Publications by authors named "Surya Devkota"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effectiveness of community-based health education and home support program to reduce blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Nepal: A cluster-randomized trial.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(10):e0258406. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Hypertension is a major global public health problem. Elevated blood pressure can cause cardiovascular and kidney diseases. We assessed the effectiveness of health education sessions and home support programs in reducing blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in a suburban community of Nepal.

Methods: We conducted a community-based, open-level, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial in Birendranagar municipality of Surkhet, Nepal. We randomly assigned four clusters (wards) into intervention and control arms. We provided four health education sessions, frequent home and usual care for intervention groups over six months. The participants of the control arm received only usual care from health facilities. The primary outcome of this study was the proportion of controlled systolic blood pressure (SBP). The analysis included all participants who completed follow-up at six months.

Results: 125 participants were assigned to either the intervention (n = 63) or the control (n = 62) group. Of them, 60 participants in each group completed six months follow-up. The proportion of controlled SBP was significantly higher among the intervention participants compared to the control (58.3% vs. 40%). Odds ratio of this was 2.1 with 95% CI: 1.01-4.35 (p = 0.046) and that of controlled diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 1.31 (0.63-2.72) (p = 0.600). The mean change (follow-up minus baseline) in SBP was significantly higher in the intervention than in the usual care (-18.7 mmHg vs. -11.2 mmHg, p = 0.041). Such mean change of DBP was also higher in the intervention (-10.95 mmHg vs. -5.53 mmHg, p = 0.065). The knowledge score on hypertension improved by 2.38 (SD 2.4) in the intervention arm, which was significantly different from that of the control group, 0.13 (1.8) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Multiple health education sessions complemented by frequent household visits by health volunteers can effectively improve knowledge on hypertension and reduce blood pressure among uncontrolled hypertensive patients at the community level in Nepal.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02981251.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258406PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8509872PMC
October 2021

Echocardiographic Findings in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in a Tertiary Care Center of Nepal: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2021 Jan 31;59(233):46-50. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Cardiology, Manmohan Cardio-Thoracic Vascular and Transplant Centre (MCVTC), Institute of Medicine, TUTH, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent supraventricular arrhythmia responsible for the large morbidity and mortality burden worldwide. There are various causes of atrial fibrillation that may affect the prognosis of patients. This study was intended to determine different echocardiographic findings in patients with atrial fibrillation in a tertiary care center.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Manmohan Cardiothoracic Vascular and Transplant Center, Institute of Medicine, among 175 patients with atrial fibrillation admitted in the cardiology department from June 2017 to October 2018. It was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Institute of Medicine (Ref.:411(6-11-E)2/073/074). Convenience sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0.

Results: A total of 175 patients with atrial fibrillation were enrolled where Rheumatic heart disease 68 (38.9%) was the leading cause in which 54 (79.4%) had mitral valve lesion, 1 (1.5%) had aortic valve lesion and rest had a combination of both. The mixed lesion of mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation was the commonest. The left atrium size was larger in valvular atrial fibrillation (47.296±651mm). The left ventricular systolic dysfunction was seen more in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The commonest site of thrombus formation was left atrium 7 (63.6%).

Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation was common in rheumatic heart disease, especially mixed lesions of mitral stenosis and regurgitation. Valvular atrial fibrillation had a larger left atrium. The thrombus was seen in mitral stenosis and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The left atrium size and left ventricular ejection fraction were associated with the occurrence of atrial fibrillation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31729/jnma.5408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893398PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of Colistin-resistant Gram-negative Isolates Carrying the mcr-1 Gene among Patients Visiting a Tertiary Care Center.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2020 Dec 31;58(232):983-997. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Annapurna Research center, Maitighar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Gram-negative isolates harboring mobilized colistin resistance (mcr-1) gene are a great threat to human health. They have been reported worldwide among various bacterial isolates. This work aimed to study the prevalence of colistin resistance among Gram-negative bacteria and the incidence of mcr-1 gene among these isolates.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at a tertiary care center from June 2016 to February 2017. An ethical approval was taken from review board of the Nepal Health Research Council (Reg. no: 274/2016). Convenience sampling was used. The data was collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 16 . Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data.

Results: Among 485 gram-negative isolates, only 13 (2.68%) (1.26-6.62 at 95% Confidence Interval) isolates were colistin-resistant and mcr-1 was present in two isolates. Predominant colistin-resistant isolates were E. coli 6 (4.1%), Enterobacter spp 2 (2.81%), and Acinetobacter spp 2 (2.81%). A high level of colistin-resistance was noted in 4 (30.7%) isolates as indicated by the very high value of colistin MIC (>256 μg/ml). ICU was the major site of isolation of colistin-resistant and mcr-1 positive pathogens. The majority of colistin-resistant isolates were highly drug-resistant and were sensitive only to polymyxin B. Antibiotics like imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam were effective for few of these isolates.

Conclusions: Though the prevalence of mcr-1 gene was low among colistin-resistant gram-negative isolates, the resistant pattern was quite alarming as these isolates were highly drug-resistant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31729/jnma.5246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028535PMC
December 2020

May Measurement Month 2019: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Nepal.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2021 May 20;23(Suppl B):B110-B113. Epub 2021 May 20.

Nepal Development Society, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan 44200, Nepal.

May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative to screen high blood pressure (BP) in the community and increase awareness at the population level. High BP is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide and in Nepal. This study presents the results of the 2019 MMM in Nepal. Opportunistic BP screening was conducted in 30 out of 77 districts across Nepal and aged ≥18 years at the community and public places. BP was measured three times in a seated position. A total of 74 205 individuals participated in the study, mean age 39.9 years, and 58% were male. BP measurements for the second and third readings were available for 69 292 (93.3%) individuals. The proportion of the population that were hypertensive was 27.5% ( = 20 429). Among those hypertensives, 46.3% were aware of their hypertensive status and of these, 37.5% were on antihypertensive medication. Only 54.3% of those on antihypertensive medication had their BP controlled. Of the community screened, those self reporting to have diabetes, current tobacco users, and current alcohol drinkers were 6.7%, 23.6%, and 31.9%, respectively; 20.6% of the participants were overweight, and 6.5% were obese. Since the first BP screening campaign, MMM 2017 in Nepal, the number of participants screened has largely increased over the years. MMM's success in Nepal is through a coordinated mobilization of trained health science students and volunteers in the communities. The Nepal MMM data demonstrates that large community-based BP screening campaigns are possible in low resource settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141957PMC
May 2021

Carbapenemase among Clinical Bacterial Isolates in Nepal.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2020 Sep 7;18(2):159-165. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Prithvi Narayan Campus, Pokhara, Nepal.

Gram-negative isolates producing carbapenemase enzymes is a great public health problem in developing countries and their control is challenging task due to the involvement of multiple factors including the practice of self-medication, use of antibiotics on animal farms, poor hospital hygiene, etc. During this study, we searched various databases for relevant publication on carbapenemase-producing isolates in Nepal. Various classes of carbapenemases had been reported in Nepal. Most frequent was the New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase with many variants where NDM-1 was most prevalent. Similarly, Oxacillinase and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producers were also prevalent in Nepal. While other carbapenemases like VIM, IPM, and DIM also detected. The isolates producing carbapenemases were extremely drug-resistant as they also co-produced various other carbapenemases, beta-lactamases, 16S rRNA methylase. Most isolates were resistant to many members of carbapenem, cephalosporin, quinolone, penicillin, aminoglycoside group of antibiotics. Such isolates had very few treatment options as only last line drugs like colistin, fosfomycin, and tigecycline was effective against most of these isolates. Carbapenemase production by almost all major human pathogens including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter. Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia is a matter of concern because some of these enzymes are located on plasmids and pose rapid dissemination among various gram-negative pathogens. Timely surveillance for carbapenemase producers throughout the nation, their proper treatment, and proper hospital hygiene to prevent nosocomial infections by carbapenemase producers, controlled use of carbapenems, educating health care workers, students and the general public about the adverse effects of antimicrobial resistance is imminent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.33314/jnhrc.v18i2.2039DOI Listing
September 2020

May Measurement Month 2018: an analysis of blood pressure screening results from Nepal.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Aug 28;22(Suppl H):H92-H95. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

COBIN Project, Nepal Development Society, Bharatpur 10, Chitwan, Nepal.

Raised blood pressure (BP) is a leading risk factor for mortality globally and in Nepal. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global initiative aimed at screening for hypertension and raising awareness on high BP worldwide. This study provides the results of the 2018 MMM (MMM18) in Nepal. An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged ≥18 years was carried out in May 2018 nationwide. The standard MMM protocol was followed for BP measurement, the definition of hypertension, and statistical analysis. The campaign was publicized through various social media for recruiting volunteers and inviting participation. A total of 15 561 (58.7% male) from 35 districts of Nepal were screened in MMM18, of which 4 321 (27.8%) had hypertension. A total of 2 633 (19.0%) of 13 873 individuals who were not on antihypertensive treatment were found to be hypertensive. Of those on medication, 799 (47.4%) had uncontrolled BP. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly higher in people on antihypertensive treatment, smokers, and alcohol drinkers compared with those who were not on antihypertensive treatment, smokers, and alcohol drinkers, respectively. Likewise, SBP and DBP steadily increased across increasing body mass index categories. MMM18 was the largest BP screening campaign undertaken in Nepal. MMM has highlighted the importance of a periodic public health program at the national level to increase awareness on hypertension detection and control rate, and thus, the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455271PMC
August 2020

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors: A community-based cross-sectional study in a peri-urban community of Kathmandu, Nepal.

Indian Heart J 2018 Dec 10;70 Suppl 3:S20-S27. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: As a low-income country, Nepal is experiencing cardiovascular diseases as an emerging health problem. However, studies are lacking on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in peri-urban communities; where the socio-demographical transition is in progress. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence and socio-demographic distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors in one of the peri-urban communities in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Sitapaila Village Development Committee, Kathmandu from February 2014 to February 2015. Altogether, 347 adults from 18 to 70 years of age were selected randomly. Data were collected through modified WHO STEPS questionnaire for non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors survey and analyzed in SPSS V.16.0 software.

Results: Mean age of the participant was 42.5 ± 13.2 years. Majority of them were female (n = 206; 59.4%), one-third (34%) represented Brahman and Chetri, and over a quarter (29.1%) did not attend school. Cardiovascular disease risk factors included smoking (17.6%), alcohol consumption (29.4%), insufficient fruit and vegetables intake (98%), insufficient physical activity (21.0%), obesity (15.3%), hypertension (34.4%), diabetes (10.5%), and high triglyceride levels (10.8%). They were significantly associated with different socio-demographic characteristics: smoking with gender, age groups and education level; alcohol consumption was with gender, age groups, ethnicity and occupation; insufficient physical activity with gender, age groups and occupation; hypertension with gender, age groups, ethnicity, education level and occupation.

Conclusion: A high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their disproportional distribution among the study population indicated an inevitable risk of cardiovascular events in near future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2018.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309148PMC
December 2018

Prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Nepalese population aged 40-80 years.

BMC Public Health 2018 05 31;18(1):677. Epub 2018 May 31.

Institute of Medicine (IOM), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal. Different risk factors usually cluster and interact multiplicatively to increase the risk of developing acute cardiovascular events; however, information related to clustering of CVD risk factors is scarce in Nepal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors with a focus on their clustering pattern in a rural Nepalese population.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among residents aged 40 to 80 years in Lamjung District of Nepal in 2014. A clustered sampling technique was used in steps. At first, four out of 18 wards were chosen at random. Then, one person per household was selected randomly (n = 388). WHO STEPS questionnaires (version 2.2) were used to collect data. Chi-square and independent t-test were used to test significance at the level of p < 0.05.

Results: A total 345 samples with complete data were analyzed. Smoking [24.1% (95% CI: 19.5-28.6)], harmful use of alcohol [10.7% (7.4-13.9)], insufficient intake of fruit and vegetable [72% (67.1-76.6)], low physical activity [10.1% (6.9-13.2)], overweight and obesity [59.4% (54.2-64.5)], hypertension [42.9% (37.6-48.1)], diabetes [16.2% (14.0-18.3)], and dyslipidemia [56.0% (53.0-58.7)] were common risk factors among the study population. Overall, 98.2% had at least one risk factor, while 2.0% exhibited six risk factors. Overall, more than a half (63.4%) of participants had at least three risk factors (male: 69.4%, female: 58.5%). Age [OR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.13-4.72)] and caste/ethnicity [2.0 (95% CI: 1.28-3.43)] were significantly associated with clustering of at least three risk factors.

Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk factors and their clustering were common in the rural population of Nepal. Therefore, comprehensive interventions against all risk factors should be immediately planned and implemented to reduce the future burden of CVD in the rural population of Nepal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5600-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5984400PMC
May 2018

Total cardiovascular risk for next 10 years among rural population of Nepal using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Mar 7;10(1):120. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Institute of Medicine (IOM), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Primary prevention of CVD based on total CVD risk approach using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart would be more effective to stratify population under different risk levels, prioritize and utilize the scarce resources of low and middle-income countries. This study estimated total 10-year CVD risk and determined the proportion of population who need immediate drug therapy among the rural population of Nepal.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study conducted among 345 participants aged 40-80 years in rural villages of Lamjung District of Nepal. They were selected randomly from total eighteen wards. Data were collected using WHO STEPS questionnaires. WHO/ISH risk prediction chart for SEAR D was used to estimate total cardiovascular risk. Chi-square and independent t-test were used to test significance at the level of p < 0.05 in SPSS version 16.0.

Results: Of the total participants, 55.4% were female. The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was 53.5 ± 10.1 years. According to WHO/ISH chart proportions of low, moderate and high CVD risk were 86.4%, 9.3%, and 4.3%, respectively. Eleven percent of participants were in need of immediate pharmacotherapy. Age (p = 0.001), level of education (p = 0.01) and occupation (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with elevated CVD risk.

Conclusion: A large proportion of Nepalese rural population is at moderate and high CVD risk. Immediate pharmacological interventions are warranted for at least one in every ten individuals along with lifestyle interventions. Both population-wise and high-risk approaches are required to minimize CVD burden in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2436-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341399PMC
March 2017

Barriers to Treatment and Control of Hypertension among Hypertensive Participants: A Community-Based Cross-sectional Mixed Method Study in Municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2016 2;3:26. Epub 2016 Aug 2.

Manmohan Cardiothoracic, Vascular and Transplant Centre, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University , Kathmandu , Nepal.

Introduction: Despite the established evidence on benefits of controlling raised blood pressure and development of several guidelines on detection and management of hypertension, people often have untreated or uncontrolled hypertension. In this context, we undertook this study to identify the barriers existing in hypertension treatment and control in the municipalities of Kathmandu district in Nepal.

Methods: This was a community based, cross-sectional mixed method study conducted in the municipalities of Kathmandu district in Nepal between January and July 2015. Among 587 randomly selected participants, the aware hypertensive participants were further assessed for the treatment and control of hypertension. For qualitative component, 20 participants having uncontrolled hypertension took part in two focused group discussions and two cardiac physicians participated in in-depth interviews.

Results: Out of 587 participants screened, 191 (32.5%) were identified as hypertensive. Among 191 hypertensive participants, 118 (61.8%) were aware of their problem. Of the 118 aware hypertensive participants, 93 (78.8%) were taking medicines, and among those treated, 46 (49.6%) had controlled hypertension. Proportions of participants taking anti-hypertensive medications varied significantly with age groups, ethnicity, occupation and income. Hypertension control was significantly associated with use of combination therapy, adherence to medication, follow-up care, counseling by health-care providers, and waiting time in hospital. Being worried that the medicine needs to be taken lifelong, perceived side effects of drugs, non-adherence to medication, lost to follow-up, inadequate counseling from physician, and lack of national guidelines for hypertension treatment were the most commonly cited barriers for treatment and control of hypertension in qualitative component of the research.

Conclusion: Large proportion of the hypertensive population has the untreated and the uncontrolled hypertension. Efforts to dispel and dismantle the myths and barriers related to hypertension treatment and control are warranted to reduce the consequences of uncontrolled hypertension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2016.00026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4969292PMC
August 2016

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal.

Int J Hypertens 2016 12;2016:1656938. Epub 2016 May 12.

Manmohan Cardiothoracic, Vascular and Transplant Centre, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Objective. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in newly declared municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal. Design, Settings, and Participants. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in the municipalities of Kathmandu District, Nepal, between January and July 2015. Study participants were aged 18 to 70 years, residing permanently in the study sites. Municipalities, Wards, households, and respondents were selected randomly. Results. Of the 587 participants, 58.8% were females, mean (SD) age was 42.3 (13.5) years, 29.3% had no formal education, 35.1% were Brahmins, and 41.2% were homemakers. Prevalence of hypertension was 32.5% (95% CI: 28.7-36.3). Age, gender, education, ethnicity, occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diabetes, menopausal history, and family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension were significantly associated with hypertension. In multivariable analysis, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, and diabetes were identified as significant explanatory variables for hypertension. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the people living in newly established municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal, have a high burden of hypertension as well as its associated factors. Therefore, community-based preventive approaches like lifestyle modification and early detection and treatment of hypertension might bring a substantial change in tackling the burden effectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1656938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880705PMC
June 2016

Prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in a remote rural community of Sindhuli district, Nepal.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2014 Jul 28;14:92. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Nepal Family Development Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is emerging as a public health menace among low and middle income countries. It has particularly affected the poorest. However, there is paucity of information about CVD risk factors profile among Nepalese rural communities where the majority of people live in poverty. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in an outback community of Nepal.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in Tinkanya Village Development Committee (VDC), Sindhuli between January and March, 2014. Total 406 participants of age 20 to 50 years were selected randomly. Data were collected using WHO-NCD STEPwise approach questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS V.16.0 and R i386 2.15.3 software.

Result: The mean age of participants was 36.2 ± 9 years. Majority of participants (76.3%) were from lower socio-economic class, Adibasi/Janajati (63.1%), and without formal schooling (46.3%). Smoking was present in 28.6%, alcohol consumption in 47.8%, insufficient fruits and vegetables intake in 96.6%, insufficient physical activity in 48.8%; 25.6% had high waist circumference, 37.4% had overweight and obesity. Average daily salt intake per capita was 14.4 grams ±4.89 grams. Hypertension was detected in 12.3%. It had an inverse relationship with education and socio-economic status. In binary logistic regression analysis, age, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and daily salt intake were identified as significant predictors of hypertension.

Conclusion: Present study showed high prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, daily salt intake, overweight and obesity and hypertension among remote rural population suggesting higher risk for developing CVD in future. Nepalese rural communities, therefore, are in need of population-wide comprehensive intervention approaches for reducing CVD health risk behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-14-92DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4115072PMC
July 2014
-->