Publications by authors named "Sunil Sharma"

482 Publications

Study the Use of Activated Carbon and Bone Char on the Performance of Gravity Sand-Bag Water Filter.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Nov 11;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794-3400, USA.

In this study, granulated activated charcoal (GAC) and bio charcoal (BC) is used as a filler in P3 biosand bag filter to study their filtration performance against a range of fluoride impurities from 1-1400 mg/L. A set of experiments are done to analyze the filtration efficiency of the sandbag filter against fluoride impurities after incorporating different amounts (e.g., 0.2, 2 kg) and a combination of GAC and BC. A combination of filler GAC and BC (1 kg each) have exhibited excellent results with 100% fluoride removal efficiency against 5 mg/L fluoride impurities for an entire experimental time of 165 min. It is because of the synergetic effect of adsorption caused by the high surface area (739 m/g) of GAC and hydroxyapatite groups in BC. The data from remediation experiments using individual GAC and BC are fitted into the Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Models to check their adsorption mechanism and determine GAC and BC's maximum adsorption capacity (). The remediation data for both GAC and BC have shown the better fitting to the Langmuir Isotherm Model with a high R value of 0.994 and 0.970, respectively, showing the excellent conformity with monolayer adsorption. While the GAC and BC have presented negative Kf values of -1.08 and -0.72, respectively, for Freundlich Model, showing the non-conformity to multilayer adsorption. The values obtained from Langmuir Model for GAC is 6.23 mg/g, and for BC, it is 9.13 mg/g. The pH study on adsorption efficiency of individual GAC and BC against 5 mg/L of fluoride impurities indicates the decrease in removal efficiency with an increase in pH from 3 to 9. For example, BC has shown removal efficiency of 99.8% at pH 3 and 99.5% at pH 9, while GAC has exhibited removal efficiency of 96.1% at pH 3 and 95.9% at pH 9. Importantly, this study presents the significance of the synergetic application of GAC and BC in the filters, where GAC and BC are different in their origin, functionalities, and surface characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110868DOI Listing
November 2021

MXenes based nano-heterojunctions and composites for advanced photocatalytic environmental detoxification and energy conversion: A review.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 20:132923. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Environmental Engineering and Management Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.

Extensive research is being done to develop multifunctional advanced new materials for high performance photocatalytic applications in the field of energy production and environmental detoxification, MXenes have emerged as promising materials for enhancing photocatalytic performance owing to their excellent mechanical properties, appropriate Fermi levels, and adjustability of chemical composition. Numerous experimental and theoretical research works implied that the dimensions of MXenes have a significant impact on their performance. For photocatalysis to thrive in the future, we must understand the current state of the art for MXene in different dimensions. Using MXene co-catalysts in widely used in photocatalytic applications such as CO reduction, hydrogen production and organic pollutant oxidation, this study focuses on the most recent developments in MXenes based materials, structural modifications, innovations in reaction and material engineering. It has been reported that using 5mg of CdS-MoS-MXene researchers were able to generate as high as 9679 μmol/g/h hydrogen under visible light. The MXenes based heterojunction photocatalyst CoO/MXene was utilized to degrade 95% bisphenol A micro-pollutant in just 7 min. Numerous novel materials, their preparations and performances have been dicussed. Depending upon the nature of MXene-based materials, the synthesis techniques and photocatalytic mechanism of MXenes as co-catalyst are also summarized. Finally, some final thoughts and prospects for developing highly efficient MXene-based photocatalysts are provided which will indeed motivate researchers to design novel hybrid materials based on MXenes for sustainable solutions to energy and pollution issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132923DOI Listing
November 2021

An expedient, mild and aqueous method for Suzuki-Miyaura diversification of (hetero)aryl halides or (poly)chlorinated pharmaceuticals.

Org Chem Front 2021 Oct 19;8(20):5722-5727. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

School of Chemistry and BSRC, University of St Andrews St Andrews KY16 9ST UK

The development of mild, aqueous conditions for the cross-coupling of highly functionalized (hetero)aryl chlorides or bromides is attractive, enabling their functionalization and diversification. Herein, we report a general method for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling at 37 °C in aqueous media in the presence of air. We demonstrate application of this general methodology for derivatisation of (poly)chlorinated, medicinally active compounds and halogenated amino acids. The approach holds the potential to be a useful tool for late-stage functionalization or analogue generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1qo00919bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506956PMC
October 2021

A rare complication of pyogenic hepatic abscess after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy-case report and literature review emphasizing the role of imaging.

Clin Imaging 2022 Jan 23;81:143-146. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

The Department of Radiology, The University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

A pyogenic hepatic abscess is an uncommon complication after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) that can develop secondary to an infected hematoma or a staple line leak due to bacterial seeding. Appropriate screening for and management of a pyogenic hepatic abscess are essential in patients with clinical suspicion for complications after LSG. Early diagnosis is essential as pyogenic hepatic abscess can be fatal if not treated early. Only five cases have been reported in the literature so far. We present a case of pyogenic hepatic abscess that occurred two weeks after LSG in a 46-year-old female without immunosuppressive conditions or early postoperative leak. The abscess was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and was successfully treated with antibiotics and CT-guided drainage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.10.009DOI Listing
January 2022

How we do it: Sleep Disordered Breathing in Hospitalized patients - A game Changer?

Chest 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.

Sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, have become a significant health issue in the United States. It is estimated that 22 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea, with 80 percent of the cases of moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea going undiagnosed. This number continues to increase with the obesity epidemic. Sleep disordered breathing is associated with multiple cardiopulmonary diseases and has been shown to adversely affect disease outcomes. Hospitalized patients have a disproportionately high prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Screening for sleep disordered breathing in hospitalized patients provides an opportunity to identify the disease in individuals who may otherwise go unrecognized. As will be reviewed, data suggests that identification of sleep disordered breathing in hospitalized individuals may have a positive impact on the post hospital course. Unfortunately, sleep medicine currently remains an ambulatory practice. Hospital sleep medicine addresses this separation. We hereby discuss our experience and future potential of a hospital sleep medicine program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.10.016DOI Listing
October 2021

ICU Mortality in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection: Highlighting Healthcare Disparities in Rural Appalachia.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Oct 8;3(10):e547. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.

To assess 30-day mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients transferred from rural Appalachian hospitals.

Design: Retrospective case controlled, based on consecutive patients transferred and admitted from rural hospitals to a tertiary-care ICU. The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used in the survival data analysis.

Setting: Medical ICU, West Virginia University Hospital, Morgantown, WV.

Patients: All adult patients admitted to the ICU for coronavirus disease 2019 disease between September 30, 2020, and December 2, 2020.

Intervention: Not applicable.

Measurements And Main Results: Seventy-nine consecutive coronavirus disease 2019 patients were admitted to the ICU during the defined period. Overall mortality of the cohort was 54%. Of the 79 patients, 50 were transferred from critical access hospitals/rural facilities with coronavirus disease 2019-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. A control group consisted of 39 patients admitted to the ICU with noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome who were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Thirty-day mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to the ICU was significantly higher than the control group (68% vs 42%) ( = 0.034). Mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were similar in both coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome group and controls. Intubation in patients 70 years or older and mechanical ventilation for over 5 days was associated with significantly higher mortality.

Conclusions: Our data on critically ill and mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients transferred from critical access hospitals/rural facilities have increased mortality compared with noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome controls. These data suggest that lack or delay in access to tertiary care may impact coronavirus disease 2019 outcome in rural areas. Intubated patients 70 years old or more and mechanical ventilation for over 5 days may be a risk factor for increased mortality. These data may help physicians and hospital administrators in rural areas for optimal utilization of limited resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505332PMC
October 2021

GenoChemetic Strategy for Derivatization of the Violacein Natural Product Scaffold.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 11 14;16(11):2116-2123. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Section of Structural and Synthetic Biology, Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, U.K.

Natural products and their analogues are often challenging to synthesize due to their complex scaffolds and embedded functional groups. Solely relying on engineering the biosynthesis of natural products may lead to limited compound diversity. Integrating synthetic biology with synthetic chemistry allows rapid access to much more diverse portfolios of xenobiotic compounds, which may accelerate the discovery of new therapeutics. As a proof-of-concept, by supplementing an strain expressing the violacein biosynthesis pathway with 5-bromo-tryptophan or tryptophan 7-halogenase RebH , six halogenated analogues of violacein or deoxyviolacein were generated, demonstrating the promiscuity of the violacein biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, 20 new derivatives were generated from 5-brominated violacein analogues via the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction directly using the crude extract without prior purification. Herein we demonstrate a flexible and rapid approach to access a diverse chemical space that can be applied to a wide range of natural product scaffolds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.1c00483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609527PMC
November 2021

Association of Bone Conduction Devices for Single-Sided Sensorineural Deafness With Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Alder Hey Children's Hospital NHS (National Health Service) Foundation Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom.

Importance: Although bone conduction devices (BCDs) have been shown to improve audiological outcomes of patients with single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD), their effects on the patients' quality of life (QOL) are unclear.

Objective: To investigate the association of BCDs on QOL in patients with SSD.

Data Sources: Literature search of databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov) from January 1, 1978, to June 24, 2021, was performed.

Study Selection: Prospective interventional studies with 10 or more participants with SSD (defined as pure tone average >70 dB hearing loss in the worse hearing ear and ≤30 dB in the better hearing ear) who underwent unilateral BCD implantation and assessment of QOL before and after the intervention using a validated tool were eligible for inclusion. Studies on adults and children were eligible for inclusion. Patients with only conductive, mixed, or bilateral hearing loss were excluded.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Study clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained. Meta-analysis of mean differences in QOL scores before and after the intervention was performed. Study bias was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute risk of bias tool.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main study outcome was mean change in QOL scores at 6 months after insertion of BCDs. The 3 QOL instruments used in the studies included the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB), the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3), and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). The APHAB and the SSQ are the hearing-related QOL measures, whereas the HUI-3 is a generic QOL measure.

Results: A total of 486 articles were identified, and 11 studies with 203 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only adult studies met inclusion criteria. Ten of 11 studies were nonrandomized cohort studies. The BCDs assessed were heterogeneous. There was a significant statistical and clinically meaningful improvement in the global APHAB scores (mean change, 15.50; 95% CI, 12.63-18.36; I2 = 0) and the SSQ hearing qualities (mean change, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.46-1.92; I2 = 78.4%), speech (mean change, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.68-2.37; I2 = 0), and spatial hearing (mean change, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.57-2.44; I2 = 81.1%) subscales. There was no significant change detected in the mean HUI-3 scores (mean change, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.10; I2 = 0). The risk of bias was assessed to be low to moderate.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that adult patients who receive BCDs may experience improvements in hearing-specific QOL measures but not in generic QOL measures. Prospective QOL studies should be considered in this cohort, particularly for children with SSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2021.2769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517883PMC
October 2021

Supervise the physicochemical quality of ground water using soft computing technique.

Environ Technol 2021 Oct 18:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Civil Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Water resources are essential for human beings and nowadays polluted water jeopardizes the human health. Toxic substances come from houses, industries and farm lands, dust mix with water causes water pollution. This pollution depreciates the quality of water and affects the human life. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate and supervise the physicochemical quality of the ground water, for the safety of human beings. The sample quality of 15 sites was used for measuring important parameters like pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, Also, NH4+ and NO3-, Fe2+ and HCO3-12 were considered for performance analysis. A soft computing component fuzzy logic system is used to design an intelligent system. The fuzzy logic system-based model measures groundwater quality status along with its sustainability. The results obtained from the model help the authorities, policy makers to plan proper policies for geochemical operation (water treatment process) and a foundation for observing the physicochemical quality of water in the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1983023DOI Listing
October 2021

Triclosan elicited biochemical and transcriptomic alterations in Labeo rohita larvae.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Nov 14;88:103748. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Italy.

In the current study, Triclosan (TCS, a commonly used antimicrobial agent) induced alterations in biochemical parameters and gene expression were recorded in the larvae of Labeo rohita after 96 h exposure and 10 days recovery period to find out health status biomarkers. 96 h exposure to 0.06, 0.067 and 0.097 mg/L TCS significantly declined the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea and uric acid and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). There was a non-significant decline in the levels of cholesterol and total protein but albumin and total bilirubin showed no change. After 10 days of recovery period, trend was opposite for glucose, urea and ALP only. Decline in the expression of trypsin and pancreatic amylase and elevation in creatine kinase during exposure to TCS showed a reverse trend after recovery period. However, concentration dependent elevation of chymotrypsin persisted till the end of recovery period. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed association of total protein, ALP, GOT, creatine kinase and pancreatic amylase with PC1 after exposure as well as recovery period. Therefore, these can be considered as important biomolecules for identification of health status of TCS stressed fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2021.103748DOI Listing
November 2021

The value of comprehensive genomic sequencing to maximize the identification of clinically actionable alterations in advanced cancer patients: a case series.

Oncotarget 2021 Aug 31;12(18):1836-1847. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Translational Genomic Research Institute (Tgen), Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA.

Purpose: We present seven cases of advanced cancer patients who initially underwent tumor testing utilizing smaller, panel-based tests, followed by a variety of therapeutic treatments which ultimately resulted in progression of their disease. These cases demonstrate the value of utilizing WES/RNA seq and characterization following disease progression in these patients and the determination of clinically targetable alterations as well as acquired resistance mutations.

Materials And Methods: All patients are part of an IRB approved observational study. WES and RNA sequencing were performed, using GEM ExTra on tumor and blood samples obtained during routine clinical care. To accurately determine somatic versus germline alterations the test was performed with paired normal testing from peripheral blood.

Results: The presented cases demonstrate the clinical impact of actionable findings uncovered using GEM ExTra in patients with advanced disease who failed many rounds of treatment. Unique alterations were identified resulting in newly identified potential targeted therapies, mechanisms of resistance, and variation in the genomic characterization of the primary versus the metastatic tumor.

Conclusions: Taken together our results demonstrate that GEM ExTra maximizes detection of actionable mutations, thus allowing for appropriate treatment selection for patients harboring both common and rare genomic alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.28046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416559PMC
August 2021

Sinogenic Intracranial Suppuration in Children: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Sep 7:1945998211043847. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

Objective: To evaluate temporal trends in the management of sinogenic intracranial suppuration and its outcomes in children.

Data Sources: A systematic search of databases was performed (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov).

Review Methods: Studies in children (age <18 years) with sinogenic subdural empyema, extradural abscess, and intraparenchymal abscess were included. Data on treatment strategies were extracted. Primary outcome was death <90 days. Secondary outcomes were return to theater, neurologic disability at 6 months, and length of stay. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed to investigate the effect of time and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on these outcomes.

Results: A total of 32 retrospective observational studies involving 533 patients recruited across a 45-year period (1975-2020) were included. The pooled estimates for 90-day mortality, permanent neurologic disability, and return to theater were 2.3% (95% CI, 1.1%-3.6%; = 0, > .99), 21.3% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.3%; = 75.2%, < .001), and 37.3% (95% CI, 29.5%-45%; = 71.2%, < .001), respectively, with no significant differences found across the study period. The pooled estimate for ESS was 58.4% (95% CI, 44.2%-72.6%; = 97.1%, < .001) with a significantly increasing trend in its use in the more recent years. ESS was not associated with improved mortality, reduced need for revision surgery, or neurologic disability.

Conclusion: The outcomes of sinogenic intracranial complications have not changed over the last 45 years, and ESS was not associated with improved patient outcomes. Further high-quality studies are required to determine the most appropriate treatment modalities to improve the burden of morbidity associated with sinogenic intracranial suppuration in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01945998211043847DOI Listing
September 2021

Role of cartilage correcting sutures in single-stage secondary rhinoplasty for unilateral cleft lip nose deformity.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2021 May-Aug;12(2):193-198. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Burns, Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of cartilage correcting suture in single-stage surgical correction for secondary unilateral cleft lip nose deformity with three-dimensional observations of preoperative and postoperative nasal forms.

Material And Methods: Between July 2017 and June 2019, 18 consecutive patients of unilateral cleft lip nose deformity aged between 16 and 28 years underwent surgical correction. The corrective procedure of nose involved columellar lengthening, medial and lateral nasal osteotomies along with augmentation of premaxilla by bone graft at premaxilla, and alar base wedge resections. Focus was laid to correct nasal cartilaginous framework using tip sutures along with repositioning of lower lateral cartilages, fixation of the alar cartilage complex to the septum, and the upper lateral cartilages. We investigated the following surgical interventions and nasal tip suture techniques, which were transdomal suture, interdomal suture, lateral crural mattress suture, columella septal suture, and intercrural suture.

Results: We achieved adequate esthetic and functional results in all the patients without any morbidity.

Conclusion: This concept of simultaneous approach toward complete single-stage correction of secondary cleft lip nasal deformity incorporating various cartilage suture using 5-0 nylon in developing nation like ours, where the patient presents late with complex conditions showed promising esthetic and functional outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/njms.NJMS_282_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386267PMC
July 2021

Survey of the Use of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Cholesteatoma in the United Kingdom.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2021 Aug 27:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Northwick Park Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Non-echoplanar diffusion-weighted MRI (DWMRI) has a role in the surgical planning for cholesteatoma.

Aims/objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the use of DWMRI in the management of cholesteatoma across the UK, and measure clinicians' confidence in the use of DWMRI.

Materials And Methods: Telephone survey in 139 Otolaryngology Departments in the United Kingdom between March 2017 and July 2017, and asking radiology delegates at the British Society of Head and Neck Imaging 2017 meeting.

Results: The response rate was 101 out of 139 Trusts (73%). Of those respondents who did have DWMRI available, 68/88 respondents (77%) use it for cholesteatoma. The mean confidence (±standard deviation) of the respondents with DWMRI in identifying cholesteatoma presence was 7.3 ± 2.1, in identifying volume of cholesteatoma was 6.8 ± 1.8, and in identifying subsites of cholesteatoma was 4.6 ± 2.1.

Conclusions And Significance: DWMRI has a well-defined role in the follow-up of patients after cholesteatoma surgery, and those primary cases of cholesteatoma where the diagnosis is in question. The use of DWMRI for cholesteatoma is variable across the UK, but there are certain clinical scenarios where there is not enough awareness regarding the benefits of imaging (such as petrous apex cases of cholesteatoma).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516242DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon-α2b in moderate COVID-19: a phase 3, randomized, comparator-controlled, open-label study.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Oct 21;111:281-287. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2b (PEG IFN-α2b) administered in conjunction with the standard of care (SOC) in subjects with moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

Methods: In this study, adult subjects with confirmed moderate COVID-19 were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either PEG IFN-α2b + SOC or SOC alone. The primary endpoint was a two-point improvement in clinical status on Day 11, measured by the World Health Organization's seven-point ordinal scale.

Results: Of 250 subjects, 120 were randomized to the PEG IFN-α2b + SOC arm and 130 were randomized to the SOC arm. The results for the PEG IFN + SOC arms vs the SOC arm for the proportion of subjects with a two-point improvement in the seven-point ordinal scale were 80.36% vs 68.18% (P=0.037) on Day 8, 91.60% vs 92.56% (P=0.781) on Day 11, and 94.12% vs 95.93% (P=0.515) on Day 15. There was a time-dependent decrease in the biomarkers in both arms, and no clinically significant changes in laboratory parameters. The safety profile was similar in both arms.

Conclusion: PEG IFN-α2b induced early viral clearance, improved the clinical status, and decreased the duration of supplemental oxygen. It provides a viable treatment option and can limit the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379820PMC
October 2021

Halogenases: a palette of emerging opportunities for synthetic biology-synthetic chemistry and C-H functionalisation.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Sep 9;50(17):9443-9481. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

School of Chemistry, and BSRC, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK.

The enzymatic generation of carbon-halogen bonds is a powerful strategy used by both nature and synthetic chemists to tune the bioactivity, bioavailability and reactivity of compounds, opening up the opportunity for selective C-H functionalisation. Genes encoding halogenase enzymes have recently been shown to transcend all kingdoms of life. These enzymes install halogen atoms into aromatic and less activated aliphatic substrates, achieving selectivities that are often challenging to accomplish using synthetic methodologies. Significant advances in both halogenase discovery and engineering have provided a toolbox of enzymes, enabling the ready use of these catalysts in biotransformations, synthetic biology, and in combination with chemical catalysis to enable late stage C-H functionalisation. With a focus on substrate scope, this review outlines the mechanisms employed by the major classes of halogenases, while in parallel, it highlights key advances in the utilisation of the combination of enzymatic halogenation and chemical catalysis for C-H activation and diversification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01551bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407142PMC
September 2021

Machine learned hybrid Gaussian analysis of COVID-19 pandemic in India.

Results Phys 2021 Nov 2;30:104630. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Information Technology, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, Saudi Arabia.

This article discusses short term forecasting of the Novel Corona Virus (COVID -19) data for infected, recovered and active cases using the Machine learned hybrid Gaussian and ARIMA method for the spread in India. The Covid-19 data is obtained from the World meter and MOH (Ministry of Health, India). The data is analyzed for the period from January 30, 2020 (the first case reported) to October 15, 2020. Using ARIMA (2, 1, 0), we obtain the short forecast up to October 31, 2020. The several statistics parameters have tested for the goodness of fit to evaluate the forecasting methods but the results show that ARIMA (2, 1, 0) gives better forecast for the data system. It is observed that COVID 19 data follows quadratic behavior and in long run it spreads with high peak roughly estimated in September 18, 2020. Also, using nonlinear regression it is observed that the trend in long run follows the Gaussian mixture model. It is concluded that COVID 19 will follow secondary shock wave in the month of November 2020. In India we are approaching towards herd immunity. Also, it is observed that the impact of pandemic will be about 441 to 465 days and the pandemic will end in between April-May 2021. It is concluded that primary peak observed in September 2020 and the secondary shock wave to be around November 2020 with sharp peak. Thus, it is concluded that the people should follow precautionary measures and it is better to maintain social distancing with all safety measures as the pandemic situation is not in control due to non-availability of medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2021.104630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328529PMC
November 2021

Enhancing Recruitment and Retention of Minority Populations for Clinical Research in Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine: An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 08;204(3):e26-e50

Well-designed clinical research needs to obtain information that is applicable to the general population. However, most current studies fail to include substantial cohorts of racial/ethnic minority populations. Such underrepresentation may lead to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis of disease, wide application of approved interventions without appropriate knowledge of their usefulness in certain populations, and development of recommendations that are not broadly applicable. To develop best practices for recruitment and retention of racial/ethnic minorities for clinical research in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop in May of 2019. This included an international interprofessional group from academia, industry, the NIH, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with expertise ranging from clinical and biomedical research to community-based participatory research methods and patient advocacy. Workshop participants addressed historical and current mistrust of scientific research, systemic bias, and social and structural barriers to minority participation in clinical research. A literature search of PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the literature. Barriers at the individual, interpersonal, institutional, and federal/policy levels were identified as limiting to minority participation in clinical research. Through the use of a multilevel framework, workshop participants proposed evidence-based solutions to the identified barriers. To date, minority participation in clinical research is not representative of the U.S. and global populations. This American Thoracic Society research statement identifies potential evidence-based solutions by applying a multilevel framework that is anchored in community engagement methods and patient advocacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202105-1210STDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513588PMC
August 2021

Aesculin based glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors as novel preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products: in-silico studies, antioxidant, antimicrobial and preservative efficacy evaluation.

BMC Chem 2021 Jul 27;15(1):45. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory for Preservation Technology, and Enzyme Inhibition Studies, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

Background: Presently available chemical based synthetic preservative have emerged with various side effects, so the aspiration of natural and side effect free novel preservative has been greatly increased. As the natural preservative exhibit poor side effect with improved preservative efficacy. The recent development in computational studies leads advancement in drug designing and discovery of novel glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (G-6-P synthase) inhibition based natural antimicrobial preservatives. Here, selected aesculin derivatives were screened for G-6-P synthase inhibition via docking study and evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, preservative efficacy as well stability study.

Results: Modified aesculin derivatives were designed, synthesized and showed potent G-6-P synthase inhibition with remarkable antimicrobial, antioxidant, preservative efficacy and stability study. The molecular docking with target pdb id 1moq from G-6-P synthase resulted with better dock score and energy for compound 1 as compared to standard drugs streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin and fluconazole, that supported the wet lab results. Among the synthesized compounds, the compound 1 possessed good antioxidant activity as compared to standard L-ascorbic acid. The resultant data for antimicrobial activity of aesculin derivatives revealed compound 1 as the most potent antimicrobial compound as compared to the standard drugs streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin and fluconazole. While compound 2 showed better antimicrobial activity as compared to streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin. The preservative efficacy test for compound 1 in aloe vera juice and white lotion USP has been showed the log CFU/mL values within the prescribed limit of USP standard and results were comparable to standard sodium benzoate, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben. Compound 1 has been found to be within prescribed limit of stability study over six month.

Conclusion: Compound 1 showed the potent G-6-P synthase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, preservative efficacy and stability study results as compared to standard drugs taken. The results have found comparable to molecular docking results, and this final compound may be used as new preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products. Moreover, the mechanistic insight into the docking poses was also explored by binding interactions of aesculin derivatives inside the pdb id 1moq. These results also supported the results for novel synthesized G-6-P synthase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13065-021-00769-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317424PMC
July 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of a DNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (ZyCoV-D): Results of an open-label, non-randomized phase I part of phase I/II clinical study by intradermal route in healthy subjects in India.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 17;38:101020. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Zydus Discovery DMCC, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: ZyCoV-D is a DNA vaccine candidate, which comprises a plasmid DNA carrying spike-S gene of SARS-CoV-2 virus along with gene coding for signal peptide. The spike(S) region includes the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which binds to the human angiotensin converting Enzyme (ACE)-2 receptor and mediates the entry of virus inside the cell.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, open-label, non-randomized, Phase 1 trial in India between July 2020 and October 2020. Healthy adults aged between 18 and 55 years were sequentially enrolled and allocated to one of four treatment arms in a dose escalation manner. Three doses of vaccine were administered 28 days apart and each subject was followed up for 28 days post third dose to evaluate safety and immunogenicity.

Findings: Out of 126 individuals screened for eligibility. Forty-eight subjects (mean age 34·9 years) were enrolled and vaccinated in the Phase 1 study Overall, 12/48 (25%) subjects reported at least one AE (i.e. combined solicited and unsolicited) during the study. There were no deaths or serious adverse events reported in Phase 1 of the study. The proportion of subjects who seroconverted based on IgG titers on day 84 was 4/11 (36·36%), 4/12 (33·33%), 10/10 (100·00%) and 8/10 (80·00%) in the treatment Arm 1 (1 mg: Needle), Arm 2 (1 mg: NFIS), Arm 3 (2 mg: Needle) and Arm 4 (2 mg: NFIS), respectively.

Interpretation: ZyCoV-D vaccine is found to be safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic in the Phase 1 trial. Our findings suggest that the DNA vaccine warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285262PMC
August 2021

IoT-based analysis for controlling & spreading prediction of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia.

Soft comput 2021 Jul 19:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Majmaah, 11952 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Presently, novel coronavirus outbreak 2019 (COVID-19) is a major threat to public health. Mathematical epidemic models can be utilized to forecast the course of an epidemic and cultivate approaches for controlling it. This paper utilizes the real data of spreading COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia for mathematical modeling and complex analyses. This paper introduces the Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered, Undetectable, and Deceased (SEIRUD) and Machine learning algorithm to predict and control COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia.This COVID-19 has initiated many methods, such as cloud computing, edge-computing, IoT, artificial intelligence. The use of sensor devices has increased enormously. Similarly, several developments in solving the COVID-19 crisis have been used by IoT applications. The new technology relies on IoT variables and the roles of symptoms using wearable sensors to forecast cases of COVID-19. The working model involves wearable devices, occupational therapy, condition control, testing of cases, suspicious and IoT elements. Mathematical modeling is useful for understanding the fundamental principle of the transmission of COVID-19 and providing guidance for possible predictions. The method suggested predicts whether COVID-19 would expand or die in the long term in the population. The mathematical study results and related simulation are described here as a way of forecasting the progress and the possible end of the epidemic with three forms of scenarios: 'No Action,' 'Lockdowns and New Medicine.' The lock case slows it down the peak by minimizing infection and impacts area equality of the infected deformation. This study familiarizes the ideal protocol, which can support the Saudi population to breakdown spreading COVID-19 in an accurate and timely way. The simulation findings have been executed, and the suggested model enhances the accuracy ratio of 89.3%, prediction ratio of 88.7%, the precision ratio of 87.7%, recall ratio of 86.4%, and F1 score of 90.9% compared to other existing methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00500-021-06024-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287555PMC
July 2021

Bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein bromodomain inhibitor based cancer therapeutics.

Curr Opin Oncol 2021 09;33(5):526-531

Applied Cancer Research and Drug Discovery, Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins are evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional super-regulators that specifically recognize acetyl-lysine on histones and other proteins controlling gene transcription. Several studies show that small molecules targeting these regulators preferentially suppress the transcription of cancer-promoting genes. Consequently, several BET inhibitors reached clinical trials and are in various stages for different kind of malignancies. In this review, we provide a concise summary of the molecular basis and preliminary clinical outcomes of BET inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics.

Recent Findings: Results from early clinical trials with BET inhibitors confirmed their antitumor potential in both hematologic and solid tumours, but the evidence does not support the application of BET inhibitors as a monotherapy for cancer treatment. Treatment-emergent toxicities such as thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal disorders are also reported. Preclinical data suggest that BET inhibitors may have a promising future in combination with other anticancer agents.

Summary: Despite of various challenges, BET inhibitors have high potential in combinatorial therapy and the future development of next-generation inhibitors could be promising. Further studies are needed to determine the predictive biomarkers for therapeutic response, which would translate into the long-term success of BET inhibitors as personalized medicines in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0000000000000763DOI Listing
September 2021

Genomic markers for the biological responses of Triclosan stressed hatchlings of Labeo rohita.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Aquatic Toxicology Lab, Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.

Triclosan (TCS) used commonly in pharmaceuticals and personal care products has become the most common pollutant in water. Three-day-old hatchlings of an indigenous fish, Labeo rohita, were given 96h exposure to a nonlethal (60 μg L) and two moderately lethal concentrations (67 and 97 μg L) of TCS and kept for 10 days of recovery for recording transcriptomic alterations in antioxidant/detoxification (SOD, GST, CAT, GPx, GR, CYP1a and CYP3a), metabolic (LDH, ALT and AST) and neurological (AchE) genes and DNA damage. The data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) for obtaining biomarkers for the toxicity of TCS. Hatchlings were highly sensitive to TCS (96h LC = 126 μg L and risk quotient = 40.95), 96h exposure caused significant induction of CYP3a, AChE and ALT but suppression of all other genes. However, expression of all the genes increased significantly (except for a significant decline in ALT) after recovery. Concentration-dependent increase was also observed in DNA damage [Tail Length (TL), Tail Moment (TM), Olive Tail Moment (OTM) and Percent Tail DNA (TDNA)] after 96 h. The damage declined significantly over 96h values at 60 and 67 μg L after recovery, but was still several times more than control. TCS elicited genomic alterations resulted in 5-11% mortality of exposed hatchlings during the recovery period. It is evident that hatchlings of L. rohita are a potential model and PCA shows that OTM, TL, TM, TDNA, SOD and GR (association with PC1 during exposure and recovery) are the biomarkers for the toxicity of TCS. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15109-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Polyamines: Functions, Metabolism, and Role in Human Disease Management.

Med Sci (Basel) 2021 06 9;9(2). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, Kundli, Sonepat 131028, Haryana, India.

Putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are the important polyamines (PAs), found in all living organisms. PAs are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, and they facilitate cell growth and development via different cellular responses. PAs are the integrated part of the cellular and genetic metabolism and help in transcription, translation, signaling, and post-translational modifications. At the cellular level, PA concentration may influence the condition of various diseases in the body. For instance, a high PA level is detrimental to patients suffering from aging, cognitive impairment, and cancer. The levels of PAs decline with age in humans, which is associated with different health disorders. On the other hand, PAs reduce the risk of many cardiovascular diseases and increase longevity, when taken in an optimum quantity. Therefore, a controlled diet is an easy way to maintain the level of PAs in the body. Based on the nutritional intake of PAs, healthy cell functioning can be maintained. Moreover, several diseases can also be controlled to a higher extend via maintaining the metabolism of PAs. The present review discusses the types, important functions, and metabolism of PAs in humans. It also highlights the nutritional role of PAs in the prevention of various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medsci9020044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293435PMC
June 2021

Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis Emphysema: Role of Cigarette Smoking and Pulmonary Hypertension in a Rural Cohort.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 21;16:1873-1885. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Background: Disease heterogeneity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often complicates the systematic study of disease, management of patients and clinical investigations.

Objective: To describe combined pulmonary fibrosis emphysema (CPFE) phenotype in a rural Appalachian IPF cohort with the highest smoking rates in the United States.

Methods: CPFE patients (n = 60) in a developed IPF cohort (n = 153) were characterized. Groups (CPFE vs IPF without emphysema) were categorized based on the predominant HRCT patterns of UIP (n = 109). Demographics, clinical variables, and treatment details were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.

Results: The prevalence of CPFE in our IPF cohort was 45% (n = 49). The CPFE group was younger (73.9 vs 78.2), had a more extensive smoking history (93.9% vs 53.3%) with greater mean smoking pack years (49.09 vs 15.39) and had lower percentage predicted DL on presentation (38.35 vs 51.09) compared to IPF without emphysema group. Both groups shared equivalent higher burden of comorbidities, including pulmonary hypertension (PH) (46.9% vs 33.3%). One-fifth of patients were prescribed antifibrotics and only a subset (5%) of patients underwent lung transplantation. There was a non-significant trend towards reduced survival in CPFE (p = 0.076). Smoking status and DL predicted CPFE in our cohort. Body mass index (BMI), PH, and pirfenidone use were significant predictors of mortality.

Conclusion: CPFE was highly prevalent in our rural IPF cohort. In contrast to previous studies, CPFE group was older and had higher female (approx. 30%) occurrence. A greater exposure to cigarette smoke and reduced DL at diagnosis predicted CPFE. Lower BMI and PH predicted higher mortality whereas use of pirfenidone improved survival in our cohort. This study highlights a complex interaction of cigarette smoking, advanced fibrosis of UIP, PH and potential utility of antifibrotic agents in CPFE phenotype. Substantial burden of comorbidities, older age, and the limited utilization of advanced therapeutics in the cohort emphasize the challenges faced by rural Appalachian patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S307192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232869PMC
August 2021

The Influence of Ciprofloxacin-Dexamethasone Ear Drops on Perforation Closure Rates After Endoscopic Tympanoplasty.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Dec;42(10):e1644-e1647

Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children.

Objective: Topical ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone have both been shown to disrupt healing of tympanic membrane perforations in animal models. There have been no clinical studies evaluating the effect of ciprofloxacin-dexamethasone (CD) ear drops on success of tympanoplasty. We compare perforation closure rates in pediatric endoscopic tympanoplasty with and without use of postoperative CD.

Study Design: Retrospective comparative cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary referral centre.

Patients: One hundred sixty-two totally endoscopic tympanoplasties with porcine-derived collagen graft in children, mean age 12.0 years (range 2.3-17.9 yrs).

Intervention: Prescription of CD versus no ear drops in the immediate postoperative period.

Main Outcome Measure: Perforation closure rate 2 months after totally endoscopic tympanoplasty.

Results: Postoperative CD was given to 65 (40%) ears and no drops given to the remainder. Overall, successful closure of tympanic membrane perforation was achieved in 140 (86%) of ears. The closure rate was not significantly different in those ears given CD postoperatively than those not given CD (54/65 [83%] vs 86/97 [89%], Fisher's p = 0.35). Multiple logistical regression revealed no confounding effect of other variables on outcome including age, revision surgery, graft position, or type of postoperative packing material.

Conclusions: Our results reveal no harm or benefit with prescription of drops containing ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone on success of perforation closure after tympanoplasty. Allocation to treatment in this retrospective study was nonrandomized and was predominantly based on a change in practice. No other variables are known to have influenced this finding but a randomized prospective study could be justified for more reliable evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000003236DOI Listing
December 2021

Sleep apnea and pulmonary hypertension: A riddle waiting to be solved.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 11 22;227:107935. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Clinic for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany; Heart Failure Department, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an under-recognized yet highly prevalent disease that has major implications to cardiovascular health. Pulmonary hypertension (pH) is less common but none the less a fatal condition. The association of OSA and PH is a known but not well understood phenomenon. Furthermore, the relationship appears to be bi-directional with limited understanding of the mechanism(s) driving the processes. PH in OSA has real time consequences as it has been shown to increase mortality. Limited data suggests that treatment with continuous positive pressure therapy may be beneficial and reduce pulmonary pressure. In this review, we discuss current data on prevalence of PH in OSA and vice versa. We also explore the pathophysiology of this relationship and a proposed mechanism for their connection. Finally, we address the treatment of OSA with CPAP and its impact on pulmonary pressures. Gaps in knowledge and future research potential are illustrated and discoursed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107935DOI Listing
November 2021

Bullying-induced dyspnea in children: A case series.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 09 24;56(9):3054-3055. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Physiotherapy, and ENT Surgery, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25544DOI Listing
September 2021

Improved water resource management framework for water sustainability and security.

Environ Res 2021 10 19;201:111527. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Information Technology, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

The water resource is an essential field of economic growth, social progress, and environmental integrity. A novel solution is offered to meet water needs, distribution, and IoT-based quality management requirements. With technological growth, this paper presents an IoT-enabled Water Resource Management and Distribution Monitoring System (IWRM-DMS) using sensors, gauge meters, flow meters, ultrasonic sensors, motors to implement in rural cities. Thus, research proposes that the IWRM-DMS establish the rural demand for water and the water supply system to minimize water demand. The system proposed includes different sensors, such as the water flow sensor, the pH sensor, the water pressure valve, the flow meters, and ultrasound sensors. This water system has been developed, which addresses the demand for domestic water in the village. Machine Intelligence has been designed for demand prediction in the decision support system. The simulation results confirm the applicability of the proposed framework in real-time environments. The proposed IWRM-DMS has been proposed to analyse the water quality to ensure water distribution in a rural area to achieve less MAPE (21.41%) and RMSE(15.12%), improve efficiency (96.93%), Reliability (98.24%), enhance prediction (95.29%)), the overall performance (97.34%), moisture content ratio (7.4%), cost-effectiveness ratio (95.7%) when compared to other popular methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111527DOI Listing
October 2021

Nonlinear dynamics for the spread of pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jul 20;14(7):817-831. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University School of Basic & Applied Sciences (USBAS), Head, Non-Linear Dynamics-Research-Lab, GGS Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses did not invite attention at a global level and responsiveness until the series of 2003-SARS contagion followed by year-2012 MERS plus, most recently, 2019-nCoV eruptions. SARS-CoV &MERS-CoV are painstaking, extremely pathogenic. Also, very evidently, both have been communicated from bats to palm-civets & dromedary camels and further transferred ultimately to humans. No country has been deprived of this viral genomic contamination wherever populaces reside and are interconnected. This study aimed to develop a mathematical model for calculating the transmissibility of this viral genome. The analysis aids the study of the outbreak of this Virus towards the other parts of the continent and the world. The parameters such as population mobility, natural history, epidemiological characteristics, and the transmission mechanism towards viral spread when considered into crowd dynamism result in improved estimation. This article studies the impact of time on the amount of susceptible, exposed, the infected person taking into account asymptomatic and symptomatic ones; recovered i.e., removed from this model and the virus particles existing in the open surfaces. The transition from stable phase to attractor phase happens after 13 days i.e.; it takes nearly a fortnight for the spread to randomize among people. Further, the pandemic transmission remains in the attractor phase for a very long time if no control measures are taken up. The attractor-source phase continues up to 385 days i.e., more than a year, and perhaps stabilizes on 386th day as per the Lyapunov exponent's analysis. The time series helps to know the period of the Virus's survival in the open sources i.e. markets, open spaces and various other carriers of the Virus if not quarantined or sanitized. The Virus cease to exist in around 60 days if it does not find any carrier or infect more places, people etc. The changes in LCEs of all variables as time progresses for around 400 days have been forecasted. It can be observed that phase trajectories indicate how the two variables interact with each other and affect the overall system's dynamics. It has been observed that for exposed and asymptomatically infected (y-z), as exposed ones (y) change from 0 to 100 the value of asymptomatically infected (z) increased upto around 58, at exposed ones (y)=100, asymptomatically infected (z) has two values as 58 and 10 i.e. follows bifurcation and as exposed ones (y) changes values upto 180, the value of asymptomatically infected (z) decreases to 25 so for exposed ones (y) from 100 to 180, asymptomatically infected (z) varies from 58 to 25 to 10 follows bifurcation. Also, phase structures of exposed-symptomatically infected (y-u), exposed-removed (y-v), exposed-virus in the reservoir (y-w), asymptomatically infected-removed (z-v), symptomatically infected-removed (u-v) specifically depict bifurcations in various forms at different points. In case of asymptomatically infected-virus in the reservoir (z-w), at asymptomatically infected (z)=10, the value of viruses in the reservoir (w)=50, then as asymptomatically infected (z) increases to upto around 60. At this point, removed ones (v) increase from 50 to 70 and asymptomatically infected (z) decrease to 20 i.e., crosses the same value twice, which shows its limiting is known as limit cycle behavior and both the values tend to decrease towards zero. It shows a closed-loop limit cycle. Today, there has been no scientific revolution in the development of vaccination, nor has any antiviral treatment been successful, resulting in lack of its medication. Based on the phases, time series, and complexity analysis of the model's various parameters, it is studied to understand the variation in this pandemic's scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056826PMC
July 2021
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