Publications by authors named "Sunil Kumar"

1,420 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Virulence Potential and Treatment Options of Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) .

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 6;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh 13317-4233, Saudi Arabia.

is an opportunistic pathogen which is undoubtedly known for a high rate of morbidity and mortality in hospital-acquired infections. . causes life-threatening infections, including; ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), meningitis, bacteremia, and wound and urinary tract infections (UTI). In 2017, the World Health Organization listed as a priority-1 pathogen. The prevalence of infections and outbreaks emphasizes the direct need for the use of effective therapeutic agents for treating such infections. Available antimicrobials, such as; carbapenems, tigecycline, and colistins have insufficient effectiveness due to the appearance of multidrug-resistant strains, accentuating the need for alternative and novel therapeutic remedies. To understand and overcome this menace, the knowledge of recent discoveries on the virulence factors of is needed. Herein, we summarized the role of various virulence factors, including; outer membrane proteins, efflux pumps, biofilm, penicillin-binding proteins, and siderophores/iron acquisition systems. We reviewed the recent scientific literature on different virulence factors and the effective antimicrobial agents for the treatment and management of bacterial infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9102104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541637PMC
October 2021

A systematic review of the current management approaches in leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava-Results from analysis of 118 cases.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2021 Oct 21:2184923211049911. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Surgical Oncology, DRBRA IRCH, 28730All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Primary intravenous leiomyosarcomas are rare vascular tumors with aggressive disease biology. The diagnosis and management have been challenging as little data exist from large databases.

Methods: A literature search was done to identify all cases of primary leiomyosarcomas in the last five years. Clinicopathological features and management strategies were evaluated.

Results: The median age was 53 years, predominantly females (2.5:1), presenting as metastases in up to 12.1% cases. Most tumors were locally advanced with a median size of 10cm. Inferior vena cava involvement from renal veins to infrahepatic veins remains the most frequent site (57.1%cases) while nearly half (52.8%) proceeded for surgery without histological proof. Most patients could undergo upfront resection (88.0%) with few patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4.3%) or neoadjuvant radiotherapy (2.2%). Significant multivisceral resections included right nephrectomy (41.3%), liver resection (25.7%) and left nephrectomy (2.2%). Most patients (91.8%) needed an inferior vena cava graft placement with remarkable microscopically negative margins (85.5% cases). Doxorubicin and ifosfamide were the most frequently used combination chemotherapy regimens in both pre and postoperative settings with partial responses. The median overall and disease free survival among operated patients was 60 months and 28 months respectively. In multivariate analysis large tumor, extensive inferior vena cava involvement, and need for adjuvant chemotherapy appeared significant predictors for overall survival.

Conclusions: Aggressive upfront surgical resection with clear margin remains the key for long-term survival. Doxorubicin-based regimens were preferred as neoadjuvant chemotherapy while adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both may be considered in high-risk patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02184923211049911DOI Listing
October 2021

Intractable Hiccups in a Young Male: Is it a Tell-Tale Sign of Pseudocyst of Pancreas?

Cureus 2021 Sep 13;13(9):e17951. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Science (Deemed to be University), Wardha, IND.

Although encountered routinely in the outpatient department, hiccups or singultus are mostly neglected by the clinicians owing to its benign presentation and self-limiting nature. However, an innocent-looking symptom such as a hiccup can be a warning sign of serious underlying medical conditions and hence should be addressed seriously. Hiccups can seriously alter the quality of life and induce anxiety when they become intractable. We present an atypical case of a 30-year-old male who presented with intractable hiccups for four months and upon investigations revealed to be a case of chronic pancreatitis with pseudocyst of the pancreas. The patient's intractable hiccups were not responding to metoclopramide and responded well to gabapentin. The patient was managed conservatively for chronic pancreatitis and pseudocyst of the pancreas. This case report highlights the importance of investigating the cause of a simple symptom like hiccup as it can be a tell-tale sign of a chronic underlying pathology such as pseudocyst of the pancreas in our case. After an extensive review of literature, it was found that this is the first case to report intractable singultus as a result of the pseudocyst of the pancreas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514800PMC
September 2021

Fundamental understanding of microbial fuel cell technology: Recent development and challenges.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 13;288(Pt 2):132446. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440 020, India. Electronic address:

The research on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is rising tremendously but its commercialization is restricted by several microbiological, material, and economic constraints. Hence, a systematic assessment of the research articles published previously focusing on potential upcoming directions in this field is necessary. A detailed multi-perspective analysis of various techniques for enhancing the efficiency of MFC in terms of electric power production is presented in this paper. A brief discussion on the central aspects of different issues are preceded by an extensive analysis of the strategies that can be introduced to optimize power generation and reduce energy losses. Various applications of MFCs in a broad spectrum ranging from biomedical to underwater monitoring rather than electricity production and wastewater treatment are also presented followed by relevant possible case studies. Mathematical modeling is used to understand the concepts that cannot be understood experimentally. These methods relate electrode geometries to microbiological reactions occurring inside the MFC chamber, which explains the system's behavior and can be improved. Finally, directions for future research in the field of MFCs have been suggested. This article can be beneficial for engineers and researchers concerned about the challenges faced in the application of MFC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132446DOI Listing
October 2021

Acute Chest Syndrome, Avascular Necrosis of Femur, and Pulmonary Embolism All at Once: An Unexpected Encounter in the First-Ever Admission of a Sickle Cell Patient.

Cureus 2021 Sep 1;13(9):e17656. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Wardha, IND.

Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is defined as the radiological appearance of pulmonary infiltrates with fever or respiratory symptoms like chest pain, breathlessness, and cough in a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). It is also a very common cause of mortality in sickle cell patients, if not identified in early stages and treated aggressively. Radiological image is similar to bacterial pneumonia, so sickle cell disease with a radiological picture similar to pneumonia and associated respiratory symptoms is known as acute chest syndrome. Pneumonia and infarction have been implicated in pathogenesis. The reason for the appearance of acute chest syndrome in patients with SCD is not established but some triggers like sepsis, presence of vaso-occlusive crises have been noted. When there is a block in the blood supply to the bone, patients with sickle cell disease may also develop avascular necrosis of the neck of the femur causing narrowing of joint and collapse of the bone. Patients with sickle cell disease have a baseline hypercoagulable state thereby predisposing the patient to develop deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Here, we present a case of a 25-year-old SCD patient with a fairly stable course of the disease. He had no history of prior admissions and he had his first-ever episode of sickle cell crisis lading in with acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis of femur, and pulmonary embolism all at once. After an extensive review of the literature, we found this to be the first case report in the world where all these three complications of sickle cell disease developed simultaneously in a patient.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8489536PMC
September 2021

Optical damage limit of efficient spintronic THz emitters.

iScience 2021 Oct 21;24(10):103152. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Photonics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India.

THz pulses are generated from femtosecond pulse-excited ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic spintronic heterostructures via inverse spin Hall effect. The highest possible THz signal strength from spintronic THz emitters is limited by the optical damage threshold of the corresponding heterostructures at the excitation wavelength. For the thickness-optimized spintronic heterostructure, the THz generation efficiency does not saturate with the excitation fluence even up till the damage threshold. Bilayer (Fe, CoFeB)/(Pt, Ta)-based ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic (FM/NM) spintronic heterostructures have been studied for an optimized performance for THz generation when pumped by sub-50 fs amplified laser pulses at 800 nm. Among them, CoFeB/Pt is the best combination for an efficient THz source. The optimized FM/NM spintronic heterostructure having α-phase Ta as the nonmagnetic layer shows the highest damage threshold as compared to those with Pt, irrespective of their generation efficiency. The damage threshold of the Fe/Ta heterostructure on a quartz substrate is ∼85 GW/cm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.103152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496183PMC
October 2021

Sugar metabolism during pre- and post-fertilization events in plants under high temperature stress.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Division of Plant Physiology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012, India.

High temperature challenges global crop production by limiting the growth and development of the reproductive structures and seed. It impairs the developmental stages of male and female gametogenesis, pollination, fertilization, endosperm formation and embryo development. Among these, the male reproductive processes are highly prone to abnormalities under high temperature at various stages of development. The disruption of source-sink balance is the main constraint for satisfactory growth of the reproductive structures which is disturbed at the level of sucrose import and utilization within the tissue. Seed development after fertilization is affected by modulation in the activity of enzymes involved in starch metabolism. In addition, the alteration in the seed-filling rate and its duration affects the seed weight and quality. The present review critically discusses the role of sugar metabolism in influencing the various stages of gamete and seed development under high temperature stress. It also highlights the interaction of the sugars with hormones that mediate the transport of sugars to sink tissues. The role of transcription factors for the regulation of sugar availability under high temperature has also been discussed. Further, the omics-based systematic investigation has been suggested to understand the synergistic or antagonistic interactions between sugars, hormones and reactive oxygen species at various points of sucrose flow from source to sink under high temperature stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02795-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Solid waste management during COVID-19 pandemic: Recovery techniques and responses.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 5;288(Pt 1):132451. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440 020, India; United Nations University, Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNUFLORES), Ammonstrasse 74, 01067, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Solid waste management (SWM) is a service of public health that is often understated in its significance. If a public health emergency like the COVID-19 outbreak exacerbates the SWM problem, its true importance as an imperative service becomes more apparent. The crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the dynamics of waste generation globally in nearly every sector and has therefore raised the need for special attention. The unpredictable variations in the quantity and composition of waste also pressurize policymakers to react dynamically. This review highlights the major problems faced during the pandemic by SWM sector and the underlying possibilities to fill the gaps in the existing system. The review focuses on particular areas that have been the most important cause of concern throughout the crisis in the process of waste management. In addition, the mixing of virus infected biomedical waste with the stream of normal solid waste and lack of active involvement of the citizen and cooperation presents the major negative safety and health concerns for the workers involved in the sanitation process. Apart from presenting innovative solutions to tackle current waste management issues, this study also proposes several key potential guidelines to holistically mitigate possible future pandemics, if any. This article can also be of great implication for creation of a specific strategy towards preventing/controlling any potential pandemic of similar kind in the near future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491970PMC
October 2021

Evolving Trends of Button Battery Ingestion in Indian Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

From the Department of ENT, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital King's Lynn NHS Foundation Trust, Norfolk, United Kingdom Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Foreign body ingestion is a common problem encountered in the pediatric age group. Impaction of lithium batteries of greater than 20-mm diameter in the esophagus is associated with severe complications. This study aimed at analyzing the evolving trends of button battery ingestion in pediatric age groups at our tertiary care center in terms of clinical presentation, intraoperative findings, and the correlation of various clinical variables.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was done. All children younger than 18 years with impaction of a button battery of size greater than 20 mm in the esophagus between January 2015 and December 2018 were included in the study. All children underwent removal of the battery using direct laryngoscopy/rigid esophagoscopy under general anesthesia.

Results: There were 100 children included in the study with a mean age of 29.92 months having 93 children (93%) younger than 6 years. The mean duration of impaction was 34.7 hours. Increased duration of impaction was associated with an increased risk of complications and an increased difficulty in removal. There was a significant correlation between the site of impaction and the age of the patient. Complications were seen in 10% of cases with severe complications in 6 cases. No fatalities were reported in this study.

Conclusions: Button batteries impacted in the esophagus can lead to severe complications including death. There has been an increasing trend in the ingestion of button batteries over the last 4 years. A prompt diagnosis and emergent removal of the battery are crucial to minimize the rate of complications. Symptoms of stridor and dysphagia must be given more attention, and these children are prioritized because they are more prone to have complications. Furthermore, primary prevention and caregiver education should be emphasized, and the need for a legislation to change the policies for securing the batteries in their products must be endorsed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002548DOI Listing
October 2021

Antimony contamination and its risk management in complex environmental settings: A review.

Environ Int 2021 Oct 4;158:106908. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6001, Australia; The UWA Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6001, Australia.

Antimony (Sb) is introduced into soils, sediments, and aquatic environments from various sources such as weathering of sulfide ores, leaching of mining wastes, and anthropogenic activities. High Sb concentrations are toxic to ecosystems and potentially to public health via the accumulation in food chain. Although Sb is poisonous and carcinogenic to humans, the exact mechanisms causing toxicity still remain unclear. Most studies concerning the remediation of soils and aquatic environments contaminated with Sb have evaluated various amendments that reduce Sb bioavailability and toxicity. However, there is no comprehensive review on the biogeochemistry and transformation of Sb related to its remediation. Therefore, the present review summarizes: (1) the sources of Sb and its geochemical distribution and speciation in soils and aquatic environments, (2) the biogeochemical processes that govern Sb mobilization, bioavailability, toxicity in soils and aquatic environments, and possible threats to human and ecosystem health, and (3) the approaches used to remediate Sb-contaminated soils and water and mitigate potential environmental and health risks. Knowledge gaps and future research needs also are discussed. The review presents up-to-date knowledge about the fate of Sb in soils and aquatic environments and contributes to an important insight into the environmental hazards of Sb. The findings from the review should help to develop innovative and appropriate technologies for controlling Sb bioavailability and toxicity and sustainably managing Sb-polluted soils and water, subsequently minimizing its environmental and human health risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106908DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of Orthodontic Mini-implant-anchored en masse Retraction of Maxillary Anterior Teeth with Reduced Bone Support: A Prospective Finite Element Analysis Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Jul 1;22(7):833-839. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, Phone: +91 9943168569, e-mail:

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate force systems to bring about the en masse retraction of maxillary anterior teeth having reduced bone levels using finite element analysis.

Materials And Methods: This is a prospective study. Three-dimensional finite element models of maxillary dentition having normal alveolar bone level and 2, 4, and 6 mm bone loss with first premolar extraction were constructed from a spiral CT scan of a skull. Archwire and brackets were modeled on the facial surfaces of teeth. Retraction force of 175 gm was applied from an orthodontic mini-implant placed bilaterally between the second premolar and first molar and 12 mm above plane of the archwire to anterior retraction hook (ARH) fixed at two heights of 6 and 10 mm above the archwire.

Results: Maximum displacement and periodontal ligament (PDL) stress were calculated for different combinations of bone levels and ARH. As the bone loss increased, the tipping tendency, amount of intrusion, and maximum von Mises stress in PDL also increased, showing a direct correlation.

Conclusion: To minimize tipping and PDL stress, the height of ARH should be increased in alveolar bone loss conditions to allow retraction force to pass through or even above the center of resistance of anterior teeth. Even then, pure bodily retraction may not be achieved, but tipping tendency can be reduced. Nevertheless, it may not be suitable to increase ARH beyond a limit owing to chances of irritation to the vestibular mucosa. Alternative methods should be contemplated to reduce the tipping behavior.

Clinical Significance: The alternative is to apply a lighter retraction force to reduce lingual tipping. A higher counter-moment in the archwire or bracket can also be incorporated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2021

A state-of-the-art review on microbial desalination cells.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 1;288(Pt 1):132386. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Waste Re-processing Division, CSIR- National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440 020, India. Electronic address:

The rapid growth in population has increased the demand for potable water. Available technologies for its generation are the desalination of sea water through reverse osmosis, electrodialysis etc., which are energy and cost intensive. In this context, microbial desalination cell (MDC) presents a low-cost and sustainable option which can simultaneously treat wastewater, desalinate saline water, produce electrical energy and recover nutrients from wastewater. This review paper is focussed on presenting a detailed analysis of MDCs starting from the principle of operation, microbial community analysis, basic architecture, evolution in design, operational challenges, effect of process parameters, scale-up studies, application in multiple arenas and future prospects. After thorough review, it can be inferred that MDCs can be used as a stand-alone option or pre-treatment step for conventional desalination techniques without the application of external energy. MDCs have been used in multiple applications ranging from desalination, remediation of contaminated water, recovery of energy and nutrients from wastewater, softening of hardwater, biohydrogen production to degradation of waste engine oil. Although, MDCs have been used for multiple applications, still a number of operational challenges have been reported viz., interference of co-existing ions during desalination, membrane fouling, pH imbalance and limited potential of exoelectrogens. However, the re-circulation of anolytes with electrodialysis chamber has led to the maintenance of optimal pH for favourable microbial growth leading to improvement in the overall performance of MDCs. In future, genetic engineering may be used for improving the electrogenic activity of microbial community, next generation materials may be used as anode and cathode, varied sources of wastewater may be explored as anolytes, life cycle analysis and exergy analysis may be carried out to study the impact on environment and detailed pilot scale studies have to be carried out for assessing the feasibility of operation at large scale.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132386DOI Listing
October 2021

Toxicity-removal efficiency of Brassica juncea, Chrysopogon zizanioides and Pistia stratiotes to decontaminate biomedical ash under non-chelating and chelating conditions: A pilot- scale phytoextraction study.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 29;287(Pt 4):132416. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

CSIR, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, 440 020, Maharashtra, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201 002, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The healthcare community acknowledged that bio-medical wastes (BMWs) have reached a colossal level across the globe. The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has brought a deluge of contaminated waste which calls for an urgent need of treatment technology for its safe disposal. BMW generally undergoes a conservative treatment approach of incineration which in turn generates potentially toxic ash known as BMW ash. BMW ash, if directly dumped in landfill, leaches and further pollutes both land and groundwater. The present study deployed Brassica juncea [Indian Mustard (IM)], Chrysopogon zizanioides [Vetiver Grass (VG)], and Pistia stratiotes [Water Lettuce (WL)] to remediate toxicity of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) i.e., Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Mn, Co and Zn in BMW ash both in the presence and absence of chelate with an increased dosage of toxicity. The phyto-assessment results showed that IM extracted 202.2 ± 0.1-365.5 ± 0.02, 7.8 ± 0.03-12.5 ± 0.3, 132.1 ± 0.1-327.3 ± 0.1 and >100 mg kg of Al, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively without the assistance of a chelating agent. The VG accumulated heavy metals in greater concentration up to 10.5 ± 0.1 and 290.1 ± 0.05 mg kg of Cd and Zn, respectively, and similar trends were observed in the WL set-up. However, the application of an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) had also increased the efficiency on an average by 20-30% for IM, 35-45% for VG, and 25-35% for WL. The experimental set-up shows that the BCF for IM, VG and WL was found to be greater than 1 for most of the PTEs. The higher value of BCF resulted in a better ability to phytoextract the heavy metals from the soil. The results suggested that IM, VG and WL have the potential to phytoextract PTEs both in the absence and presence of chelating agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132416DOI Listing
September 2021

Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma with Sarcomatoid Differentiation in a Native Kidney of Transplant Recipient: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Indian J Nephrol 2021 Jul-Aug;31(4):386-389. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Pathology, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) developing in a transplant recipient is about 5-20 times higher than the general population. It is more common in native kidneys than graft kidney, and incidence varies between 0.3% and 4.8%. Clear cell and papillary types are more frequently reported. Most RCC of allograft recipient is usually low-grade with favorable prognosis. We present a case of papillary RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation (SD) in a native kidney of renal transplant (RT) recipient. The coexistence of sarcomatoid variant with papillary RCC, as in our case, makes it a high grade (WHO/ISUP grade 4) and portends a poor prognosis. Relative aggressiveness and rarity of this variant histology in transplant recipients prompted us to report this case and carry out an extensive search of the available literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_239_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443092PMC
February 2021

A deep learning based approach for automatic detection of COVID-19 cases using chest X-ray images.

Biomed Signal Process Control 2022 Jan 23;71:103182. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552, India.

In this global pandemic situation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is of foremost priority to look up efficient and faster diagnosis methods for reducing the transmission rate of the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent research has indicated that radio-logical images carry essential information about the COVID-19 virus. Therefore, artificial intelligence (AI) assisted automated detection of lung infections may serve as a potential diagnostic tool. It can be augmented with conventional medical tests for tackling COVID-19. In this paper, we propose a new method for detecting COVID-19 and pneumonia using chest X-ray images. The proposed method can be described as a three-step process. The first step includes the segmentation of the raw X-ray images using the conditional generative adversarial network (C-GAN) for obtaining the lung images. In the second step, we feed the segmented lung images into a novel pipeline combining key points extraction methods and trained deep neural networks (DNN) for extraction of discriminatory features. Several machine learning (ML) models are employed to classify COVID-19, pneumonia, and normal lung images in the final step. A comparative analysis of the classification performance is carried out among the different proposed architectures combining DNNs, key point extraction methods, and ML models. We have achieved the highest testing classification accuracy of 96.6% using the VGG-19 model associated with the binary robust invariant scalable key-points (BRISK) algorithm. The proposed method can be efficiently used for screening of COVID-19 infected patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bspc.2021.103182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457928PMC
January 2022

Overview on the Prevalence of Fungal Infections, Immune Response, and Microbiome Role in COVID-19 Patients.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Sep 2;7(9). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

LEPABE-Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

Patients with severe COVID-19, such as individuals in intensive care units (ICU), are exceptionally susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections. The most prevalent fungal infections are aspergillosis and candidemia. Nonetheless, other fungal species (for instance, spp., spp., spp., spp.) have recently been increasingly linked to opportunistic fungal diseases in COVID-19 patients. These fungal co-infections are described with rising incidence, severe illness, and death that is associated with host immune response. Awareness of the high risks of the occurrence of fungal co-infections is crucial to downgrade any arrear in diagnosis and treatment to support the prevention of severe illness and death directly related to these infections. This review analyses the fungal infections, treatments, outcome, and immune response, considering the possible role of the microbiome in these patients. The search was performed in Medline (PubMed), using the words "fungal infections COVID-19", between 2020-2021.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7090720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466761PMC
September 2021

Epitranscriptomic Approach: To Improve the Efficacy of ICB Therapy by Co-Targeting Intracellular Checkpoint CISH.

Cells 2021 Aug 30;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Cellular immunotherapy has recently emerged as a fourth pillar in cancer treatment co-joining surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Where, the discovery of immune checkpoint blockage or inhibition (ICB/ICI), anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4-based, therapy has revolutionized the class of cancer treatment at a different level. However, some cancer patients escape this immune surveillance mechanism and become resistant to ICB-therapy. Therefore, a more advanced or an alternative treatment is required urgently. Despite the functional importance of epitranscriptomics in diverse clinico-biological practices, its role in improving the efficacy of ICB therapeutics has been limited. Consequently, our study encapsulates the evidence, as a possible strategy, to improve the efficacy of ICB-therapy by co-targeting molecular checkpoints especially NA-modification machineries which can be reformed into RNA modifying drugs (RMD). Here, we have explained the mechanism of individual RNA-modifiers (editor/writer, eraser/remover, and effector/reader) in overcoming the issues associated with high-dose antibody toxicities and drug-resistance. Moreover, we have shed light on the importance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS/CISH) and microRNAs in improving the efficacy of ICB-therapy, with brief insight on the current monoclonal antibodies undergoing clinical trials or already approved against several solid tumor and metastatic cancers. We anticipate our investigation will encourage researchers and clinicians to further strengthen the efficacy of ICB-therapeutics by considering the importance of epitranscriptomics as a personalized medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10092250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466810PMC
August 2021

Biochar as environmental armour and its diverse role towards protecting soil, water and air.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 21;806(Pt 1):150444. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

United Nations University, Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNUFLORES) Ammonstrasse 74, 01067, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Biochar has been of considerable importance for various environmental applications in recent years. It has exhibited substantial advantages like favourable structural and surface properties, easy process of preparation and widely available feedstocks. These set of exceptional properties make it an efficient, cost-effective and environment friendly source for diversified elimination of pollutants. The heterogeneity of physico-chemical properties offers a possibility for biochar to optimize its efficacy for targeted applications. This review aims to highlight the critical role that biochar plays in various environmental applications, be it in soil, water or air. In particular the article offers a comprehensive review of the recent research findings and updates related to the diversified role of biochar. Also, the interaction of pollutants with biochar functional groups and the impact of variation of parameters on biochar attribute relevant to specific pollutant removal, modifications, mechanisms involved and competence for such removal has been discussed. Different technologies for production of biochar have also been summarized with an emphasis on post treatment of biochar, such as modification and doping. In addition to this, the underlying gaps in the studies carried out so far and recommendations for future research areas in biochar have also been deliberated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150444DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-Term Survivors of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Tertiary Care Centre Experience.

South Asian J Cancer 2021 Apr 23;10(2):87-91. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Prognosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is poor and goal of treatment is mainly palliative unless there is limited metastatic disease which is surgically resectable. Here, we report a case series of long-term survivors treated predominantly with chemotherapy. This is a single-center retrospective analysis of patients of mCRC. Records of metastatic colorectal cancer patients registered at Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, between the year 2005 and 2015 were retrieved and reviewed. Inclusion criteria were patients who survived 5 years or more, treated mainly by chemotherapy, with either initial presentation as metastatic disease or those who progressed after initial surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. The details about the patient characteristics, treatment, and outcome were collected. The data were censored on September 30, 2020. Records of 370 mCRC patients were reviewed. Thirty-one patients with all the available details fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the study. Median age was 53 years (range, 22-74 years). Sixteen were women (51.6%). Twenty-four (77%) were newly diagnosed cases with initial presentation as metastatic disease. Commonest site of primary was on the left (21, 67.6%) followed by right side and transverse colon in 5 patients each. Liver was the most common site of metastasis ( = 18, 58.06%). In metastatic setting, the most common chemotherapy regimen used in the first line was CAPOX ( = 11, 35.48%). Only three patients could undergo metastatectomy. Monoclonal antibodies could be used only in 14 patients. Median overall survival (OS) of this cohort is 81.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.73-117.9). A small but significant proportion of mCRC patients may achieve and maintain durable responses and long term survival with use of combination of chemotherapy with or without biologics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1736343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460352PMC
April 2021

Molecular Insights of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole as CRF-1 Receptor Antagonists: Combined QSAR, Glide Docking, Molecular Dynamics, and ADME Studies.

Iran J Pharm Res 2021 ;20(2):22-34

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bhupal Nobles' College of Pharmacy, Bhupal Nobles' University, Udaipur-313001, India.

Stress-dependent disorders cause severe harm to human health and trigger the risk of neurodegenerative disorder. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor was found to be a potent drug target.We evaluate the essential structural residues for pharmacophore identification through 2D and 3D QSAR analysis and identify the binding residues for a possible mechanism of CRF-1 binding with 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The best 2D QSAR model was obtained through the MLR method with an r value of 0.8039 and a q value of 0.6311. Also,a 3D QSAR model was generated through the KNN MFA method with a q value of 0.6013 and a q_se value of 0.3167. Further, docking analysis revealed that residue Glu196 and Lys334 were involved in hydrogen bonding and Trp9 in Π- Π stacking. Simulation analysis proves that target protein interactions with ligands were stable, and changes were acceptable for small and globular proteins. Compound , a benzimidazole derivative, has an excellent binding affinity towards CRF-1 protein compared to reference molecules; hence, this compound could be a potential drug candidate for stress-dependent disorders. Based on findings, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives could be a novel class of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonists for stress-related disorders. All benzimidazole derivatives were found to be within the acceptable range of physicochemical properties. Hence, these observations could provide valuable information for the design and development of novel and potent CRF-1 receptor antagonists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.113746.14464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457742PMC
January 2021

Microbial fuel cells for bioelectricity production from waste as sustainable prospect of future energy sector.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 21;287(Pt 3):132285. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

PATET Research Group, Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is lauded for its potentials to solve both energy crisis and environmental pollution. Technologically, it offers the capability to harness electricity from the chemical energy stored in the organic substrate with no intermediate steps, thereby minimizes the entropic loss due to the inter-conversion of energy. The sciences underneath such MFCs include the electron and proton generation from the metabolic decomposition of the substrate by microbes at the anode, followed by the shuttling of these charges to cathode for electricity generation. While its promising prospects were mutually evinced in the past investigations, the upscaling of MFC in sustaining global energy demands and waste treatments is yet to be put into practice. In this context, the current review summarizes the important knowledge and applications of MFCs, concurrently identifies the technological bottlenecks that restricted its vast implementation. In addition, economic analysis was also performed to provide multiangle perspectives to readers. Succinctly, MFCs are mainly hindered by the slow metabolic kinetics, sluggish transfer of charged particles, and low economic competitiveness when compared to conventional technologies. From these hindering factors, insightful strategies for improved practicality of MFCs were formulated, with potential future research direction being identified too. With proper planning, we are delighted to see the industrialization of MFCs in the near future, which would benefit the entire human race with cleaner energy and the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132285DOI Listing
September 2021

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don: A review of its ethnobotany, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and toxicities.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 22:114647. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Botany, Government Degree College Bahua Dehat, Fatehpur-212663 (affiliated to Professor Rajendra Singh (Rajju Bhaiya) University Prayagraj), Uttar, Pradesh, India.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a well known medicinal plant belonging to family Apocynaceae that have been traditionally used as medicine since ancient times. C. roseus is a well-recognized herbal medicine due to its anticancer bisindole alkaloids (vinblastine (Serial Number (SN) 111), vincristine (SN 112) and vindesine (SN 121)). In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, different parts of C. roseus are used in folklore herbal medicine for treatment of many types of cancer, diabetes, stomach disorders, kidney, liver and cardiovascular diseases.

Aim Of The Study: The main idea behind this communication is to update comprehensively and analyze critically the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and toxicity of various extracts and isolated compounds from C. roseus.

Materials And Methods: The presented data covers scientific works on C. roseus published across the world between 1967 and 2021 was searched from various international publishing houses using search engines as well as several traditional texts like Ayurveda and relevant books. Collected data from different sources was comprehensively summarized/analyzed for ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, analytical chemistry, biological activities and toxicity studies of C. roseus.

Results And Discussion: C. roseus has a wide range of applications in the traditional system of medicine especially in cancer and diabetes. During phytochemical investigation, total of 344 compounds including monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) (110), bisindole alkaloids (35), flavonoids (34), phenolic acids (9) and volatile constituents (156) have been reported in the various extracts and fractions of different plant parts of C. roseus. The extracts and isolated compounds of C. roseus have to exhibit many pharmacological activities such as anticancer/cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, larvicidal and pupicidal. The comparative toxicity of extracts and bioactive compounds investigated in dose dependent manner. The investigation of toxicity showed that the both extracts and isolated compounds safe a certain limit beyond this they cause adverse effects.

Conclusion: This review is a comprehensive, critically analyzed summarization of sufficient baseline information of selected topics in one place undertaken till date on C. roseus for future works and drug discovery. The phytochemical investigation including biosynthetic pathways showed that the MIAs and bisindole alkaloids are a major and characteristic class of compounds in this plant. The present data confirm that the extracts/fractions and their isolated alkaloids especially vinblastine (SN 111) and vincristine (SN 112) have a potent anticancer/cytotoxic and antidiabetic property and there is a need for further study with particular attention to the mechanisms of anticancer activity. In biosynthesis pathways of alkaloids especially bisindole alkaloids, some enzymes and rearrangement are unexposed therefore it is required to draw special attention. It also focuses on attracting the attention of scientific communities about the widespread biological activities of this species for its better utilization prospects in the near future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114647DOI Listing
September 2021

Navigating into the Chemical Space of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors by Artificial Intelligence and Cheminformatics Approach.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 1;6(36):23399-23411. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Sciences Campus, Kochi 682041, India.

The monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme class is a prevalent target for many neurodegenerative and depressive disorders. Even though scrutinization of many promising drugs for the treatment of MAO inhibition has been carried out in recent times, a conclusive structural requirement for potent activity needs to be developed. Numerous approaches have been examined for the identification of structural features for potent MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) that mainly involve an array of computational studies, synthetic approaches, and biological evaluation. In this paper, we have analyzed ∼2200 well-known MAOIs to expand perceptions in the chemical space of MAOIs. The physicochemical properties of the MAOIs disclosed a discernible hydrophobic feature making a bunch discrete from the central nervous system (CNS) acting drugs, as exposed using the principal component analysis (PCA). The Murcko scaffold structure study revealed unfavorable and favorable scaffold structures, in both data sets, with the highest biological activity shown by the 3-phenyl-2-chromen-2-one scaffold. This scaffold showed a polypharmacological effect. R-group disintegration and automatic structure-activity relationship (SAR) study resulted in identification of substructures responsible for the inhibitory bioactivity of the MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes. Moreover, with activity cliff analysis, significant biological activity was detected by simple molecular conversion in the chemical compound structure. In addition, we used the machine learning tool to generate a hypothesis wherein pyrazole, benzene ring, and amide containing structural functionalities can exhibit potential biological activities. This hypothesis revealed that CNS target drugs, C4155, C13390, C21265, C43862, C31524, C24810, C37100, C42075, and C43644, could be repurposed as valuable candidates for the MAO-B enzyme. For researchers, this study will bring new perceptions in the discovery and development of MAOIs and direct lead and hit optimization for the progress of small molecules beneficial for MAO-targeting associated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444296PMC
September 2021

The Role of Biofilms in Chronic Otitis Media-Active Squamosal Disease: An Evaluative Study.

Otol Neurotol 2021 10;42(9):e1279-e1285

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Hospitals.

Objectives: To study the presence of biofilms in patients of chronic otitis media (COM)-active squamosal disease and to evaluate the microflora and clinical impact of biofilms.

Methods: A total of 35 patients suffering from COM - active squamosal disease was studied. Cholesteatoma sample was collected at the time of mastoid surgery and the same was used to image for biofilms by scanning electron microscope. The said sample was also analyzed microbiologically.

Results: Biofilms were present in 25 (72%) patients including 6 cases of fungal biofilms (24%). Biofilms were detected irrespective of the micro-organism growth. No statistically significant relationship was observed between biofilms and discharging ear and complications of COM. Though univariate analysis of our data found some correlation between duration of disease, the extent of cholesteatoma and ossicular necrosis but multivariate analysis revealed no such associations, thereby implying a doubtful association between these factors and biofilm.

Conclusions: Biofilms are an integral part of cholesteatoma ear disease and sometimes harbors fungal isolates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000003259DOI Listing
October 2021

Sirolimus in a Renal Transplant Recipient Infected With COVID-19: A Blessing in Disguise?

Cureus 2021 Aug 11;13(8):e17102. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, IND.

Immunocompromised status Is often associated with severe coronavirus infection given the inability of the immune system to combat the deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with multiple comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease along with patients on immunosuppressants or chemotherapy are at higher risk of getting infected during the ongoing pandemic with more probability of adverse outcomes. However, we report a rare case of a renal transplant recipient who was on sirolimus and contracted coronavirus disease (COVID-19). His immunosuppressants were continued and he was managed with antiviral, steroids and low molecular weight heparin and the patient responded well to the treatment and recovered completely after a span of one week. Use of sirolimus in a patient with renal transplant recipient helped in preventing intensification of the severity in COVID-19 attributing to its inhibiting effect on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) which he was using post his renal transplant, therefore, proving to be a blessing in disguise.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432414PMC
August 2021

Palliative Surgery for Advanced Cancer: Clinical Profile, Spectrum of Surgery and Outcomes from a Tertiary Care Cancer Centre in Low-Middle-Income Country.

Indian J Palliat Care 2021 Apr-Jun;27(2):281-285. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Pain Palliative and Onco-Anesthesia, Dr B.R.A., Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Palliative surgery for cancer plays an important role in the overall management, especially in low-middle countries with a significant burden of advanced cancers. There is a paucity of literature related to the field of palliative surgery. In this study, we present the clinical spectrum, profile of surgical interventions and outcomes of palliative surgical procedures performed at a tertiary cancer centre involving multiple organ systems.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained surgical oncology database of a tertiary care cancer centre was performed. Patients fulfilling the criteria of palliative surgery were analysed for clinical spectrum, indications for surgery, palliative surgical procedures and post-operative outcomes.

Results: A total of 678 out of 8300 patients fulfilled the criteria for palliative surgery. Palliative surgical procedures were performed most commonly for gastro-oesophageal malignancies (36.4%) followed by colorectal cancers (24%) and breast cancer (12%). Palliative mastectomy was the most common procedure performed for advanced breast cancer and 7% of sarcoma patients had amputations. Symptom relief could be achieved in 80-90% of patients and post-operative morbidity was relatively high among hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal and gynaecological cancer patients.

Conclusion: Globally, a significant number of cancer patients need palliative surgical intervention, especially in LMIC with a high burden of advanced cancers. Results of the current study indicate that gastrointestinal cancer patients constitute a major proportion of patients undergoing palliative surgery. Overall results of the current study indicate that excellent palliation can be achieved in majority of patients with acceptable morbidity and hospital stay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJPC_399_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428898PMC
August 2021

Foramen Magnum Decompression in Hemifacial Spasm Associated with Chiari 1 Malformation.

Neurol India 2021 Jul-Aug;69(4):1063-1064

Department of Neurosurgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.325351DOI Listing
September 2021

A Study of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Hirayama Disease.

Neurol India 2021 Jul-Aug;69(4):889-893

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Science, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Hirayama disease (HD) is a motor neuron disease and occasionally is associated with lower limb hyper-reflexia. Corticospinal tract dysfunction can be evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), but there is paucity of study in HD.

Objective: We report corticospinal tract functions using DTI in the patients with HD and correlate with clinical findings.

Materials And Methods: The patients with HD diagnosed on the basis of clinical and electromyography findings were included. Their age, duration of illness, side of initial involvement, and progression were noted. Presence of lower limb hyper-reflexia, and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were noted. Cranial MRI was done and DTI findings at internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, and pyramid were noted.

Results: In total, 10 patients with HD and 5 matched controls were evaluated. The apparent diffusion coefficient (7.03 ± 0.27 vs 6.83 ± 0.36), fractional anisotropy (0.79 ± 0.04 vs 0.82 ± 0.05), axial diffusivity (5.08 ± 0.08 vs 5.04 ± 0.07), and radial diffusivity (3.79 ± 0.05 vs 3.76 ± 0.05) between HD patients and controls were not different in internal capsule. These values were also not significantly different in cerebral peduncle, pons, and pyramid. These values were also not significantly different between the severe and less severely affected sides. The fractional anisotropy did not correlate with lower limb hyper-reflexia (P = 1.00) and spinal cord atrophy (P = 0.60).

Conclusion: DTI study in HD patients did not reveal corticospinal tract involvement in brain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.325338DOI Listing
September 2021

GTF2I Mutation in Thymomas: Independence From Racial-Ethnic Backgrounds. An Indian/German Comparative Study.

Pathol Oncol Res 2021 23;27:1609858. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Institute of Pathology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Thymomas are the most frequent adult mediastinal cancers. Their etiology is unknown and their pathogenesis poorly understood. Racial, ethnic and environmental factors influence tumorigenesis in many cancers, but their role in thymomas remains unclear to date. In this study that included pretreatment thymoma cases from India and Germany ( = 37 and = 77, respectively) we compared i) the prevalence of the thymoma-specific chromosome 7 c.74146970T > A mutation of the gene in type A and AB thymomas; ii) epidemiological features; and iii) the frequency of myasthenia gravis (MG). Due to a known predominance of GTF2I mutation in A and AB histotypes, we included only a marginal number of type B thymomas as a control group in both cohorts. While the distribution of histological types between the cohorts was similar ( = 0.1622), Indian patients were strikingly younger ( < 0.0001; median age 50 vs. 65 years) and showed significantly lower tumour stage (Masaoka-Koga stage I) at primary diagnosis ( = 0.0005) than the German patients. In patients with known MG status ( = 17 in Indian and = 25 in German cohort), a clear trend towards more frequent MG was observed in the Indian group ( = 0.0504; 48 vs. 82%). The prevalence of the mutation (analysed in = 34 Indian and = 77 German patients) was identical in the two cohorts. We conclude that racial-ethnic and environmental factors do not significantly influence the most common molecular feature of thymomas but may have an impact on the timing of clinical presentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/pore.2021.1609858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419886PMC
August 2021

Outcomes following surgical management of femoroacetabular impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of different surgical techniques.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Sep;10(9):574-590

Young Adult Hip Service, Department of Trauma & Orthopaedics, Addenbrooke's - Cambridge University Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Outcomes following different types of surgical intervention for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) are well reported individually but comparative data are deficient. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis to analyze the outcomes following surgical management of FAI by hip arthroscopy (HA), anterior mini open approach (AMO), and surgical hip dislocation (SHD). This SR was registered with PROSPERO. An electronic database search of PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE for English and German language articles over the last 20 years was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We specifically analyzed and compared changes in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), α-angle, rate of complications, rate of revision, and conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 48 articles were included for final analysis with a total of 4,384 hips in 4,094 patients. All subgroups showed a significant correction in mean α angle postoperatively with a mean change of 28.8° (95% confidence interval (CI) 21 to 36.5; p < 0.01) after AMO, 21.1° (95% CI 15.1 to 27; p < 0.01) after SHD, and 20.5° (95% CI 16.1 to 24.8; p < 0.01) after HA. The AMO group showed a significantly higher increase in PROMs (3.7; 95% CI 3.2 to 4.2; p < 0.01) versus arthroscopy (2.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 2.8; p < 0.01) and SHD (2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.3; p < 0.01). However, the rate of complications following AMO was significantly higher than HA and SHD. All three surgical approaches offered significant improvements in PROMs and radiological correction of cam deformities. All three groups showed similar rates of revision procedures but SHD had the highest rate of conversion to a THA. Revision rates were similar for all three revision procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.109.BJR-2020-0443.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479569PMC
September 2021
-->