Publications by authors named "Surini Yusoff"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High allele frequency of CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910) in a Negrito's subtribe population in Malaysia; Aboriginal people of Jahai.

Ann Hum Biol 2016 Sep 24;43(5):445-50. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

a Department of Paediatrics , School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia , Health Campus, Kubang Kerian , Kelantan , Malaysia .

Background: CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms modulate inter-individual variations in the human body's responses to various endogenous and exogenous drug substrates. To date, little is known about the CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms among the aboriginal populations of the world, including those in Malaysia.

Aim: To characterise and compare the CYP2C9 polymorphisms (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*4 and CYP2C9*5) between one of Malaysia's aboriginal populations, Jahai, with the national major ethnic, Malay. To also compare the allele frequencies from these two populations with available data of other aboriginal populations around the world.

Subjects And Methods: The extracted DNA of 155 Jahais and 183 Malays was genotyped for CYP2C9 polymorphisms using a nested multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. The results were confirmed by DNA direct sequencing.

Results: Genotyping results revealed that CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*4 and CYP2C9*5 were absent in Jahais, while only the latter two were absent in Malays. The CYP2C9*3 allelic frequency in Jahais was 36.2%, making them the most frequent carriers of the allele thus far reported in any ethnic group from Southeast Asia.

Conclusions: The high frequency of CYP2C9*3 and the absence of CYP2C9*2 in Jahais suggest that genetic drift may be occurring in this ethnic group. This is the first study to determine the CYP2C9 polymorphisms in an aboriginal population in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2015.1068372DOI Listing
September 2016

Guidelines for nucleic acid detection and analysis in hematological disorders.

Malays J Pathol 2015 Aug;37(2):165-73

Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Department of Haematology, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

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August 2015

High resolution melting analysis of the NR1I3 genetic variants: Is there an association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia?

Gene 2015 Dec 16;573(2):198-204. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia; Human Genome Center, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) encoded by the nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) gene regulates the elimination of bilirubin through activating the components of the bilirubin clearance pathway. Hence, NR1I3 genetic variants may affect bilirubin metabolism and result in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Thus far, research which investigates the association between NR1I3 variants and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has not been undertaken in any population. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of MPJ6_1I3008 (rs10157822), IVS8+116T>G (rs4073054) and 540A>G (rs2307424) on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia development in the Malay population. Buccal swabs were collected from 232 hyperbilirubinemia and 277 control term newborns with gestational age ≥37weeks and birth weight ≥2500g. The NR1I3 variants were genotyped by using high resolution melting (HRM) assays and verified by DNA sequencing. Gender, mode of delivery and birth weight did not differ between hyperbilirubinemia and control groups. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of MPJ6_1I3008, IVS8+116T>G and 540A>G were not significantly different between the groups. However, stratification by gender revealed a significant inverse association between homozygous variant genotype of MPJ6_1I3008 and risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the females (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.95; p=0.034). This study demonstrates that the homozygous variant genotype of MPJ6_1I3008 was associated with a significant reduced risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.07.045DOI Listing
December 2015

The first Malay database toward the ethnic-specific target molecular variation.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Apr 30;8:176. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Department of Pediatric, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project (MyHVP) is one of the eighteen official Human Variome Project (HVP) country-specific nodes. Since its inception in 9(th) October 2010, MyHVP has attracted the significant number of Malaysian clinicians and researchers to participate and contribute their data to this project. MyHVP also act as the center of coordination for genotypic and phenotypic variation studies of the Malaysian population. A specialized database was developed to store and manage the data based on genetic variations which also associated with health and disease of Malaysian ethnic groups. This ethnic-specific database is called the Malaysian Node of the Human Variome Project database (MyHVPDb).

Findings: Currently, MyHVPDb provides only information about the genetic variations and mutations found in the Malays. In the near future, it will expand for the other Malaysian ethnics as well. The data sets are specified based on diseases or genetic mutation types which have three main subcategories: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Copy Number Variation (CNV) followed by the mutations which code for the common diseases among Malaysians. MyHVPDb has been open to the local researchers, academicians and students through the registration at the portal of MyHVP ( http://hvpmalaysia.kk.usm.my/mhgvc/index.php?id=register ).

Conclusions: This database would be useful for clinicians and researchers who are interested in doing a study on genomics population and genetic diseases in order to obtain up-to-date and accurate information regarding the population-specific variations and also useful for those in countries with similar ethnic background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1123-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440489PMC
April 2015

Trinucleotide insertion in the SMN2 promoter may not be related to the clinical phenotype of SMA.

Brain Dev 2015 Aug 31;37(7):669-76. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan; Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: More than 90% of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients show homozygous deletion of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1). They retain SMN2, a highly homologous gene to SMN1, which may partially compensate for deletion of SMN1. Although the promoter sequences of these two genes are almost identical, a GCC insertion polymorphism has been identified at c.-320_-321 in the SMN1 promoter. We have also found this insertion polymorphism in an SMN2 promoter in an SMA patient (Patient A) who has SMA type 2/3.

Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of the GCC insertion polymorphism in SMA patients, and to evaluate its effect on SMN transcription efficiency.

Patients And Methods: Fifty-one SMA patients, including Patient A, were involved in this study. SMN2 transcript levels in white blood cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Screening of the GCC insertion polymorphism was performed using denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography. The transcription efficiency of the promoter with the insertion mutation was evaluated using a reporter-gene assay.

Results: All SMA patients in this study were homozygous for SMN1 deletion. Patient A retained two copies of SMN2, and showed only a small amount of SMN2 transcript in white blood cells. We detected a GCC insertion polymorphism at c.-320_-321 only in Patient A, and not in 50 other SMA patients. The polymorphism had a slight but significant negative effect on transcription efficiency.

Discussion And Conclusion: Patient A was judged to be an exceptional case of SMA, because the GCC insertion polymorphism rarely exists in SMN1-deleted SMA patients. The GCC insertion polymorphism did not enhance the transcriptional efficiency of SMN2. Thus, this GCC insertion polymorphism in the SMN2 promoter may not be associated with the milder phenotype of the patient. Patient A suggests that there are other unknown factors modifying the clinical phenotype of SMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2014.10.006DOI Listing
August 2015

Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) for the detection of β-globin gene mutations among the transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia Malay patients in Kelantan, Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia.

Am J Blood Res 2014 5;4(1):33-40. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Malaysia.

The aim of this study was to adapt MARMS with some modifications to detect beta mutation in our cohort of thalassemia patients. We focused only on transfusion-dependent thalassemia Malay patients, the predominant ethnic group (95%) in the Kelantanese population. Eight mutations were identified in 46 out of 48 (95.83%) beta thalassemia alleles. Most of the patients (54.2%) were compound heterozygous with co-inheritance Cd 26 (G>A). The frequencies of spectrum beta chain mutation among these patients are presented in Table 2. Among the transfusion dependent beta thalassemia Malay patients studied, 26 patients were found to be compound heterozygous and the main alleles were Cd 26 (G>A). Compound heterozygous mutation of Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 12 (46.2%), Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 41/42 (TTCT) were 9 (34.6%), Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-1 (G>C) were 2 (7.7%) respectively. Meanwhile the minority were made of a single compound heterozygous of Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 71/72, Cd 26 (>A) and Cd 17 (A>T), Cd 26 (G>A) and -28 (G>A) respectively. Twenty out of forty six patients were shown to have homozygous of IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 2 (10.0%), Cd 26 (G>A) were 15 (75.0%), Cd 19 (A>G) were 1 (5.0%), and IVS 1-1 (G>T) were 2 (10.0%). The beta chain mutations among the Kelantanese Malays followed closely the distribution of beta chain mutations among the Thais and the Malays of the Southern Thailand. The G-C transition at position 5 of the IVS 1-5 mutation was predominant among the Malay patients. In conclusion, this method has successfully identified the mutation spectrum in our cohort of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients, and this method is equally effective in screening for mutation among thalassemia patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4165115PMC
September 2014

Acetaminophen administration in a patient with Gilbert's syndrome.

Pediatr Int 2012 Dec;54(6):934-6

Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

The patient was an 8-year-old Japanese girl with Gilbert's syndrome (GS). Based on the DNA analysis, she was homozygous for a T-to-G transversion at nucleotide position 1456 in the UGT1A1 gene, leading to the substitution of aspartate for tyrosine at position 486 of the UGT1A1 enzyme. Because this mutation is located in an exon common to UGT1A genes, all the UGT1A enzymes may be affected. It is well-known that UGT1A1, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 enzymes glucuronidate acetaminophen. To evaluate acetaminophen tolerance in the patient, serum acetaminophen levels were determined after oral administration of acetaminophen (15 mg/kg). The maximum serum acetaminophen level reached (12.8 µg/mL) was far below the toxic level. The finding suggested that the usual therapeutic dose of acetaminophen is safe for the GS patient. The combination of mutation analysis in UGT1A1 and acetaminophen loading test may be useful to avoid adverse effect in GS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.2012.03602.xDOI Listing
December 2012

A homozygous mutation in UGT1A1 exon 5 may be responsible for persistent hyperbilirubinemia in a Japanese girl with Gilbert's syndrome.

Kobe J Med Sci 2011 Jul 20;57(1):E26-31. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

The UGT1A1 gene encodes a responsible enzyme, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1, for bilirubin metabolism. Many mutations have already been identified in patients with inherited disorders with hyperbilirubinemia, Crigler-Najjar syndrome and Gilbert's syndrome. In this study, we identified a UGT1A1 mutation in an 8-year-old Japanese girl with persistent hyperbilirubinemia who was clinically diagnosed as having Gilbert's syndrome. For the mutational analysis of UGT1A1, we performed a full sequence analysis of the gene using the patient's DNA. She was homozygous for a T to G transversion at nucleotide position 1456 in UGT1A1 exon 5 (c.1456T>G), leading to the substitution of aspartate for tyrosine at position 486 of the UGT1A1 protein (p.Y486D). In conclusion, the homozygous mutation of UGT1A1 may be responsible for persistent hyperbilirubinemia in this patient.
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July 2011

Valproic acid increases SMN2 expression and modulates SF2/ASF and hnRNPA1 expression in SMA fibroblast cell lines.

Brain Dev 2012 Mar 11;34(3):213-22. Epub 2011 May 11.

Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron gene, SMN1. SMA treatment strategies have focused on production of the SMN protein from the almost identical gene, SMN2. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that can increase SMN levels in some SMA cells or SMA patients through activation of SMN2 transcription or splicing correction of SMN2 exon 7. It remains to be clarified what concentration of VPA is required and by what mechanisms the SMN production from SMN2 is elicited. We observed that in two fibroblast cell lines from Japanese SMA patients, more than 1mM of VPA increased SMN2 expression at both the transcript and protein levels. VPA increased not only full-length (FL) transcript level but also exon 7-excluding (Δ7) transcript level in the cell lines and did not change the ratio of FL/Δ7, suggesting that SMN2 transcription was mainly activated. We also found that VPA modulated splicing factor expression: VPA increased the expression of splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) and decreased the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). In conclusion, more than 1mM of VPA activated SMN2 transcription and modulated the expression of splicing factors in our SMA fibroblast cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2011.04.010DOI Listing
March 2012

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum: clinical manifestations and SCN1A mutations in Indonesian patients.

Epilepsy Res 2010 Jun 10;90(1-2):132-9. Epub 2010 May 10.

Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a childhood genetic epilepsy syndrome. GEFS+ includes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, and SCN1A mutations have frequently been reported among the GEFS+-related gene abnormalities. In this study, to clarify the distributions of the clinical subtypes, we analyzed 34 families with GEFS+ in Indonesia using the hospital records of the patients and questionnaires for the family members. The number of patients with febrile seizures plus (FS+), FS+ and afebrile generalized/partial seizures, borderline severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEB) and severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI) were 9, 11, 7, and 7, respectively. Most patients had a family history of febrile seizures. Next, we performed molecular analyses to clarify the contributions of SCN1A mutations to the development of the GEFS+ subtypes. Only 3 of 34 probands showed SCN1A mutations. These mutations were two missense mutations, p.V1612I and p.C1756G, in two patients with SMEI and SMEB, and one silent mutation, p.G1762G, in a patient with FS+ and afebrile partial seizures. In conclusion, the majority of GEFS+ patients in Indonesia were not associated with SCN1A mutations. To detect the GEFS+-causing mutations, we must search and analyze other genes in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2010.04.003DOI Listing
June 2010

A polymorphic mutation, c.-3279T>G, in the UGT1A1 promoter is a risk factor for neonatal jaundice in the Malay population.

Pediatr Res 2010 Apr;67(4):401-6

Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

The uridine diphosphoglucuronate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene encodes the enzyme responsible for bilirubin glucuronidation. To evaluate the contribution of UGT1A1 promoter mutations to neonatal jaundice, we determined the genotypes of c.-3279T>G, c.-3156G>A, and A(TA)7TAA in Malay infants with neonatal jaundice (patients) and in infants without neonatal jaundice (controls). In our population study, only c.-3279T>G was associated with neonatal jaundice. The genotype distributions between both groups were significantly different (p = 0.003): the frequency of homozygosity for c.-3279G was much higher in patients than those in controls. Allele frequency of c.-3279G was significantly higher in patients than those in controls (p = 0.006). We then investigated changes in transcriptional activity because of c.-3279T>G. Luciferase reporter assay in HepG2 cells demonstrated that transcriptional activity of the c.-3279G allele was significantly lower than that of the c.-3279T allele in both the absence and presence of bilirubin. Luciferase reporter assay in COS-7 cells elucidated that c.-3279T>G modified the synergistic effects of the nuclear factors associated with transcriptional machinery. In conclusion, the c.-3279T>G mutation in the UGT1A1 promoter is a genetic risk factor for neonatal jaundice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181d22f78DOI Listing
April 2010

Herbal Medicine Containing Licorice May Be Contraindicated for a Patient with an HSD11B2 Mutation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011 20;2011:646540. Epub 2011 Feb 20.

Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

Licorice ingestion, as well as mutations in the HSD11B2 gene, inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) enzyme activity, causing the syndrome of apparent mineral corticoid excess (AME). However, the combined effect of licorice ingestion and an HSD11B2 mutation has never been reported, until now. In this study, we demonstrated that licorice ingestion can produce overt hypertension in an individual without medical history of hypertension who is heterozygous for wild-type and mutant HSD11B2 genes. Our patient was a 51-year-old female with serious hypertension who had been taking herbal medicine containing licorice for more than one year. She was clinically diagnosed as having licorice intoxication, because she did not present with hypertension after ceasing the herbal medicine. Molecular analysis showed that she carried a missense mutation, c.40C>T, in HSD11B2. In conclusion, licorice ingestion is an environmental risk factor for hypertension or AME state in patients with a mutation in HSD11B2. Carrying a mutation in HSD11B2 is, conversely, a genetic risk factor for licorice-induced hypertension or AME state. Herbal medicine containing licorice may, therefore, be contraindicated in patients with an HSD11B2 mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136776PMC
August 2012

Full-length sequence of mouse acupuncture-induced 1-L (aig1l) gene including its transcriptional start site.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011 17;2011:249280. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Laboratory for Applied Genome Science and Bioinformatics, Clinical Genome Informatics Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

We have been investigating the molecular efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA), which is one type of acupuncture therapy. In our previous molecular biological study of acupuncture, we found an EA-induced gene, named acupuncture-induced 1-L (Aig1l), in mouse skeletal muscle. The aims of this study consisted of identification of the full-length cDNA sequence of Aig1l including the transcriptional start site, determination of the tissue distribution of Aig1l and analysis of the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. We determined the complete cDNA sequence including the transcriptional start site via cDNA cloning with the cap site hunting method. We then analyzed the tissue distribution of Aig1l by means of northern blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We used the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to examine the effect of EA on Aig1l gene expression. Our results showed that the complete cDNA sequence of Aig1l was 6073 bp long, and the putative protein consisted of 962 amino acids. All seven tissues that we analyzed expressed the Aig1l gene. In skeletal muscle, EA induced expression of the Aig1l gene, with high expression observed after 3 hours of EA. Our findings thus suggest that the Aig1l gene may play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of EA efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3095526PMC
August 2012

Screening of the LIX1 gene in Japanese and Malaysian patients with SMA and/or SMA-like disorder.

Brain Dev 2010 May 6;32(5):385-9. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

Human Genome Center, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The majority of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients showed homozygous deletion or other mutations of SMN1. However, the genetic etiology of a significant number of SMA patients has not been clarified. Recently, mutation in the gene underlying cat SMA, limb expression 1 (LIX1), has been reported. Similarity in clinical and pathological features of cat and human SMA may give an insight into possible similarity of the genetic etiology.

Patients And Methods: In this study, we screened for a mutation in LIX1 using direct DNA sequencing in our SMA and/or SMA-like patients who retained SMN1. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study, of which 22 were Japanese and 11 were Malaysians. All these patients possessed at least two copies of SMN1.

Results: We did not identify any pathogenic mutations in the coding regions or splice sites of LIX1 in the patients. In addition, we described a polymorphism within LIX1 intron 3, c.387+107A>T. We found that A-allele is significantly more frequent in SMA patients compared to normal individuals.

Conclusion: Molecular genetic analysis of our SMA and/or SMA-like patients suggests that LIX1 is not associated with the development of their disorders. However, the number of patients analyzed in this study was very limited, and a larger study with bigger sample size is needed to confirm this result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2009.06.008DOI Listing
May 2010

Novel SCN1A mutations in Indonesian patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy.

Pediatr Int 2010 Apr 26;52(2):234-9. Epub 2009 Jun 26.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Background: Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI) and borderline SMEI (SMEB) are caused by a mutation in SCN1A, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel alpha1-subunit protein. Although many mutations in SCN1A have been associated with clinical features of SMEI or SMEB from different ethnic groups, there have been no such reports from the South-East Asian populations so far.

Methods: Patients 1 and 2 were Indonesian children diagnosed as having SMEI and SMEB based on their clinical features. SCN1A was screened for mutations using a combination of polymerase chain reaction and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Nucleotide substitutions were confirmed on direct sequencing.

Results: In patient 1, a G-to-A heterozygous transition was detected at nucleotide 4834 (c.4834G>A) in exon 25, leading to substitution of valine with isoleucine at amino acid position 1612 (p.V1612I) in the SCN1A protein. In patient 2 a T-to-G heterozygous transversion was identified at nucleotide 5266 (c.5266T>G) in exon 26, leading to substitution of cysteine with glycine at amino acid 1756 (p.C1756G) in the SCN1A protein. Both amino acid substitutions might disrupt these highly conserved regions in species from drosophila to human, leading to dysfunction of the protein. p.V1612I and p.C1756G were determined as disease-causing mutations due to their absence in the control population.

Conclusion: The first cases of SMEI and SMEB are reported in South-East Asian populations. Two novel SCN1A mutations are also identified in these patients, p.V1612I and p.C1756G, which may lead to neuronal excitability or convulsions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02916.xDOI Listing
April 2010

Novel mutations in 21 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and variation of tandem splice-acceptor sites in TSC1 exon 14.

Kobe J Med Sci 2008 May 23;54(1):E73-81. Epub 2008 May 23.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Japan.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by epilepsy, mental retardation, skin lesions, and tumors in various organs. However, TSC is sometimes difficult to diagnose because of its broad phenotypic spectrum. In such cases, it is essential to find a mutation in the disease-causing genes, TSC1 and TSC2. In this study, we analyzed 21 TSC patients from 16 families using a combination method of DHPLC and nucleotide sequencing. We identified 16 novel mutations in the 16 families: nine mutations in TSC1 (1 insertion, 7 deletion and 1 nonsense mutations) and seven mutations in TSC2 (2 insertion, 2 deletion, 1 missense mutations and 2 splicing abnormalities). We also tested the possibility of very short alternative splicing due to a variation of the tandem splice-acceptor sites of TSC1 exon 14 in a patient. RT-PCR and sequencing analysis indicated that no alternative splicing occurred in the patient. In conclusion, we confirmed the diagnosis of all patients using mutation analysis and clarified that variation of the tandem splice-acceptor sites in TSC1 exon 14 does not cause a splicing abnormality.
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May 2008

Evaluation of mutation effects on UGT1A1 activity toward 17beta-estradiol using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2006 Jun 28;838(1):9-14. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Department of Public Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan.

Mutations in the gene encoding UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) may reduce the glucuronidation of estradiol, bilirubin, etc. In the present study, we used a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method to assay the activities of recombinant mutated UGT1A1 toward 17beta-estradiol (E2), by determining its glucuronide (E2G) content. Direct evidence for glucuronide formation was provided by E2G-specific ion peaks. The UGT1A1 activities of G71R (exon 1), F83L (exon 1), I322V (exon 2) and G493R (exon 5) mutants were 24, 30, 18 and 0.6% of the normal UGT1A1 activity, respectively. In conclusion, our study showed that LC/MS/MS enabled accurate evaluation of the effects of mutations on recombinant UGT1A1 activity towards E2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.01.030DOI Listing
June 2006

Frequencies of A(TA)7TAA, G71R, and G493R mutations of the UGT1A1 gene in the Malaysian population.

Biol Neonate 2006 6;89(3):171-6. Epub 2005 Oct 6.

Department of Paediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Gilbert syndrome is caused by defects in the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene. These mutations differ among different populations and many of them have been found to be genetic risk factors for the development of neonatal jaundice.

Objectives: The objective was to determine the frequencies of the following mutations in the UGT1A1 gene: A(TA)7TAA (the most common cause of Gilbert syndrome in Caucasians), G71R (more common in the Japanese and Taiwanese population), and G493R (described in a homozygous Malay woman with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2) in a group of Malaysian babies with hyperbilirubinemia and a group of normal controls.

Methods: The GeneScan fragment analysis was used to detect the A(TA)7TAA variant. Mutation screening of both G71R and G493R was performed using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography.

Results: Fourteen out of fifty-five neonates with hyperbilirubinemia (25%) carried the A(TA)7TAA mutation (10 heterozygous, 4 homozygous). Seven out of fifty controls (14%) carried this mutation (6 heterozygous, 1 homozygous). The allelic frequencies for hyperbilirubinemia and control patients were 16 and 8%, respectively (p=0.20). Heterozygosity for the G71R mutation was almost equal among both groups (5.5% for hyperbilirubinemia patients and 6.0% for controls; p=0.61). One subject (1.8%) in the hyperbilirubinemia group and none of the controls were heterozygous for the G493R mutation (p=0.476).

Conclusions: The A(TA)7TAA seems more common than the G71R and G493R mutations in the Malaysian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000088844DOI Listing
May 2006