Publications by authors named "Sunil Kumar Sharma"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sudden death due to non-traumatic rupture of splenic artery aneurysm.

Med Leg J 2021 Jul 14:258172211018339. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College (VMMC) and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Splenic artery aneurysm is a rare form of vascular pathology that carries a high risk of mortality once it gets ruptured. It has a prevalence of 1% and occurs due to thinning and dilatation of the arterial wall.

Case: We describe a case of a 35-year-old policeman who died suddenly. At medico-legal autopsy, intraperitoneal clotted blood about 1000 g and liquid blood about 3000 ml were seen. On further exploration, ruptured splenic artery aneurysm about 2.0 cm in diameter became visible near the hilum.

Conclusion: Rare cases typically present as sudden and unexpected death with intraperitoneal bleed and may be confused with blunt trauma abdomen. Therefore, splenic artery aneurysm is an appropriate differential diagnosis for sudden deaths and intraperitoneal bleeding, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00258172211018339DOI Listing
July 2021

Improved water resource management framework for water sustainability and security.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 19;201:111527. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Information Technology, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

The water resource is an essential field of economic growth, social progress, and environmental integrity. A novel solution is offered to meet water needs, distribution, and IoT-based quality management requirements. With technological growth, this paper presents an IoT-enabled Water Resource Management and Distribution Monitoring System (IWRM-DMS) using sensors, gauge meters, flow meters, ultrasonic sensors, motors to implement in rural cities. Thus, research proposes that the IWRM-DMS establish the rural demand for water and the water supply system to minimize water demand. The system proposed includes different sensors, such as the water flow sensor, the pH sensor, the water pressure valve, the flow meters, and ultrasound sensors. This water system has been developed, which addresses the demand for domestic water in the village. Machine Intelligence has been designed for demand prediction in the decision support system. The simulation results confirm the applicability of the proposed framework in real-time environments. The proposed IWRM-DMS has been proposed to analyse the water quality to ensure water distribution in a rural area to achieve less MAPE (21.41%) and RMSE(15.12%), improve efficiency (96.93%), Reliability (98.24%), enhance prediction (95.29%)), the overall performance (97.34%), moisture content ratio (7.4%), cost-effectiveness ratio (95.7%) when compared to other popular methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111527DOI Listing
June 2021

Nonlinear dynamics for the spread of pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jul 20;14(7):817-831. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University School of Basic & Applied Sciences (USBAS), Head, Non-Linear Dynamics-Research-Lab, GGS Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses did not invite attention at a global level and responsiveness until the series of 2003-SARS contagion followed by year-2012 MERS plus, most recently, 2019-nCoV eruptions. SARS-CoV &MERS-CoV are painstaking, extremely pathogenic. Also, very evidently, both have been communicated from bats to palm-civets & dromedary camels and further transferred ultimately to humans. No country has been deprived of this viral genomic contamination wherever populaces reside and are interconnected. This study aimed to develop a mathematical model for calculating the transmissibility of this viral genome. The analysis aids the study of the outbreak of this Virus towards the other parts of the continent and the world. The parameters such as population mobility, natural history, epidemiological characteristics, and the transmission mechanism towards viral spread when considered into crowd dynamism result in improved estimation. This article studies the impact of time on the amount of susceptible, exposed, the infected person taking into account asymptomatic and symptomatic ones; recovered i.e., removed from this model and the virus particles existing in the open surfaces. The transition from stable phase to attractor phase happens after 13 days i.e.; it takes nearly a fortnight for the spread to randomize among people. Further, the pandemic transmission remains in the attractor phase for a very long time if no control measures are taken up. The attractor-source phase continues up to 385 days i.e., more than a year, and perhaps stabilizes on 386th day as per the Lyapunov exponent's analysis. The time series helps to know the period of the Virus's survival in the open sources i.e. markets, open spaces and various other carriers of the Virus if not quarantined or sanitized. The Virus cease to exist in around 60 days if it does not find any carrier or infect more places, people etc. The changes in LCEs of all variables as time progresses for around 400 days have been forecasted. It can be observed that phase trajectories indicate how the two variables interact with each other and affect the overall system's dynamics. It has been observed that for exposed and asymptomatically infected (y-z), as exposed ones (y) change from 0 to 100 the value of asymptomatically infected (z) increased upto around 58, at exposed ones (y)=100, asymptomatically infected (z) has two values as 58 and 10 i.e. follows bifurcation and as exposed ones (y) changes values upto 180, the value of asymptomatically infected (z) decreases to 25 so for exposed ones (y) from 100 to 180, asymptomatically infected (z) varies from 58 to 25 to 10 follows bifurcation. Also, phase structures of exposed-symptomatically infected (y-u), exposed-removed (y-v), exposed-virus in the reservoir (y-w), asymptomatically infected-removed (z-v), symptomatically infected-removed (u-v) specifically depict bifurcations in various forms at different points. In case of asymptomatically infected-virus in the reservoir (z-w), at asymptomatically infected (z)=10, the value of viruses in the reservoir (w)=50, then as asymptomatically infected (z) increases to upto around 60. At this point, removed ones (v) increase from 50 to 70 and asymptomatically infected (z) decrease to 20 i.e., crosses the same value twice, which shows its limiting is known as limit cycle behavior and both the values tend to decrease towards zero. It shows a closed-loop limit cycle. Today, there has been no scientific revolution in the development of vaccination, nor has any antiviral treatment been successful, resulting in lack of its medication. Based on the phases, time series, and complexity analysis of the model's various parameters, it is studied to understand the variation in this pandemic's scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056826PMC
July 2021

A Study on Non-Linear DPL Model for Describing Heat Transfer in Skin Tissue during Hyperthermia Treatment.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Apr 22;22(4). Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Govt. Polytechnic Nawada, Bihar 805122, India.

The article studies the simulation-based mathematical modeling of bioheat transfer under the Dirichlet boundary condition. We used complex non-linear dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer (DPLBHT) for analyzing the temperature distribution in skin tissues during hyperthermia treatment of infected cells. The perfusion term, metabolic heat source, and external heat source were the three parts of the volumetric heat source that were used in the model. The non-linear DPLBHT model predicted a more accurate temperature within skin tissues. The finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) (FERK (4,5)) method, which was based on two techniques, finite difference and Runge-Kutta (4,5), was applied for calculating the result in the case of our typical non-linear problem. The paper studies and presents the non-dimensional unit. Thermal damage of normal tissue was observed near zero during hyperthermia treatment. The effects of the non-dimensional time, non-dimensional space coordinate, location parameter, regional parameter, relaxation and thermalization time, metabolic heat source, associated metabolic heat source parameter, perfusion rate, associated perfusion heat source parameter, and external heat source coefficient on the dimensionless temperature profile were studied in detail during the hyperthermia treatment process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22040481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516963PMC
April 2020

Silicate glass [email protected]/CuVO p-n heterojunction for enhanced visible light photo-degradation of sulfamethoxazole: High charge separation and interfacial transfer.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 29;402:123790. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Laboratory for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Focusing on the treatment of pharmaceuticals contaminated water by advanced oxidation processes, a novel three dimensional silicate glass matrix (3-DG) coupled CuO/CuVO p-n heterojunction was constructed by in-situ hydrothermal technique. The optimal CuO/CuVO with 30 wt % CuVO (CV-30) degrades 90.1 % sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in 60 min and nearly 100 % removal in 45 min via coupling with 3-DG. Under natural sunlight ∼ 80 % SMX removal was observed. The internal electric field of the p-n junction facilitates the electron flow via the interface. 3-D silicate glass increases the visible light absorption dramatically via internal reflection which facilitates higher exposure for the junction and shortens the diffusion length of charge carriers. The effect of reaction parameters suggests that HCO and CO ions substantially escalate the SMX removal rate. Scavenging experiments and ESR probe suggest O as the main active species followed by OH radicals. The degradation products were detected by LC-MS analysis and a degradation mechanism was also predicted. The photocatalytic mechanism was explained in terms of the electron transfer facilitated by conventional transfer and Z-scheme. This strategy to construct such highly visible and solar active p-n heterojunctions will pave way for future opportunities for the degradation of recalcitrant pharmaceutical pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123790DOI Listing
January 2021

Transport properties of RuV-based half-Heusler semiconductors for thermoelectric applications: a computational study.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 May 27;32(40):405501. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Physics, School of Applied Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Meghalaya-793101, India.

A systematic study of electronic structure, mechanical and transport properties of RuV-based half-Heusler alloys (RuVZ, Z = As, P, Sb) have been presented using ab initio density functional and Boltzmann transport theory. The electronic structures are obtained using generalized gradient approximation with Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional. All the compounds are crystallized in face centered cubic phase with space group #216. Our preliminary electronic structure simulations reveal that all the alloys are non-magnetic semiconductors. Additionally, the phonon dispersion and elastic constants (along with the related elastic moduli) also verify mechanical stability of the alloys. Due to strong dependence on the electronic bandgap in thermoelectric materials, we have estimated bandgap using more accurate hybrid functional i.e. Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof. The transport coefficients (e.g. Seebeck, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity due to electrons) are calculated by solving the Boltzmann transport equation for charge carriers as implemented in BoltzTraP software under constant relaxation time approximation. The lattice thermal conductivity due to phonons is calculated using more reliable shengBTE code based upon the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons. We have calculated the more reliable value of the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT (related to the conversion efficiency) for all the compounds. The obtained ZT for RuVAs, RuVP and RuVSb is 0.41(0.32), 0.21(0.16) and 0.70(0.61) for p(n)-type behavior at 900 K. The corresponding carrier concentrations are also predicted. High value of ZT is obtained for RuVSb alloy due to low lattice thermal conductivity. Among these compounds, RuVSb emerged out as a most suitable candidate for thermoelectric power generation device. Minimum lattice thermal conductivity in theoretical limit along with the corresponding maximum value of ZT is also predicted in these alloys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ab96f0DOI Listing
May 2020

Delayed Propriospinal Myoclonus Following Dorsal Spinal Cord Surgery.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2019 Oct-Dec;22(4):491-493. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India.

Cerebral disorders are known to be associated with myoclonus, but spinal pathologies have received little attention as a causative factor in movement disorders. Propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is a rare hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by activity of a spinal pattern generator localized in a few segments of the spinal cord, spreading to other intraspinal segments via propriospinal pathways. Majority of cases of PSM are reported as functional movement disorders. Structural lesions were found in only a small number of reported cases. We present this rare case report of a patient who developed PSM 2 years following spinal surgery, done 5 years ago for D6-D7 vertebral body collapse. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of PSM have been reported after spinal surgery and none from India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_195_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839301PMC
October 2019

Altered dietary selenium influences brain iron content and behavioural outcomes.

Behav Brain Res 2019 10 15;372:112011. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Block-II, Panjab University, Sector-25, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that provides antioxidant defence through selenoproteins, but at high concentrations, deleterious effects have been reported. The present study examines the antioxidant response in brain regions and behavioural functions in mice under various dietary Se paradigms; Se-deficient, Se-adequate and Se-excess. Se levels were found to be reduced in the cortex and hippocampus of Se-deficient animals, whereas no change was observed in animals on Se-excess diet. In the hippocampus, iron (Fe) levels increased in animals on Se-deficient and Se-excess diets. Moreover, in Se-deficient animals, Fe levels increased in cortex also. Interestingly, Se content in the hair positively correlated with the dietary Se intake. Total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of animals on Se-deficient diet. On the other hand, the activity of these enzymes decreased in the cortex of animals on Se-excess diet. Further, lipid peroxidation increased in the cortex of animals on Se-deficient diet and in the hippocampus of animals on Se-excess diet. Cognitive functions assessed by Morris water maze and Y-maze tests revealed deficits in Se-deficient state. However, in Se-excess state cognitive deficits were observed only in Y-maze test. These findings suggest that long-term dietary variation in Se influences oxidative stress that impacts cognitive functions. Therefore, it is suggested that maintenance of Se status during postnatal development may be crucial for mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.112011DOI Listing
October 2019

Heat Hyperpyrexia-Induced Cerebellar Degeneration and Anterior Horn Cell Degeneration: A Rare Manifestation.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2019 Apr-Jun;22(2):244-245

Department of Radio Diagnosis and Modern Imaging, Government Medical College, Kota, Rajasthan, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_333_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472222PMC
April 2019

Wide spectral degradation of Norfloxacin by [email protected]/BiOBr/BiFeO nano-assembly: Elucidating the photocatalytic mechanism under different light sources.

J Hazard Mater 2019 02 22;364:429-440. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Laboratory for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Metallic Ag deposited BiPO/BiOBr/BiFeO ternary nano-hetero-structures were rationally designed and synthesized by a simple precipitation-wet impregnation-photo deposition method. The plasmonic junction possesses an excellent wide spectrum photo-response and makes best use of BiPO which is otherwise a poor photocatalyst. [email protected]/BiOBr/BiFeO showed superior photocatalytic activity for degradation of norfloxacin (NFN) under visible, ultra-violet, near-infra-red and natural solar light. Especially catalyst APBF-3 (0.3 wt% [email protected]/BiOBr/BiFeO) shows 98.1% degradation of NFN (20 mg/L) in 90 min under visible light and 99.1% in less than 45 min under UV exposure. Free radical scavenging experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) results has been used for explanation of charge transfer, photocatalytic mechanism and role of radicals for binary, ternary and Ag deposited ternary junctions for UV and visible exposure. Metallic Ag in addition to its surface plasmon resonance helps in protection of high conduction band and valence band in the three semiconductors. A dual Z-scheme mechanism has been predicted by comparing with possibilities of double charge and vectorial charge transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.10.060DOI Listing
February 2019

Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Activities of 4-Methylcoumarins: Development of Structure-Activity Relationships.

Biol Pharm Bull 2016 ;39(9):1544-8

Bioorganic Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi.

Coumarins are a major class of polyphenols that are abundantly present in many dietary plants and possess different biological activities. Neuroprotective effect of 28 variously substituted 4-methylcoumarins was evaluated in a cell model of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration, which measures viability in PC12 cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The inhibitory activity of these compounds against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was also determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate method in the same cells. Chemical redox-based assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests were employed to explore structure-antioxidant activity relationships in a cell-free environment. The results demonstrated that 4-methylcoumarins containing ortho-dihydroxy or ortho-diacetoxy substituents on the benzenoid ring possess considerable neuroprotective effects. ortho-Dihydroxy compounds inhibited cytotoxicity (44.7-62.9%) and ROS formation (41.6-71.1%) at 50 µM and showed considerable antioxidant effects. We conclude that 4-methylcoumarins are promising neuroprotective and antioxidant scaffolds potentially usefull for management of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b16-00005DOI Listing
February 2017

Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Activities of 4-Methylcoumarins: Development of Structure-Activity Relationships.

Biol Pharm Bull 2016 ;39(9):1544-8

Bioorganic Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi.

Coumarins are a major class of polyphenols that are abundantly present in many dietary plants and possess different biological activities. Neuroprotective effect of 28 variously substituted 4-methylcoumarins was evaluated in a cell model of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration, which measures viability in PC12 cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The inhibitory activity of these compounds against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was also determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate method in the same cells. Chemical redox-based assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests were employed to explore structure-antioxidant activity relationships in a cell-free environment. The results demonstrated that 4-methylcoumarins containing ortho-dihydroxy or ortho-diacetoxy substituents on the benzenoid ring possess considerable neuroprotective effects. ortho-Dihydroxy compounds inhibited cytotoxicity (44.7-62.9%) and ROS formation (41.6-71.1%) at 50 µM and showed considerable antioxidant effects. We conclude that 4-methylcoumarins are promising neuroprotective and antioxidant scaffolds potentially usefull for management of neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b16-00005DOI Listing
February 2017

Adaptation of an alcohol and HIV school-based prevention program for teens.

AIDS Behav 2010 Aug;14 Suppl 1:S177-84

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, 1300 Morris Park Ave, VE Building #5, Room 6B32, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17-21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13-16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9739-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927210PMC
August 2010

Dendritic polyglycerols for biomedical applications.

Adv Mater 2010 Jan;22(2):190-218

Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

The application of nanotechnology in medicine and pharmaceuticals is a rapidly advancing field that is quickly gaining acceptance and recognition as an independent area of research called "nanomedicine". Urgent needs in this field, however, are biocompatible and bioactive materials for antifouling surfaces and nanoparticles for drug delivery. Therefore, extensive attention has been given to the design and development of new macromolecular structures. Among the various polymeric architectures, dendritic ("treelike") polymers have experienced an exponential development due to their highly branched, multifunctional, and well-defined structures. This Review describes the diverse syntheses and biomedical applications of dendritic polyglycerols (PGs). These polymers exhibit good chemical stability and inertness under biological conditions and are highly biocompatible. Oligoglycerols and their fatty acid esters are FDA-approved and are already being used in a variety of consumer applications, e.g., cosmetics and toiletries, food industries, cleaning and softening agents, pharmaceuticals, polymers and polymer additives, printing photographing materials, and electronics. Herein, we present the current status of dendritic PGs as functional dendritic architectures with particular focus on their application in nanomedicine, in drug, dye, and gene delivery, as well as in regenerative medicine in the form of non-fouling surfaces and matrix materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.200902144DOI Listing
January 2010

Light and temperature regulated terpene biosynthesis: hepatoprotective monoterpene picroside accumulation in Picrorhiza kurrooa.

Funct Integr Genomics 2010 Aug 14;10(3):393-404. Epub 2010 Jan 14.

Biotechnology Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR), P.O. Box No. 6, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa) is an endangered medicinal plant with well-known hepatoprotective activity attributed to monoterpenoid picrosides. The present article details on regulatory genes of terpenoid metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (pkhmgr) and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (pkdxs) from picrorhiza. Since no molecular information was available, these genes were cloned to full-length by degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, followed by cloning of the upstream sequences that showed the presence of core sequences for light and temperature responsiveness. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed binding of protein to these motifs. Expression of pkhmgr and pkdxs was up-regulated at 15 degrees C as compared to at 25 degrees C as well as under light as compared to dark conditions. Picrosides content exhibited the trend similar to gene expression. To rule out the possible limitation of carbon pool under dark condition, plantlets of picrorhiza were raised in vitro in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% sucrose. Results showed similar up-regulation of both the genes and the higher picrosides content in in vitro raised plantlets in the presence of light. Data suggested the important roles played by light and temperature in regulating pkhmgr and pkdxs, and the picrosides level in picrorhiza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-009-0152-9DOI Listing
August 2010

A study of knowledge, attitude, and sensitivity about HIV/AIDS among school teachers in northwestern Himalayas.

Ethn Dis 2008 ;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-172-4

Department of Psychology, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India.

North India is considered a low knowledge and low prevalence setting according to the recent National AIDS Control Organization survey regarding HIV/AIDS. As more than one third of the population in India is young adults and adolescents, reaching and educating them is key for prevention programs and a healthier future. School systems provide an ideal situation to impart this awareness and reach adolescents and young adults. Logically, teachers are the ideal sources of imparting information. All schools are required to train some of their teachers in the national HIV/AIDS education training, and they in turn share this information and awareness with the adolescents in schools. However, not many teachers have the knowledge, appropriate attitude, and comfort level needed to impart this information to students. This paper will discuss results from our brief survey of teachers from public and the private schools in Himachal Pradesh in India that focused on the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS, and comfort in discussing these issues with students. A sample of 80 teachers (40 each from public and private schools) volunteered for the study. The findings revealed a significant difference between public and private school teachers in their knowledge level (t = 9.45, P < .001), their attitudes toward HIV/ AIDS (t = 16.77, P < .001), and their comfort level in discussing these issues (t = 12.65, P < .001). Implications of the study for teacher's training on HIV/AIDS and a proposed intervention are discussed.
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September 2008