Publications by authors named "Susan Bort"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel Immunomodulatory Proteins Generated via Directed Evolution of Variant IgSF Domains.

Front Immunol 2019 21;10:3086. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Alpine Immune Sciences Inc., Seattle, WA, United States.

Immunoglobulin superfamily member (IgSF) proteins play a significant role in regulating immune responses with surface expression on all immune cell subsets, making the IgSF an attractive family of proteins for therapeutic targeting in human diseases. We have developed a directed evolution platform capable of engineering IgSF domains to increase affinities for cognate ligands and/or introduce binding to non-cognate ligands. Using this scientific platform, ICOSL domains have been derived with enhanced binding to ICOS and with additional high-affinity binding to the non-cognate receptor, CD28. Fc-fusion proteins containing these engineered ICOSL domains significantly attenuate T cell activation and and can inhibit development of inflammatory diseases in mouse models. We also present evidence that engineered ICOSL domains can be formatted to selectively provide costimulatory signals to augment T cell responses. Our scientific platform thus provides a system for developing therapeutic protein candidates with selective biological impact for treatments of a wide array of human disorders including cancer and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.03086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985287PMC
November 2020

Single-Cell Profiling of an In Vitro Model of Human Interneuron Development Reveals Temporal Dynamics of Cell Type Production and Maturation.

Neuron 2017 Mar;93(5):1035-1048.e5

Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

GABAergic interneurons are essential for neural circuit function, and their loss or dysfunction is implicated in human neuropsychiatric disease. In vitro methods for interneuron generation hold promise for studying human cellular and functional properties and, ultimately, for therapeutic cell replacement. Here we describe a protocol for generating cortical interneurons from hESCs and analyze the properties and maturation time course of cell types using single-cell RNA-seq. We find that the cell types produced mimic in vivo temporal patterns of neuron and glial production, with immature progenitors and neurons observed early and mature cortical neurons and glial cell types produced late. By comparing the transcriptomes of immature interneurons to those of more mature neurons, we identified genes important for human interneuron differentiation. Many of these genes were previously implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.02.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5480972PMC
March 2017

A Single-Cell Roadmap of Lineage Bifurcation in Human ESC Models of Embryonic Brain Development.

Cell Stem Cell 2017 01 27;20(1):120-134. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:

During human brain development, multiple signaling pathways generate diverse cell types with varied regional identities. Here, we integrate single-cell RNA sequencing and clonal analyses to reveal lineage trees and molecular signals underlying early forebrain and mid/hindbrain cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Clustering single-cell transcriptomic data identified 41 distinct populations of progenitor, neuronal, and non-neural cells across our differentiation time course. Comparisons with primary mouse and human gene expression data demonstrated rostral and caudal progenitor and neuronal identities from early brain development. Bayesian analyses inferred a unified cell-type lineage tree that bifurcates between cortical and mid/hindbrain cell types. Two methods of clonal analyses confirmed these findings and further revealed the importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in controlling this lineage decision. Together, these findings provide a rich transcriptome-based lineage map for studying human brain development and modeling developmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2016.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5261831PMC
January 2017

Interleukin 31, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, induces dermatitis in mice.

Nat Immunol 2004 Jul 6;5(7):752-60. Epub 2004 Jun 6.

Department of Immunology, ZymoGenetics, 1201 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA.

T cell-derived cytokines are important in the development of an effective immune response, but when dysregulated they can promote disease. Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells. IL-31 signals through a receptor composed of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin M receptor. Expression of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin M receptor mRNA was induced in activated monocytes, whereas epithelial cells expressed both mRNAs constitutively. Transgenic mice overexpressing IL-31 developed severe pruritus, alopecia and skin lesions. Furthermore, IL-31 receptor expression was increased in diseased tissues derived from an animal model of airway hypersensitivity. These data indicate that IL-31 may be involved in promoting the dermatitis and epithelial responses that characterize allergic and non-allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni1084DOI Listing
July 2004