Publications by authors named "Surinder Singh"

250 Publications

Down-Regulation of Gene Expression Alters Lysophospholipid Composition in the Endosperm of Rice Grain and Influences Starch Properties.

Foods 2021 May 23;10(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Agriculture & Food, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia.

Small quantities of lipids accumulate in the white rice grains. These are grouped into non-starch lipid and starch lipid fractions that affect starch properties through association with starch. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) are two major lipid classes in the two fractions. Using high-oleic rice grains, we investigated the fatty-acid composition in flour and starch by LC-MS and evaluated its impact on starch properties. In the wild-type grain, nearly 50% of fatty acids in LPC and LPE were palmitic acid (C16:0), over 20% linoleic acid (C18:2) and less than 10% oleic acid (C18:1). In the high-oleic rice grain, C18:1 increased at the expense of C18:2 and C16:0. The compositional changes in starch lipids suggest that LPC and LPE are transported to an amyloplast with an origin from endoplasmic reticulum-derived PC and PE during endosperm development. The high-dissociation temperature of the amylose-lipid complex (ALC) and restricted starch swelling power in the high-oleic rice starch indicates that the stability of the ALC involving C18:1 is higher than that of C18:2 and C16:0. This study provides insight into the lipid deposition and starch properties of rice grains with optimized fatty-acid composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061169DOI Listing
May 2021

Adsorptive removal of antibiotic ofloxacin in aqueous phase using rGO-MoS heterostructure.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 5;417:125982. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Greece.

This paper reports the synthesis, characterization and detailed adsorption studies of rGO-MoS heterostructure. The heterostructure was explored for the adsorption of ofloxacin from the aqueous phase. Detailed studies were conducted to study the effect of crucial parameters such as pH of drug solution, adsorbent dose, temperature and initial drug concentration on the adsorption capacity. Even with a low surface area of 17.17 m/g, the adsorbent exhibited maximum removal efficiency of 95% at a dose of 0.35 g/L and an initial drug concentration of 10 mg/L in 240 min. Thermodynamic study revealed the values for ∆H and ∆G to be - 101.15 and - 7.47 kJ/mol respectively, indicating that the process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The heterostructure adsorbent exhibited remarkable reusability and stability up to five cycles. The heterostructure combines excellent adsorption capabilities arising from the two-dimensional structures of rGO and MoS with the stronger and more specific interaction with the drug molecules which results in better performance towards the removal of the drug. The excellent performance of the heterostructure indicates that combining 2D materials can be a good strategy for producing highly efficient materials towards the adsorptive removal of pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125982DOI Listing
May 2021

Custard Apple ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Biological Activities.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143160PMC
April 2021

Guava ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Bioactivities.

Foods 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Ginning Training Centre, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Nagpur 440023, India.

(L.) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and it is an important fruit in tropical areas like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and South America. The leaves of the guava plant have been studied for their health benefits which are attributed to their plethora of phytochemicals, such as quercetin, avicularin, apigenin, guaijaverin, kaempferol, hyperin, myricetin, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and caffeic acid. Extracts from guava leaves (GLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotection activities. In the present review, we comprehensively present the nutritional profile and phytochemical profile of GLs. Further, various bioactivities of the GL extracts are also discussed critically. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of GLs, they can potentially be used as an ingredient in the development of functional foods and pharmaceuticals. More detailed clinical trials need to be conducted to establish the efficacy of the GL extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066327PMC
April 2021

Characterising generalism in clinical practice: a systematic mixed studies review protocol.

BJGP Open 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, Royal Free Campus, London, UK.

Background: Generalist physician care is associated with improved patient outcomes. Despite initiatives to promote generalism in educational settings, recruitment to generalist disciplines remains less than required to serve societal needs. Increasingly this impacts not just general practice but also generalist specialties such as internal medicine, surgery, and paediatrics. One potential factor for this deficit is a lack of explicit attention to generalism as a praxis, including clarifying key aspects of generalist expertise.

Aim: To examine empirical clinical literature on generalism, and characterise how generalism is described and delivered by physicians in primary and secondary care.

Design & Setting: A systematic mixed studies review (SMSR) including quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods studies, and systematic reviews of physician generalist practice.

Method: MEDLINE, Psycinfo, SocINDEX, Embase, Ovid HealthSTAR, Scopus, and Web of Science will be searched for English language studies from 1999 to present, using a structured search. Given study heterogeneity, quality appraisal will not be performed. Two reviewers will perform study selection for each study. Data extraction will focus on how generalism is defined and characterised, including the clinical care provided by generalists and patient experiences of generalist care. Quantitative and qualitative data will be summarised in tabular and narrative form. Convergent synthesis design will then be used to synthesise quantitative and qualitative data.

Conclusion: Findings will characterise generalism and generalist practice from a grassroots clinical perspective. By identifying similarities and differences across generalist disciplines, this work will inform more focused educational initiatives on generalism at undergraduate and postgraduate level, including collaborations between generalist disciplines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/BJGPO.2021.0029DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent trends in extraction of plant bioactives using green technologies: A review.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 3;353:129431. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Food Science and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India. Electronic address:

Phenolic compounds from plant sources have significant health-promoting properties and are known to be an integral part of folk and herbal medicines. Consumption of phenolics is known to alleviate the risk of various lifestyle diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, and Alzheimer's. In this context, numerous plant crops have been explored and characterized based on phenolic compounds for their use as supplements, nutraceutical, and pharmaceuticals. The present review highlights some important source of bioactive phenolic compounds and novel technologies for their efficient extraction. These techniques include the use of microwave, ultrasound, and supercritical methods. Besides, the review will also highlight the use of response surface methodology (RSM) as a statistical tool for optimizing the recoveries of the phenolic bioactives from plant-based matrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129431DOI Listing
August 2021

Mango ( L.) Leaves: Nutritional Composition, Phytochemical Profile, and Health-Promoting Bioactivities.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Feb 16;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Christian-Albrecht's University, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae and is an important fruit from South and Southeast Asia. India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and the Philippines are among the top mango producer countries. Leaves of the mango plant have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a plethora of phytochemicals such as mangiferin, followed by phenolic acids, benzophenones, and other antioxidants such as flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The extracts from mango leaves (MLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-obesity, lipid-lowering, hepato-protection, and anti-diarrheal. In the present review, we have elaborated on the nutritional and phytochemical profile of the MLs. Further, various bioactivities of the ML extracts are also critically discussed. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of the MLs, they can be used as a potential ingredient for the development of functional foods and pharmaceutical drugs. However, more detailed clinical trials still needed to be conducted for establishing the actual efficacy of the ML extracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920260PMC
February 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Contemporary beliefs surrounding the menarche: a pilot study of adolescent girls at a school in middle England.

Educ Prim Care 2021 Jan 28;32(1):59-60. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK.

Despite menarche affecting half of the population, there is limited research into its effects and limited dialogue within UK society. As Relationships and Sex Education (RSE), which encompasses issues like puberty, becomes compulsory in all schools in England for the first time, understanding the impact of menarche is vital. This study aimed to explore the beliefs about and experiences of menarche amongst adolescent girls. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven participants aged 16-18 attending a secondary school in Warwickshire. A thematic analysis was carried out, with emerging themes discussed between two researchers.All participants had received some RSE teaching at school, although many felt that it did not provide sufficient detail. These sessions also occurred too late for some participants who had already reached menarche. A range of emotions were recalled at this milestone; while some girls felt prepared and mature, others reported disbelief and shame. Mothers were the most important person for guidance, while conversations with fathers about menstruation were generally avoided. GPs were not considered a source of advice, despite some participants experiencing significant symptoms and menstrual irregularity.It is clear that the impact of menarche should not be underestimated and stigma surrounding menstruation still exists today. To address these issues, suggested improvements include mixed gender teaching to promote open discussions and making the role of GPs more visible to the adolescent community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14739879.2020.1836678DOI Listing
January 2021

Correlation between alignment geometries and memory effect in a surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal.

Phys Rev E 2020 Sep;102(3-1):032703

CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012, India.

Memory effect in weakly aligned surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC) material has been investigated by electro-optical and dielectric spectroscopy in three configurations of alignment: antiparallel, 90^{∘} twisted, and unaligned planar samples. It has been observed that two types of molecular dynamics exist in antiparallel rubbed cell in which memory effect is observed for longer duration than in other samples. One dielectric relaxation process is near the surface of the electrode and a second is in the bulk of the SSFLC. Both the molecular dynamics contribute in the switching process and affect the memory phenomenon in surface stabilized geometries. However, a single dielectric process is observed in twisted geometry in which the sample is showing shorter memory effect than in antiparallel and this is compared with unaligned samples also having cell thickness less than the pitch value of FLC. In an unaligned sample, a single dielectric process is observed and the smaple does not show memory effect at all. The investigation is significant to understand the anomalies occurring in memory observations in various geometries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.032703DOI Listing
September 2020

Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Rare Complication of Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Apr-Jun;15(2):116-119. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Paediatrics, Indira Gandhi Medical College (IGMC), Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Varicella-Zoster is a benign self limiting exanthematous illness in pediatric population which can rarely present with severe neurological manifestations such as cerebral venous thrombosis(CVT).We report the case of a 17-years old adolescent male with left hemiparesis, cranial nerve palsies associated with primary Varicella infection. MRI revealed cerebral venous thrombosis involving right transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, internal jugular vein and infarct involving right cerebral hemisphere, Midbrain and Pons. The patient responded well to Acyclovir, cerebral decongestants and oral anticoagulant therapy.CVT is a rare but the most life threatening complication following primary Varicella infection and early diagnosis is essential for proper management of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpn.JPN_167_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519734PMC
June 2020

A Detailed Protocol for Generation of Therapeutic Antibodies with Galactosylated Glycovariants at Laboratory Scale Using In-Vitro Glycoengineering Technology.

J Pharm Sci 2021 02 8;110(2):935-945. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Bristol Myers Squibb, Analytical Development and Attribute Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

N-linked glycosylation is an important post translational modification that occurs on Asparagine 297 residue or a homologous position on the Fc portion of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). mAb Fc glycans play important roles in antibody structure, stability, and function including effector function and pharmacokinetics. The Fc glycans are made up of a wide variety of sugars including galactose, mannose, and sialic acid. The role of galactose in mediating antibody effector functions is not well understood. Hence, there is widespread interest in the antibody research community to understand the role of galactose in antibody effector functions as galactose is a major constituent of antibody glycans. This requires generation of highly enriched galactosylated variants that has been very challenging via cell culture process. To tackle this challenge, we developed a laboratory scale biochemical process to produce highly enriched galactosylated variants. In this article, we report optimized lab-scale workflows and detailed protocols for generation of deglycosylated, hypo-galactosylated and hyper-galactosylated variants of IgG therapeutic antibodies using the in-vitro glycoengineering technology. The optimized workflows offer short turnaround time and produce highly enriched deglycosylated/hypo-galactosylated/hyper-galactosylated IgG glycovariants, with high purity & molecular integrity as demonstrated by data from an example IgG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.09.056DOI Listing
February 2021

Exploring parents' perceptions on the importance and feasibility of child-centred consultations of 5-11 year olds in general practice.

Educ Prim Care 2020 11 24;31(6):349-357. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Research Department of Primary Care & Population Health, University College London , London, UK.

Background: The active involvement of children in their health care has been shown to increase compliance and improve outcomes. Despite this, children in the 6-12 year group have little meaningful involvement in General Practitioner (GP) consultations, contributing to less than 20% of interactions.

Aim: To explore parents' perceptions on the importance and feasibility of child-centred consultations.

Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit parents from a primary school in London. Three audio recorded focus groups were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and subsequently thematically analysed.

Results: While most parents acknowledged the importance of child-centred consultations, they legitimately questioned their child's ability to make decisions. Parents attributed low child participation to several factors including the perceived approachability of the GP, whether their child had met the doctor before, their child's personality and the general lack of time during consultations. Parents described their own anxiety and worries surrounding their child's health care which lead to their role as their child's advocate, decision maker and protector during GP consultations.

Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of child-centred consultations and highlights numerous barriers which need to be overcome to achieve greater child involvement in consultations. If the findings were to be replicated in future larger studies, then it could lead to changes in both training and, crucially, how child-parent-doctor consultations should be carried out in general practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14739879.2020.1809529DOI Listing
November 2020

Targeted Delivery for Neurodegenerative Disorders Using Gene Therapy Vectors: Gene Next Therapeutic Goals.

Curr Gene Ther 2021 ;21(1):23-42

Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology (JIIT) Noida, U.P., India.

The technique of gene therapy, ever since its advent nearly fifty years ago, has been utilized by scientists as a potential treatment option for various disorders. This review discusses some of the major neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Motor neuron diseases (MND), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Huntington's Disease (HD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), etc. and their underlying genetic mechanisms along with the role that gene therapy can play in combating them. The pathogenesis and the molecular mechanisms specifying the altered gene expression of each of these NDDs have also been discussed in elaboration. The use of gene therapy vectors can prove to be an effective tool in the field of curative modern medicine for the generations to come. Therefore, consistent efforts and progressive research towards its implementation can provide us with powerful treatment options for disease conditions that have so far been considered as incurable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566523220999200817164907DOI Listing
January 2021

A randomised study comparing the extent of block produced by spinal column height and body weight-based formulae for paediatric caudal analgesia.

Indian J Anaesth 2020 Jun 1;64(6):477-482. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background And Aims: Height and weight-based formulae are used for calculation of dose of medications for caudal analgesia but these have not been compared. We compared spinal column height-based Spiegel and weight-based Takasaki and Armitage formulae for achieving maximum height of sensory neuraxial block after caudal epidural analgesia in paediatric patients.

Methods: In this double-blind randomised study, children aged between 1 and 6 years and planned for infra-umbilical surgery were randomly allocated to receive caudal epidural block (targeting Tlevel block) with 0.25% bupivacaine, using a volume calculated by modified Spiegel formula (group I), Takasaki formula (group II), and Armitage formula (group III). The Institute ethics committee reviewed and approved the study protocol. The primary endpoint of the study was the difference in the number of spinal segments blocked as assessed by pinprick method. The secondary endpoint was the difference in volume of 0.25% bupivacaine used among the groups. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA.

Results: Seventy-five patients (25 in each group) completed the study as per protocol. The mean number of spinal segments blocked was significantly different among groups ( < 0.001) with patients in group I (13.8 ± 0.83) showing significantly lower number of spinal segments blocked as compared to that in group II (15.8 ± 1.06; < 0.001), and group III (16.8 ± 1.28; < 0.001). The mean volume of 0.25% bupivacaine used in group I was significantly lower ( < 0.001) than that in group II and group III.

Conclusion: Dose calculation in caudal epidural analgesia as per spinal column height-based modified Spiegel formula was more precise than bodyweight-based Takasaki and Armitage formulae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_824_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398024PMC
June 2020

ZnO-rGO nanocomposite based bioelectrode for sensitive and ultrafast detection of dopamine in human serum.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Oct 5;165:112347. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-HRDC Campus, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201002, India; CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012, India. Electronic address:

We present a tyrosinase-conjugated zinc oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Tyr/ZnO-rGO) nanocomposite system as a biosensing test-bed for rapid and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). The bioelectrodes (Tyr/ZnO-rGO/ITO) were designed by covalently immobilizing tyrosinase enzyme on spin-coated films of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite prepared via self-assembly approach. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed fast electron transfer kinetics of ZnO-rGO/ITO electrode. The response studies of the Tyr/ZnO-rGO/ITO bioelectrode revealed ultrafast (0.34 ± 0.09 s) detection of DA in a wide linear dynamic range of 0.1-1500 pM. The significant performance of the biosensor in terms of low detection limit (8.75 ± 0.64 pM) and high sensitivity (39.56 ± 0.41 μA nM) values is attributed to the fast and unhindered electron transfer mechanism of ZnO-rGO matrix having low electrochemical band gap. The nanoplatform exhibited high selectivity toward DA in human sera, and remained stable up to 3 months at 4 °C, representing its suitability for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112347DOI Listing
October 2020

Au-Nanoplasmonics-Mediated Surface Plasmon-Enhanced GaN Nanostructured UV Photodetectors.

ACS Omega 2020 Jun 12;5(24):14535-14542. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012, India.

The nanoplasmonic impact of chemically synthesized Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the performance of GaN nanostructure-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors is analyzed. The devices with uniformly distributed Au NPs on GaN nanostructures (nanoislands and nanoflowers) prominently respond toward UV illumination (325 nm) in both self-powered as well as photoconductive modes of operation and have shown fast and stable time-correlated response with significant enhancement in the performance parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the device design, laser power, and bias-dependent responsivity and response time is presented. The fabricated Au NP/GaN nanoflower-based device yields the highest photoresponsivity of ∼ 380 mA/W, detectivity of ∼ 10 jones, reduced noise equivalent power of ∼ 5.5 × 10 W Hz, quantum efficiency of ∼ 145%, and fast response/recovery time of ∼40 ms. The report illustrates the mechanism where light interacts with the chemically synthesized nanoparticles guided by the surface plasmon to effectively enhance the device performance. It is observed that the Au NP-stimulated local surface plasmon resonance effect and reduced channel resistance contribute to the augmented performance of the devices. Further, the decoration of low-dimensional Au NPs on GaN nanostructures acts as a detection enhancer with a fast recovery time and paves the way toward the realization of energy-efficient optoelectronic device applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c01239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315566PMC
June 2020

Development of a (Canola) Crop Containing Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA in the Seed Oil.

Front Plant Sci 2020 12;11:727. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Plant seeds have long been promoted as a production platform for novel fatty acids such as the ω3 long-chain (≥ C) polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) commonly found in fish oil. In this article we describe the creation of a canola () variety producing fish oil-like levels of DHA in the seed. This was achieved by the introduction of a microalgal/yeast transgenic pathway of seven consecutive enzymatic steps which converted the native substrate oleic acid to α-linolenic acid and, subsequently, to EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA. This paper describes construct design and evaluation, plant transformation, event selection, field testing in a wide range of environments, and oil profile stability of the transgenic seed. The stable, high-performing event NS-B50027-4 produced fish oil-like levels of DHA (9-11%) in open field trials of T to T generation plants in several locations in Australia and Canada. This study also describes the highest seed DHA levels reported thus far and is one of the first examples of a deregulated genetically modified crop with clear health benefits to the consumer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303301PMC
June 2020

Enhancement of covalent aggregate quantification of protein therapeutics by non-reducing capillary gel electrophoresis using sodium hexadecyl sulfate (CE-SHS).

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2020 Sep 10;1152:122230. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Biologics Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, 38 Jackson Road, Devens, MA 01434, USA.

Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (CGE-SDS or CE-SDS) is commonly used in the biotechnology industry to assess the purity of a complex therapeutic during manufacturing process optimization and also for commercial release and stability testing. However, for therapeutic proteins mAb-1 and mAb-2, non-reducing (NR) CE-SDS yielded higher than expected % aggregate which considerably lowered its apparent purity relative to the purity reported by other complementary methods, such as Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC). Furthermore, a strong protein load dependence on aggregate levels was observed which prevented any reasonable assessment of the true purity value. The solution was to supplement SDS with the relatively hydrophobic detergent sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS) in the sieving gel buffer matrix which virtually eliminated the protein load-dependence and reduced the % aggregate value to expected levels when compared to SEC. Analytical Ultracentrifugation (AUC) was used to help confirm the accuracy of the SEC results. This work underscored how using detergents other than SDS in CGE applications can be valuable in the commercial biologics space and provided an example of how SEC can be used to confirm the accuracy of CGE data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122230DOI Listing
September 2020

Dataset on aqueous solid-liquid extraction of gossypol from defatted cottonseed in acidic medium using green solvent, its kinetics and thermodynamics study and mass transfer effects.

Data Brief 2020 Aug 27;31:105620. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Dr. S.S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India.

Extraction of gossypol from cottonseed is essentially required to produce cottonseed free from gossypol for animal feed and or human applications. The focus of the present research was to determine the percentage gossypol extraction after extracting the defatted cottonseed using environment friendly green solvent ethanol-water (95:5 v/v) acidified with 0.5 M oxalic acid. The cottonseed samples were taken according to the fixed solvent to seed ratio and were extracted in batch process using round bottom flasks maintained at required temperatures for different extraction times ranging from 5 to 180 mins. After extraction the samples were filtered and dried and subjected to total gossypol analysis using BIS method. One factor at a time (OFAT) experimental design was employed to optimize the different process parameters like acid type and concentration, solvent to seed ratio, temperature and contact time. The obtained data was studied for analysis of kinetics of extraction using three different kinetic models, calculation of activation energy, evaluating values of kinetic parameters and thermodynamic parameters. The data was also analyzed for evaluation of mass transfer effects viz. liquid film diffusion and internal solid diffusion and calculation of diffusion rate constants for the extraction of gossypol from cottonseed. The present dataset demonstrated the analysis of experimental data for determining the type of kinetics, thermodynamic parameters and mass transfer effects of the solvent extraction for future researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303992PMC
August 2020

Can mesenchymal stem cell therapy be the interim management of COVID-19?

Drug Discov Ther 2020 Jul 16;14(3):139-142. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Research, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India.

COVID-19 pandemic has accounted for ~ 4.3 million confirmed cases and ~ 292,000 deaths (till 12 May, 2020) across the globe since its outbreak. Several anti-viral drugs such as RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), protease inhibitors (lopinavir, ritonavir) and drugs targeting endocytic pathway (hydroxychloroquine) are being evaluated for COVID-19 but standard therapeutics yet not available. Severe health deterioration in critically ill patients is characterized by pulmonary edema, severe respiratory distress, cytokine storm and septic shock. To combat cytokine storm, immune-therapy targeting IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TNFα are being evaluated and one of the promising immune-modulator is the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can surmount the severity of COVID-19 infections. Recent studies have shown that MSC-therapy significantly dampens the cytokine storm in critically ill COVID-19 patients. This communication endows with the insight of stem cell therapy and summarizes the recent studies on COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2020.03032DOI Listing
July 2020

Advent of Proteomic Tools for Diagnostic Biomarker Analysis in Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2020 ;21(10):965-977

Amity Institute of Biotechnology (AIB), Amity University, Noida, U.P., India.

Locating remedies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been majorly restricted by the inefficiency to establish a definitive detection model for early-stage diagnosis of pathological events. This current lapse in AD diagnosis also limits the therapeutic efficiency of the drugs, which might have been effective if given at the earlier stages of the disease. The indicated situation directs towards the burgeoned need for an effective biomarker technique that will help in early detection of AD and would be imminently useful to facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Till date, the major biomarkers, specifically associated with AD detection, may help in determining the early-stage AD diagnosis and identifying alterations in the cellular proteome, offering deeper insight into disease etiology. Currently existing multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of AD is a very tedious, expensive procedure and requires highly trained and skilled professionals who are rarely available outside the specialty clinics. Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) or Presenilin 1 and 2 (PSEN1 and PSEN2) are some biomarkers acting as critical checkpoints for AD diagnosis. However, the presence of some associated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) such as total-Tau (tTau), phosphorylated- Tau (pTau) 181 and Amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-42 using structural or functional imaging techniques is considered for confirmatory diagnosis of AD. Furthermore, the molecular diagnosis of AD incorporates various sophisticated techniques including immuno-sensing, machine learning, nano conjugation-based detections, etc. In the current review description, we have summarized the various diagnostic approaches and their relevance in mitigating the long-standing urgency of targeted diagnostic tools for detection of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389203721666200615173213DOI Listing
May 2021

What are general practitioners' views on the management of adolescents with mental health disorders? A qualitative study.

Educ Prim Care 2020 09 29;31(5):323-324. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London , London, UK.

One in 10 children aged 11 to 16 years' have a mental health disorder. Whilst general practitioners (GPs) are considered ideal candidates to intervene and provide support, little research has focused on how this is managed, and the challenges they face, in the U.K. The aim of this work was to explore GPs' views on the management of adolescents with mental health disorders, and identify challenges they may face in current care. Eight GPs working in London were interviewed, using a semi-structured topic guide and a pre-prepared structured vignette. GPs with more clinical experience felt greater confidence in offering an intuitive approach to care. Many emphasised the therapeutic value of partnership with adolescents and discussed the complexity of identifying and labelling adolescents with a mental health disorder. Most GPs highlighted the need for a social picture: assessing their level of socio-economic deprivation, and the impact of parents. However, through this focus, some GPs felt adolescents from middle class backgrounds could be overlooked. This study offers some insight into the considerable impact GPs have on adolescents with mental health disorders, and challenges they face. To meet these challenges, proposals include a named contact within secondary care, and improved resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14739879.2020.1772121DOI Listing
September 2020

Gene Expression Profiling of Human Adipose Tissue Stem Cells during 2D versus 3D Adipogenesis.

Cells Tissues Organs 2019 28;208(3-4):113-133. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Biomedical, Industrial, and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA,

Much of the current understanding on molecular and cellular events of adipose developmental biology comes from monolayer cell culture models using preadipocyte cell lines, although in vivo adipose tissue consists of a much more complex three-dimensional microenvironment of diverse cell types, extracellular network, and tissue-specific morphological and functional features. Added to this fact, the preadipocytes, on which the adipogenesis mechanisms are mostly explored, possess some serious limitations (e.g., time of initial subculture and adipogenic differentiation time), which, perhaps, can efficiently be replaced with progenitor cells such as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). With the objective of developing a better in vitro model for adipose developmental biology, this project involves gene expression profiling of human ASCs (hASCs) during their differentiation to adipocytes in a 2D versus 3D culture model. This transcriptional-level analysis revealed that gene expression patterns of adipogenesis-induced hASCs in a 3D self-assembled polypeptide hydrogel are relatively different from the 2D monolayered cells on plastic hard substrate. Moreover, analysis of adipogenic lineage progression 9 days after adipogenic induction shows earlier differentiation of hASCs in 2D over their 3D counterparts. However, differentiation in 2D shows some unexpected behavior in terms of gene expression, which does not seem to be related to adipogenic lineage specification. Since hASCs are already being used in clinical trials due to their therapeutic potential, it is important to have a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms in an in vivo model microenvironment like the one presented here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507187DOI Listing
May 2020

Genotypic variability in nutritional and functional attributes of blueberry varieties grown in northern-western Himalayas.

J Food Sci Technol 2020 Jun 25;57(6):2251-2258. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

6ICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012 India.

Blueberry fruits are known for their high vitamin C, essential dietary fibre, antioxidant activity and anthocyanin pigments. Different blueberry varieties have been introduced in India but no attempt has been made for their nutritional profiling. Nutritional profiling of varieties helps us to know the unique varietal characters, which serves as a guideline for recommendation of a valuable variety for fresh consumption and/or processing. Therefore, the present study was conducted in eight different blueberry varieties such as 'Misty', 'Sharp Blue', 'Biloxi', 'Jewel', 'Gulf Coast', 'Blue Crop', 'Star', 'Legacy'. The results of the study revealed that all tested varieties differed significantly in physical attributes (10-berry weight, fruit firmness, roundness index, moisture content) and biochemical and functional attributes (ascorbic acid, total anthocyanin, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, total sugars, organic acids) and mineral content. Regression analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed that antioxidant potential of blueberries was mainly contributed by phenolics followed by anthocyanins and ascorbic acid content. However for taste perception, fructose among sugars and succinic acid among sugars were the most influencing factors ( ≤ 0.05). Total phenolics and anthocyanins content were responsible for overall difference in functional attributes among the varieties. The attributes such as high fruit firmness, sensorial score, and appropriate shape and weight make 'Misty', the best variety for marketability and fresh consumption among all tested varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04261-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230094PMC
June 2020

Engineering Trienoic Fatty Acids into Cottonseed Oil Improves Low-Temperature Seed Germination, Plant Photosynthesis and Cotton Fiber Quality.

Plant Cell Physiol 2020 Jul;61(7):1335-1347

CSIRO Agriculture & Food, Clunies Ross Street, Black Mountain, ACT 2601, Australia.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3Δ9,12,15) and γ-linolenic acid \ (GLA, 18:3Δ6,9,12) are important trienoic fatty acids, which are beneficial for human health in their own right, or as precursors for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. ALA and GLA in seed oil are synthesized from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2Δ9,12) by the microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3) and Δ6 desaturase (D6D), respectively. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seed oil composition was modified by transforming with an FAD3 gene from Brassica napus and a D6D gene from Echium plantagineum, resulting in approximately 30% ALA and 20% GLA, respectively. The total oil content in transgenic seeds remained unaltered relative to parental seeds. Despite the use of a seed-specific promoter for transgene expression, low levels of GLA and increased levels of ALA were found in non-seed cotton tissues. At low temperature, the germinating cottonseeds containing the linolenic acid isomers elongated faster than the untransformed controls. ALA-producing lines also showed higher photosynthetic rates at cooler temperature and better fiber quality compared to both untransformed controls and GLA-producing lines. The oxidative stability of the novel cottonseed oils was assessed, providing guidance for potential food, pharmaceutical and industrial applications of these oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcaa062DOI Listing
July 2020

A Versatile High Throughput Screening Platform for Plant Metabolic Engineering Highlights the Major Role of in Lipid Metabolism Regulation.

Front Plant Sci 2020 17;11:288. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Agriculture and Food, CSIRO, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Traditional functional genetic studies in crops are time consuming, complicated and cannot be readily scaled up. The reason is that mutant or transformed crops need to be generated to study the effect of gene modifications on specific traits of interest. However, many crop species have a complex genome and a long generation time. As a result, it usually takes several months to over a year to obtain desired mutants or transgenic plants, which represents a significant bottleneck in the development of new crop varieties. To overcome this major issue, we are currently establishing a versatile plant genetic screening platform, amenable to high throughput screening in almost any crop species, with a unique workflow. This platform combines protoplast transformation and fluorescence activated cell sorting. Here we show that tobacco protoplasts can accumulate high levels of lipid if transiently transformed with genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and can be sorted based on lipid content. Hence, protoplasts can be used as a predictive tool for plant lipid engineering. Using this newly established strategy, we demonstrate the major role of in plant lipid accumulation. We anticipate that this workflow can be applied to numerous highly valuable metabolic traits other than storage lipid accumulation. This new strategy represents a significant step toward screening complex genetic libraries, in a single experiment and in a matter of days, as opposed to years by conventional means.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090168PMC
March 2020

A Synergistic Genetic Engineering Strategy Induced Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Potato () Leaf.

Front Plant Sci 2020 6;11:215. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Potato is the 4th largest staple food in the world currently. As a high biomass crop, potato harbors excellent potential to produce energy-rich compounds such as triacylglycerol as a valuable co-product. We have previously reported that transgenic potato tubers overexpressing , , and genes produced considerable levels of triacylglycerol. In this study, the same genetic engineering strategy was employed on potato leaves. The overexpression of under the transcriptional control of a senescence-inducible promoter together with and driven by the promoter and small subunit of Rubisco promoter respectively, resulted in an approximately 30- fold enhancement of triacylglycerols in the senescent transgenic potato leaves compared to the wild type. The increase of triacylglycerol in the transgenic potato leaves was accompanied by perturbations of carbohydrate accumulation, apparent in a reduction in starch content and increased total soluble sugars, as well as changes of polar membrane lipids at different developmental stages. Microscopic and biochemical analysis further indicated that triacylglycerols and lipid droplets could not be produced in chloroplasts, despite the increase and enlargement of plastoglobuli at the senescent stage. Possibly enhanced accumulation of fatty acid phytyl esters in the plastoglobuli were reflected in transgenic potato leaves relative to wild type. It is likely that the plastoglobuli may have hijacked some of the carbon as the result of expression, which could be a potential factor restricting the effective accumulation of triacylglycerols in potato leaves. Increased lipid production was also observed in potato tubers, which may have affected the tuberization to a certain extent. The expression of transgenes in potato leaf not only altered the carbon partitioning in the photosynthetic source tissue, but also the underground sink organs which highly relies on the leaves in development and energy deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069356PMC
March 2020

Consensus Mutagenesis and Ancestral Reconstruction Provide Insight into the Substrate Specificity and Evolution of the Front-End Δ6-Desaturase Family.

Biochemistry 2020 04 2;59(14):1398-1409. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

Marine algae are a major source of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFAs), which are conditionally essential nutrients in humans and a target for industrial production. The biosynthesis of these molecules in marine algae requires the desaturation of fatty acids by Δ6-desaturases, and enzymes from different species display a range of specificities toward ω3- and ω6-LCPUFA precursors. In the absence of a molecular structure, the structural basis for the variable substrate specificity of Δ6-desaturases is poorly understood. Here we have conducted a consensus mutagenesis and ancestral protein reconstruction-based analysis of the Δ6-desaturase family, focusing on the ω3-specific Δ6-desaturase from (MpΔ6des) and the bispecific (ω3/ω6) Δ6-desaturase from (OtΔ6des). Our characterization of consensus amino acid substitutions in MpΔ6des revealed that residues in diverse regions of the protein, such as the N-terminal cytochrome domain, can make important contributions to determining substrate specificity. Ancestral protein reconstruction also suggests that some extant Δ6-desaturases, such as OtΔ6des, could have adapted to different environmental conditions by losing specificity for ω3-LCPUFAs. This data set provides a map of regions within Δ6-desaturases that contribute to substrate specificity and could facilitate future attempts to engineer these proteins for use in biotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00110DOI Listing
April 2020

Producing Cyclopropane Fatty Acid in Plant Leafy Biomass Expression of Bacterial and Plant Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthases.

Front Plant Sci 2020 7;11:30. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Saturated mid-chain branched fatty acids (SMCBFAs) are widely used in the petrochemical industry for their high oxidative stability and low melting temperature. Dihydrosterculic acid (DHSA) is a cyclopropane fatty acid (CPA) that can be converted to SMCBFA hydrogenation, and therefore oils rich in DHSA are a potential feedstock for SMCBFA. Recent attempts to produce DHSA in seed oil by recombinant expression of cyclopropane fatty acid synthases (CPFASes) resulted in decreased oil content and poor germination or low DHSA accumulation. Here we explored the potential for plant vegetative tissue to produce DHSA by transiently expressing CPFAS enzymes in leaf. When CPFASes from plant and bacterial origin were transiently expressed in leaf, it accumulated up to 1 and 3.7% DHSA in total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), respectively, which increased up to 4.8 and 11.8%, respectively, when the endogenous oleoyl desaturase was silenced using RNA interference (RNAi). Bacterial CPFAS expression produced a novel fatty acid with a cyclopropane ring and two carbon-carbon double bonds, which was not seen with plant CPFAS expression. We also observed a small but significant additive effect on DHSA accumulation when both plant and bacterial CPFASes were co-expressed, possibly due to activity upon different oleoyl substrates within the plant cell. Lipidomics analyses found that CPFAS expression increased triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation relative to controls and that DHSA was distributed across a range of lipid species, including diacylglycerol and galactolipids. DHSA and the novel CPA were present in phosphatidylethanolamine when bacterial CPFAS was expressed in leaf. Finally, when plant diacylglycerol acyltransferase was coexpressed with the CPFASes DHSA accumulated up to 15% in TAG. This study shows that leaves can readily produce and accumulate DHSA in leaf oil. Our findings are discussed in line with current knowledge in leaf oil production for a possible route to DHSA production in vegetative tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020751PMC
February 2020