to swabs from contralateral normal eyes.

Results: The expected fungus was identified by nested PCR and qPCR in all control fungal cultures. In all fungal culture-positive affected eyes (10/43), one or more fungi were identified by nested PCR and 4/10 were positive by qPCR. In 6/10 animals, the same fungus was identified by nested PCR and culture. Of these 6, only three were positive by qPCR. Fungal agents were identified by morphology in 8/10 horses. Diagnosis of fungal keratitis was reserved for only those cases in which the same fungus could be identified by PCR, culture, and morphology (5 horses). In 33/43 culture-negative affected eyes and in 6/9 unaffected eyes, one or more fungi were identified by nested PCR in 26 samples and by qPCR in 2 samples. Apart from Aspergillus spp, similar fungi were identified in affected and control eyes. Most eyes harbored mixed bacterial and fungal agents.

Conclusions: Nested PCR results confirmed all cytologically positive cases of fungal keratitis. Nested PCR identified a greater spectrum of agents than either culture or qPCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12004DOI Listing
September 2013