Publications by authors named "Surajudeen Oyeleke Bello"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

COVID-19 in children: a case series from Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 28;35(Suppl 2):53. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Community Medicine Amadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Introduction: The global spread of COVID-19 remains unabated in the past few months with a rise in the number of available literature on the novel virus. There are very few paediatric studies and are mainly from developed countries with a paucity of information on the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 disease in African children, including Nigeria.

Methods: We described the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome in a group of five Nigerian children managed at a COVID-19 isolation and treatment centre in Nigeria.

Results: We managed a total of five children with an age range of 3 months to 8 years in the last four weeks (16th April to 15th May 2020). Three of the five children were males. All the children had close contact with family members that tested positive for COVID-19. Out of the five children, one had moderate disease, three had mild symptomatic disease, and one was asymptomatic. Two out of the five children had lymphocytosis. Out of the four children who had chest radiograph, two had features of pneumonia.

Conclusion: COVID-19 is not uncommon in Nigerian children, and all had a confirmed family member with COVID-19. Besides, contrary to leucopaenia with lymphopaenia observed in the adult's population, we found lymphocytosis in this cohort and about 50.0% had pneumonic changes on chest radiograph.
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March 2021

Facility-Based Newborn Deaths at a Referral Tertiary Hospital in North-Central Nigeria during the Sustainable Development Goal Era: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 01;67(1)

Vaccines and Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, PO Box 273 Banjul, Fajara, Gambia.

Background: Nigeria has the largest number of global under-five deaths and almost half of these occur in the newborn period in an almost 50:50 ratio across hospital facilities and communities. We examine and describe risk factors for newborn mortality at a busy neonatal unit of a referral tertiary hospital in North-central Nigeria.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of all newborn admissions to the Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital between September 2018 and March 2020. We determined the newborn mortality rate (NMR) and case fatality rates (CFRs) for individual diagnostic categories and determined risk predictors for mortality using cox-proportional hazard models.

Results: Of 1171 admitted newborn infants, 175 (14.9%) died with about half of these occurring within 24 h of admission. Extremely low birth weight infants and those with congenital anomalies had the highest CFRs. Identified risk factors for mortality were age at admission [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999], admitting weight (AHR: 0.9995, 95% CI: 0.9993-0.9997) and home delivery (AHR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.11-to 2.46).

Conclusions: Facility-based newborn mortality is high in North-central Nigeria. Majority of these deaths occur within the first 24 h of admission, signifying challenges in acute critical newborn care. To improve the current situation and urgently accelerate progress to meet the sustainable development goal NMR targets, there is an urgent need to develop human and material resources for acute critical newborn care while encouraging facility-based delivery and decentralizing existing newborn care. Lay summaryNigeria now has the greatest number of deaths in children below the age of five globally. Almost half of these occurred in the newborn period and these deaths occur within hospital facilities and also in communities in an almost 50:50 ratio. As such, the country might not attain global newborn mortality rates that were set as targets for the sustainable development goals (SDGs). In this article, we examine and describe the risk factors for newborn deaths occurring at a typical newborn unit in North-central Nigeria. During the period under review, we found that about 175 (14.9%) died and about half of these deaths occurred within 24 h of admission. Extremely small babies and those who were born with physical defects had the highest death rates. Older babies and those who weighed more at admission had decreased risks of dying while being delivered at home increased the risk of death. Hospital newborn deaths remain high in North-central Nigeria and the pattern of early admission deaths signifies challenges in stabilizing critically ill newborn infants. There is an urgent need to develop human and material resources for acute critical newborn care while encouraging institutional delivery and decentralizing of existing newborn care.
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January 2021

Fatal case of newborn Lassa fever virus infection mimicking late onset neonatal sepsis: a case report from northern Nigeria.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Aug 10;9(1):110. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Vaccines and Immunity, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, P.O. Box 452, Banjul, Gambia.

Background: Lassa fever is a zoonotic viral infection endemic to the West Africa countries. It is highly fatal during pregnancy and as such reports of neonatal onset Lassa fever infections are rare in scientific literature. We report a fatal case of Lassa fever in a 26-day-old neonate mimicking the diagnosis of late-onset neonatal sepsis.

Case Presentation: The patient is a 26-day-old neonate who was admitted with a day history of fever, poor feeding, pre-auricular lymphadenopathy and sudden parental death. He was initially evaluated for late onset neonatal sepsis. He later developed abnormal bleeding and multiple convulsions while on admission, prompting the need to evaluate for Lassa fever using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). He died 31 h into admission and RT-PCR result was positive for Lassa fever.

Conclusions: Neonatal Lassa fever infection is highly fatal and can mimic neonatal sepsis. High index of suspicion is needed particularly for atypical presentations of neonatal sepsis in Lassa fever endemic areas.
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August 2020

Postnatal Outcomes and Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality among Asphyxiated Newborns in a Low-Resource Hospital Setting: Experience from North-Central Nigeria.

Ann Glob Health 2020 06 18;86(1):63. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Vaccines and Immunity, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at London school of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Atlantic Boulevard, Fajara, GM.

Background: Birth asphyxia accounts for a third of global newborn deaths and 95 percent of these occur in low-resource settings. A key to reducing asphyxia-related deaths in these settings is improving care of these newborns and this requires an understanding of factors associated with adverse outcomes.

Objectives: In this study, we report outcomes and risk factors for mortality among newborn infants with birth asphyxia admitted to a typical low-resource hospital setting.

Methods: We prospectively followed up 191 asphyxiated newborn infants admitted to a referral tertiary hospital in North-central Nigeria. At baseline, care-givers completed a structured questionnaire. Using univariable analysis, we compared baseline characteristics between participants who died and those who survived till discharge. We also fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to identify risk factors for mortality among the cohort.

Results: Majority (60.7%) of the study participants presented to the hospital within the first six hours of life. Despite this, mortality among the cohort was 14.7% with a third dying within the first 24 hours of admission. The presence of respiratory distress at admission increased the risk for mortality (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 11.35) while higher participant weight at admission decreased the risk (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.40). Intrapartum factors such as duration of labour and maternal age, although significant on univariable analysis, were not significant on multivariable analysis.

Conclusions: Hospital mortality among newborns with birth asphyxia is high in North-central Nigeria and majority of deaths occur during acute care. Respiratory distress at presentation and admission weights were identified as key risk factors for asphyxia mortality. Intrapartum factors on the other hand might have indirect effects on mortality through an increased risk for neonatal complications.
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June 2020