Publications by authors named "Sunil A Sheth"

85 Publications

Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke With the Penumbra System in Routine Practice: COMPLETE Registry Results.

Stroke 2021 Sep 22:STROKEAHA121034268. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Mercy Health St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH (O.O.Z.).

Background And Purpose: The purpose of the COMPLETE (International Acute Ischemic Stroke Registry With the Penumbra System Aspiration Including the 3D Revascularization Device) registry was to evaluate the generalizability of the safety and efficacy of the Penumbra System (Penumbra, Inc, Alameda) in a real-world setting.

Methods: COMPLETE was a global, prospective, postmarket, multicenter registry. Patients with large vessel occlusion-acute ischemic stroke who underwent mechanical thrombectomy using the Penumbra System with or without the 3D Revascularization Device as frontline approach were enrolled at 42 centers (29 United States, 13 Europe) from July 2018 to October 2019. Primary efficacy end points were successful postprocedure angiographic revascularization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b) and 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2). The primary safety end point was 90-day all-cause mortality. An imaging core lab determined modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores, clot location, and occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage at 24 hours. Independent medical reviewers adjudicated safety end points.

Results: Six hundred fifty patients were enrolled (median age 70 years, 54.0% female, 49.2% given intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator before thrombectomy). Rate of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 postprocedure was 87.8% (95% CI, 85.3%-90.4%). First pass and postprocedure rates of modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2c to 3 were 41.5% and 66.2%, respectively. At 90 days, 55.8% (95% CI, 51.9%-59.7%) had modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2, and all-cause mortality was 15.5% (95% CI, 12.8%-18.3%).

Conclusions: Using Penumbra System for frontline mechanical thrombectomy treatment of patients with large vessel occlusion-acute ischemic stroke in a real-world setting was associated with angiographic, clinical, and safety outcomes that were comparable to prior randomized clinical trials with stringent site and operator selection criteria.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03464565.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.034268DOI Listing
September 2021

Safety and efficacy of balloon-mounted stent in the treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease: a multicenter experience.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Neurology, UTRGV School of Medicine, Harlingen, Texas, USA

Background: Randomized clinical trials have failed to prove that the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment for symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is better than that of medical management. A recent study using a self-expandable stent showed acceptable lower rates of periprocedural complications.

Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of a balloon-mounted stent (BMS) in the treatment of symptomatic ICAD.

Methods: Prospectively maintained databases from 15 neuroendovascular centers between 2010 and 2020 were reviewed. Patients were included if they had severe symptomatic intracranial stenosis in the target artery, medical management had failed, and they underwent intracranial stenting with BMS after 24 hours of the qualifying event. The primary outcome was the occurrence of stroke and mortality within 72 hours after the procedure. Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), and mortality on long-term follow-up.

Results: A total of 232 patients were eligible for the analysis (mean age 62.8 years, 34.1% female). The intracranial stenotic lesions were located in the anterior circulation in 135 (58.2%) cases. Recurrent stroke was the qualifying event in 165 (71.1%) while recurrent TIA was identified in 67 (28.9%) cases. The median (IQR) time from the qualifying event to stenting was 5 (2-20.75) days. Strokes were reported in 13 (5.6%) patients within 72 hours of the procedure; 9 (3.9%) ischemic and 4 (1.7%) hemorrhagic, and mortality in 2 (0.9%) cases. Among 189 patients with median follow-up time 6 (3-14.5) months, 12 (6.3%) had TIA and 7 (3.7%) had strokes. Three patients (1.6%) died from causes not related to stroke.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that BMS may be a safe and effective treatment for medically refractory symptomatic ICAD. Additional prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017818DOI Listing
August 2021

Predicting In-hospital Mortality Using D-Dimer in COVID-19 Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:702927. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, UTHealth McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulopathy, and D-dimer levels have been used to predict disease severity. However, the role of D-dimer in predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains incompletely characterized. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Optum® de-identified COVID-19 Electronic Health Record dataset. Patients were included if they were 18 or older, had been hospitalized within 7 days of confirmed COVID-19 positivity from March 1, 2020 to November 30, 2020. We determined the optimal threshold of D-dimer to predict in-hospital mortality and compared risks of in-hospital mortality between patients with D-dimer levels below and above the cutoff. Risk ratios (RRs) were estimated adjusting for baseline characteristics and clinical variables. Among 15,250 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 positivity, 285 presented with AIS at admission (2%). Patients with AIS were older [70 (60-79) vs. 64 (52-75), < 0.001] and had greater D-dimer levels at admission [1.42 (0.76-3.96) vs. 0.94 (0.55-1.81) μg/ml FEU, < 0.001]. Peak D-dimer level was a good predictor of in-hospital mortality among all patients [c-statistic 0.774 (95% CI 0.764-0.784)] and among patients with AIS [c-statistic 0.751 (95% CI 0.691-0.810)]. Among AIS patients, the optimum cutoff was identified at 5.15 μg/ml FEU with 73% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Elevated peak D-dimer level above this cut-off was associated with almost 3 times increased mortality [adjusted RR 2.89 (95% CI 1.87-4.47), < 0.001]. COVID-19 patients with AIS present with greater D-dimer levels. Thresholds for outcomes prognostication should be higher in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.702927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322655PMC
July 2021

Exposure to Neurointervention During Neurology Training.

Stroke 2021 Aug 29;52(9):e550-e553. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ (A.P.J.).

There is an urgent need to include a dedicated neurointerventional rotation in the curriculum of neurology residency and vascular neurology fellowship based on the paradigm shift in recent years of stroke workflow. The recent changes coupled with growing body of evidence about lack of neurointerventional exposure in current curriculum makes it imperative for us to restructure the training for future neurologists. The exposure will prepare the neurology house-staff for the contemporary management of cerebrovascular diseases and will lead to high quality, patient-centric care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.036026DOI Listing
August 2021

Automated prediction of final infarct volume in patients with large-vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 07;51(1):E13

1Department of Neurology and.

Objective: In patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) acute ischemic stroke (AIS), determinations of infarct size play a key role in the identification of candidates for endovascular stroke therapy (EVT). An accurate, automated method to quantify infarct at the time of presentation using widely available imaging modalities would improve screening for EVT. Here, the authors aimed to compare the performance of three measures of infarct core at presentation, including an automated method using machine learning.

Methods: Patients with LVO AIS who underwent successful EVT at four comprehensive stroke centers were identified. Patients were included if they underwent concurrent noncontrast head CT (NCHCT), CT angiography (CTA), and CT perfusion (CTP) with Rapid imaging at the time of presentation, and MRI 24 to 48 hours after reperfusion. NCHCT scans were analyzed using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) graded by neuroradiology or neurology expert readers. CTA source images were analyzed using a previously described machine learning model named DeepSymNet (DSN). Final infarct volume (FIV) was determined from diffusion-weighted MRI sequences using manual segmentation. The primary outcome was the performance of the three infarct core measurements (NCHCT-ASPECTS, CTA with DSN, and CTP-Rapid) to predict FIV, which was measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) analysis.

Results: Among 76 patients with LVO AIS who underwent EVT and met inclusion criteria, the median age was 67 years (IQR 54-76 years), 45% were female, and 37% were White. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 16 (IQR 12-22), and the median NCHCT-ASPECTS on presentation was 8 (IQR 7-8). The median time between when the patient was last known to be well and arrival was 156 minutes (IQR 73-303 minutes), and between NCHCT/CTA/CTP to groin puncture was 73 minutes (IQR 54-81 minutes). The AUC was obtained at three different cutoff points: 10 ml, 30 ml, and 50 ml FIV. At the 50-ml FIV cutoff, the AUC of ASPECTS was 0.74; of CTP core volume, 0.72; and of DSN, 0.82. Differences in AUCs for the three predictors were not significant for the three FIV cutoffs.

Conclusions: In a cohort of patients with LVO AIS in whom reperfusion was achieved, determinations of infarct core at presentation by NCHCT-ASPECTS and a machine learning model analyzing CTA source images were equivalent to CTP in predicting FIV. These findings have suggested that the information to accurately predict infarct core in patients with LVO AIS was present in conventional imaging modalities (NCHCT and CTA) and accessible by machine learning methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.4.FOCUS21134DOI Listing
July 2021

Cyclical aspiration using a novel mechanical thrombectomy device is associated with a high TICI 3 first pass effect in large-vessel strokes.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Sep 8;31(5):912-924. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Medical City Plano, Medical City Healthcare, Plano, Texas, USA.

Background And Purpose: Complete reperfusion (TICI 3) after the first thrombectomy attempt or first pass effect (FPE) is associated with best clinical outcomes in large-vessel occlusion (LVO) acute ischemic stroke. While endovascular therapy techniques have improved substantially, FPE remains low (24-30%), and new methods to improve reperfusion efficiency are needed.

Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, 40 consecutive patients underwent cyclical aspiration thrombectomy using CLEAR Aspiration System (Insera Therapeutics Inc., Dallas, TX). Primary outcome included FPE with complete/near-complete reperfusion (TICI 2c/3 FPE). Secondary outcomes included early neurological improvement measured by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), safety outcomes, and functional outcomes using modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Outcomes were compared against published historical controls.

Results: Among 38 patients who met criteria for LVO, median age was 75 (range 31-96). FPE was high (TICI 3: 26/38 [68%], TICI 2c/3: 29/38 [76%]). Among anterior circulation strokes, core lab-adjudicated FPE remained high (TICI 3: 17/29 [59%], TICI 2c/3: 20/29 [69%]), with excellent final successful revascularization results (Final TICI 3: 24/29 [83%], Final TICI 2c/3: 27/29 [93%]). FPE in the CLEAR-1 cohort was significantly higher compared to FPE using existing devices (meta-analysis) from historical controls (TICI 2c/3: 76% vs. 28%, p = 0.0001). High rates of early neurological improvement were observed (delta NIHSS≥4: 35/38 [92.1%]; delta NIHSS≥10: 27/38 [71%]). Similarly, high rates of good functional outcomes (mRS 0-2: 32/38 [84%]) and low mortality (2/38 [5%]) were observed.

Conclusion: Cyclical aspiration using the CLEAR Aspiration System is safe, effective, and achieved a high TICI 3 FPE for large-vessel strokes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12889DOI Listing
September 2021

Utility of skull X-rays in identifying recurrence of coiled cerebral aneurysms.

J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg 2021 Jun 28;23(2):108-116. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: A high rate of cerebral aneurysm recurrence following endovascular coiling has prompted the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for interval follow-up. However, the utility of skull x-rays as an alternative screening method for aneurysm recurrence is unproperly characterized.

Methods: Retrospective review of a prospective registry of ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Anteroposterior and lateral skull x-rays were obtained immediately at the end of the procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Aneurysm recurrence was defined by comparing post-procedure and 6-month DSA imaging. A true positive was defined as a change in coil mass morphology on at least one projection with aneurysm recurrence on DSA, and a true negative defined as a stable coil mass on both projections and no recurrence on DSA. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) statistics was used to assess the performance of skull x-rays in identifying aneurysm recurrence.

Results: A total of 118 cerebral aneurysms were evaluated with DSA imaging and skull x-rays. A change in coil mass morphology on one projection of skull x-rays correctly detected all true recurrences with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91-100%). Skull x-rays failed to identify a stable aneurysm coil mass in 15 cases, with a specificity of 79% (68-88%). Skull x-rays performed with AUC 0.8958 (95% CI, 0.8490-0.9431) in identifying aneurysm recurrence.

Conclusions: The findings of our study suggest that skull x-rays may represent a lowcost, non-invasive screening tool to rule out aneurysm recurrence, which can potentially aid in decreasing the utilization of DSA in the follow-up of patients with coiled cerebral aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7461/jcen.2021.E2020.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256019PMC
June 2021

Predictors of outcome in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.

Neurooncol Pract 2021 Apr 20;8(2):222-229. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston - McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas.

Background: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA) are circumscribed gliomas that typically have a favorable prognosis. Limited studies have revealed factors affecting survival outcomes in PXA. Here, we analyzed the largest PXA dataset in the literature and identify factors associated with outcomes.

Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Registries database, we identified histologically confirmed PXA patients between 1994 and 2016. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: In total, 470 patients were diagnosed with PXA (males = 53%; median age = 23 years [14-39 years]), the majority were Caucasian (n = 367; 78%). The estimated mean OS was 193 months [95% CI: 179-206]. Multivariate analysis revealed that greater age at diagnosis (≥39 years) (3.78 [2.16-6.59], < .0001), larger tumor size (≥30 mm) (1.97 [1.05-3.71], = .034), and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (2.20 [1.31-3.69], = .003) were independent predictors of poor OS. Pediatric PXA patients had improved survival outcomes compared to their adult counterparts, in which chemotherapy (CT) was associated with worse OS. Meanwhile, in adults, females and patients with temporal lobe tumors had an improved survival; conversely, tumor size ≥30 mm and postoperative RT were associated with poor OS.

Conclusions: In PXA, older age and larger tumor size at diagnosis are risk factors for poor OS, while pediatric patients have remarkably improved survival. Postoperative RT and CT appear to be ineffective treatment strategies while achieving GTR confer an improved survival in male patients and remains the cornerstone of treatment. These findings can help optimize PXA treatment while minimizing side effects. However, further studies of PXAs with molecular characterization are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npaa076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049416PMC
April 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Infective Endocarditis-Related Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 8;30(6):105775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Boston University Medical Center, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Embolic stroke is a frequent complication of infective endocarditis yet lacks acute treatment as intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided due to high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion may be a promising treatment but there is limited data on safety outcomes in infective endocarditis.

Materials And Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series, we reviewed data from patients with infective endocarditis-related large vessel occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 9 US hospitals.

Results: We identified 15 patients at 9 hospitals. A minority presented with signs suggesting infection (2 patients (14%) had fever, 7 (47%) were tachycardic, 2 (13%) were hypotensive, and 8 (53%) had leukocytosis). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Score decreased from 19 (range 9-25) at presentation to 7 post-thrombectomy (range 0-22, median best score post-thrombectomy), and the median modified Rankin Scale on or after discharge for survivors was 3 (range 0-6). Approximately 57% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale between 0 and 3 on or after discharge. Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7/15 (47%). The mechanical thrombectomy group had 2/9 petechial hemorrhagic transformation (22%), compared to 4/6 parenchymal hematomas (67%) in the tissue plasminogen activator + mechanical thrombectomy group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with large vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis may not present with overt signs of infection. Mechanical thrombectomy may be an effective treatment in this patient population for whom intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105775DOI Listing
June 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Utilization and Availability of Advanced Imaging in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Apr 24;14(4):e006989. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurology, McGovern Medical School (Y.K., S.L., R.A., V.L.-R., S.I.S., A.C., L.D.M., S.A.S.), University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

Background: Recent clinical trials have established the efficacy of endovascular stroke therapy and intravenous thrombolysis using advanced imaging, particularly computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The availability and utilization of CTP for patients and hospitals that treat acute ischemic stroke (AIS), however, is uncertain.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using 2 complementary Medicare datasets, full sample Texas and 5% national fee-for-service data from 2014 to 2017. AIS cases were identified using , and , coding criteria. Imaging utilization performed in the initial evaluation of patients with AIS was derived using Current Procedural Terminology codes from professional claims. Primary outcomes were utilization of imaging in AIS cases and the change in utilization over time. Hospitals were defined as imaging modality-performing if they submitted at least 1 claim for that modality per calendar year. The National Medicare dataset was used to validate state-level findings, and a local hospital-level cohort was used to validate the claims-based approach.

Results: Among 50 797 AIS cases in the Texas Medicare fee-for-service cohort, 64% were evaluated with noncontrast head CT, 17% with CT angiography, 3% with CTP, and 33% with magnetic resonance imaging. CTP utilization was greater in patients treated with endovascular stroke therapy (17%) and intravenous thrombolysis (9%). CT angiography (4%/y) and CTP (1%/y) utilization increased over the study period. These findings were validated in the National dataset. Among hospitals in the Texas cohort, 100% were noncontrast head CT-performing, 77% CT angiography-performing, and 14% CTP-performing in 2017. Most AIS cases (69%) were evaluated at non-CTP-performing hospitals. CTP-performing hospitals were clustered in urban areas, whereas large regions of the state lacked immediate access.

Conclusions: In state-wide and national Medicare fee-for-service cohorts, CTP utilization in patients with AIS was low, and most patients were evaluated at non-CTP-performing hospitals. These findings support the need for alternative means of screening for AIS recanalization therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006989DOI Listing
April 2021

First Pass Recanalization Rates of Solitaire vs Trevo vs Primary Aspiration: The Kaiser Southern California Experience.

Perm J 2020 12;25:1-3

Department of Neurology, Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Context: New stroke thrombectomy devices have significantly improved recanalization rates in patients with large vessel occlusion. The first pass effect, or complete or near complete recanalization after a single pass of a device, is associated with better outcome. However, it remains unclear whether one technique is superior to the others at first pass recanalization.

Objective: The successful recanalization rates of three common techniques: 1) Stent-retriever with the Solitaire or 2) Trevo device, or 3) primary aspiration (PA) with a distal aspiration catheter, were compared across three Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Centers over a 5-year period.

Design: Retrospective review of cases between October 2013 and May 2018.

Main Outcome Measure: Successful recanalization after a single pass of a device.

Results: Forty-five percent of Solitaire thrombectomies resulted in first pass success, compared with 31% of Trevo and 39% of PA, not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Adjusted for age, gender, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, the odds of successful recanalization were 1.90 ± 0.72 (CI 0.90-3.99, p = 0.09) for Solitaire compared with Trevo, and 1.41 ± 0.50 (CI 0.70-2.84, p = 0.33) for aspiration compared with Trevo.

Conclusion: In this multi-center cohort, there was no statistical difference in successful first pass recanalization between Solitaire, Trevo, and PA. However, there was a trend towards improved efficacy with the Solitaire device compared to Trevo (OR 1.90, p = 0.09). Additional data are needed to determine the conditions under which design differences may favor one technique over another.
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December 2020

Education Research: Challenges Faced by Neurology Trainees in a Neuro-Intervention Career Track.

Neurology 2021 04 12;96(15):e2028-e2032. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

From Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center (C.W.L.); UC Riverside School of Medicine (C.W.L.), CA; Washington University School of Medicine (S.D.), St Louis, MO; University of Iowa (S.O.-G.), Iowa City; University of California, Los Angeles (D.S.L.); Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center (J.C.G.), Houston; Cooper University Hospital (T.G.J.), Cooper Medical School of Rowan University Camden, NJ; Boston Medical Center (T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Marcus Stroke & Neuroscience Center (R.G.N.), Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; State University of New York Upstate Medical University (H.M.), Syracuse; Semmes-Murphey Clinic (L.E.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; BSMH St Vincent Medical Center (O.O.Z.), Toledo, OH; University of Texas Rio Grande Valley (A.E.H.), Harlingen; Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute (I.L.), FL; Mount Sinai Hospital (J.T.F.), New York; and University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (S.A.S.).

Objective: The widespread adoption of endovascular therapy (EVT) for emergent large vessel occlusion has led to increased nationwide demand for neurointerventionalists, heightened interest among neurology residents to pursue neurointervention as a career, and increased importance of neurointervention exposure for all neurologists who care for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Exposure to neurointervention and its career path are not well-defined for neurology trainees.

Methods: The Society for Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Education Committee conducted a multicenter electronic survey directed towards neurology residents and vascular neurology (VN), neurocritical care (NCC), and neurointervention fellows in June 2018. A total of 250 programs were invited to participate; 76 trainees completed the survey.

Results: Respondents self-identified as 22% postgraduate year (PGY)2, 40% PGY3/4, 30% VN fellows, and 8% neurointervention or NCC fellows. Eighty-seven percent of trainees had more than 2 months exposure to VN during residency, 41% to NCC, and only 3% to neurointervention. Sixty-eight percent of respondents had no exposure to neurointervention during residency. Whereas 72% believed that a background in neurology was good preparation for neurointervention, only 41% agreed that fellowship training pathway in neurointervention is well-structured for neurology residents when compared to other subspecialties.

Conclusion: In this survey, respondents identified lack of exposure to neurointervention and a well-defined training pathway as obstacles towards pursuing neurointervention as a career. These obstacles must be addressed for the continued development of neurointervention as a subspecialty of neurology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011629DOI Listing
April 2021

Endovascular thrombectomy time metrics in the era of COVID-19: observations from the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology Multicenter Collaboration.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Health Care, Camden, New Jersey, USA

Background: Unprecedented workflow shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to delays in acute care delivery, but whether it adversely affected endovascular thrombectomy metrics in acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of observational data from 14 comprehensive stroke centers in nine US states with acute LVO. EVT metrics were compared between March to July 2019 against March to July 2020 (primary analysis), and between state-specific pre-peak and peak COVID-19 months (secondary analysis), with multivariable adjustment.

Results: Of the 1364 patients included in the primary analysis (51% female, median NIHSS 14 [IQR 7-21], and 74% of whom underwent EVT), there was no difference in the primary outcome of door-to-puncture (DTP) time between the 2019 control period and the COVID-19 period (median 71 vs 67 min, P=0.10). After adjustment for variables associated with faster DTP, and clustering by site, there remained a trend toward shorter DTP during the pandemic (β=-73.2, 95% CI -153.8-7.4, Pp=0.07). There was no difference in DTP times according to local COVID-19 peaks vs pre-peak months in unadjusted or adjusted multivariable regression (β=-3.85, 95% CI -36.9-29.2, P=0.80). In this final multivariable model (secondary analysis), faster DTP times were significantly associated with transfer from an outside institution (β=-46.44, 95% CI -62.8 to - -30.0, P<0.01) and higher NIHSS (β=-2.15, 95% CI -4.2to - -0.1, P=0.05).

Conclusions: In this multi-center study, there was no delay in EVT among patients treated for intracranial occlusion during the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871225PMC
February 2021

Integrated Stroke System Model Expands Availability of Endovascular Therapy While Maintaining Quality Outcomes.

Stroke 2021 Mar 4;52(3):1022-1029. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurology (V.L.-R., S.S.-M., R.A., S.I.S., A.L.C., Y.J.A., G.S., T.-C.W., L.D.M., S.A.S.), UTHealth McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX.

Background And Purpose: The optimal endovascular stroke therapy (EVT) care delivery structure is unknown. Here, we present our experience in creating an integrated stroke system (ISS) to expand EVT availability throughout our region while maintaining hospital and physician quality standards.

Methods: We identified all consecutive patients with large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke treated with EVT from January 2014 to February 2019 in our health care system. In October 2017, we implemented the ISS, in which 3 additional hospitals (4 total) became EVT-performing hospitals (EPHs) and physicians were rotated between all centers. The cohort was divided by time into pre-ISS and post-ISS, and the primary outcome was time from stroke onset to EPH arrival. Secondary outcomes included hospital and procedural quality metrics. We performed an external validation using data from the Southeast Texas Regional Advisory Council.

Results: Among 513 patients with large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke treated with EVT, 58% were treated pre-ISS and 43% post-ISS. Over the study period, EVT procedural volume increased overall but remained relatively low at the 3 new EPHs (<70 EVT/y). After ISS, the proportion of patients who underwent interhospital transfer decreased (46% versus 37%; <0.05). In adjusted quantile regression, ISS implementation resulted in a reduction of time from stroke onset to EPH arrival by 40 minutes (<0.01) and onset to groin puncture by 29 minutes (<0.05). Rates of postprocedural hemorrhage, modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3, and 90-day modified Rankin Scale were comparable at the higher and lower volume EPHs. The improvement in onset-to-arrival time was not reflective of overall improvement in secular trends in regional prehospital care.

Conclusions: In our system, increasing EVT availability decreased time from stroke onset to EPH arrival. The ISS provides a framework to maintain quality in lower volume hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902449PMC
March 2021

Response by Sheth to Letter Regarding Article, "Impact of Initial Imaging Protocol on Likelihood of Endovascular Stroke Therapy".

Authors:
Sunil A Sheth

Stroke 2021 Jan 25;52(2):e89. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

UTHealth McGovern Medical School, Department of Neurology, Houston, TX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033238DOI Listing
January 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 07 29;16(5):573-584. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
July 2021

Extent of resection and survival outcomes of geriatric patients with glioblastoma: Is there benefit from aggressive surgery?

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Mar 6;202:106474. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Memorial Hermann Hospital-TMC, Houston, TX, USA; Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: We examine the impact of age and extent of resection (EOR) on overall survival (OS) in geriatric patients with Glioblastoma (GBM).

Methods: The SEER 18 Registries was used to identify patients aged 65 and above with GBM from 2000-2016. Patients were categorized into 4 groups based on EOR: Biopsy/Local Excision (B/LE), Subtotal Resection (STR), Gross Total Resection (GTR), and Supratotal Resection (SpTR). Primary endpoint was OS, which was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the Log-rank and Wilcoxon-Breslow-Gehan test. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was utilized to identify factors associated with OS. Likelihood of undergoing SpTR was explored using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results are given as median [IQR] and HR [95 % CI].

Results: Among 17,820 geriatric patients with GBM, median age was 73 years [68-78], 44 % were female, 91 % White, and 8% Hispanic. SpTR was performed in 2907 (16 %), GTR was performed in 2451 (14 %) patients, STR in 4879 (28 %), and B/LE in 7396 (42 %). There was a decline in the proportion of patients treated with SpTR with advancing age (65-69 years, 17 % vs 95+ years, 0%; p < 0.0001), and older age corresponded with a decrease in the odds of undergoing SpTR. In survival analysis, GTR (HR 0.61 [0.58-0.65]) and SpTR (HR 0.65 [0.62-0.68]) were associated with improved survival, even in octogenarian patients.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that aggressive surgical resection is associated with improvement in OS in geriatric patients. These results emphasize that age should not influence surgical strategy, as there is a survival benefit from maximal resection in geriatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106474DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with pregnancy in women with cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Aug 23;13(8):707-710. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Neurology, UTHealth McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA

Background: Prior studies on rupture risk of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in women undergoing pregnancy and delivery have reported conflicting findings, but also have not accounted for AVM morphology and heterogeneity. Here, we assess the association between pregnancy and the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in women with AVMs using a cohort-crossover design in which each woman serves as her own control.

Methods: Women who underwent pregnancy and delivery were identified using DRG codes from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases for California (2005-2011), Florida (2005-2014), and New York (2005-2014). The presence of AVM and ICH was determined using ICD 9 codes. Pregnancy was defined as the 40 weeks prior to delivery, and postpartum as 12 weeks after. We defined a non-exposure control period as a 52-week period prior to pregnancy. The relative risks of ICH during pregnancy were compared against the non-exposure period using conditional Poisson regression.

Results: Among 4 022 811 women identified with an eligible delivery hospitalization (median age, 28 years; 7.3% with gestational diabetes; 4.5% with preeclampsia/eclampsia), 568 (0.014%) had an AVM. The rates of ICH during pregnancy and puerperium were 6355.4 (95% CI 4279.4 to 8431.5) and 14.4 (95% CI 13.3 to 15.6) per 100 000 person-years for women with and without AVM, respectively. In cohort-crossover analysis, in women with AVMs the risk of ICH increased 3.27-fold (RR, 95% CI 1.67 to 6.43) during pregnancy and puerperium compared with a non-pregnant period.

Conclusions: Among women with AVM, pregnancy and puerperium were associated with a greater than 3-fold risk of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016838DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative Analysis of Survival Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Supratentorial versus Cerebellar Glioblastoma in the Elderly: Does Location Really Matter?

World Neurosurg 2021 02 7;146:e755-e767. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Hermann Hospital-TMC, Houston, Texas, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA; Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cerebellar glioblastomas (cGBMs) are rare tumors that are uncommon in the elderly. In this study, we compare survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors of cGBM compared with the supratentorial (stGBM) counterpart in the elderly.

Methods: Data from the SEER 18 registries were used to identify patients with a glioblastoma (GBM) diagnosis between 2000 and 2016. The log-rank method and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model were used for analysis.

Results: Among 110 elderly patients with cGBM, the median age was 74 years (interquartile range [IQR], 69-79 years), 39% were female and 83% were white. Of these patients, 32% underwent gross total resection, 73% radiotherapy, and 39% chemotherapy. Multivariable analysis of the unmatched and matched cohort showed that tumor location was not associated with survival; in the unmatched cohort, insurance status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.11; IQR, 0.02-0.49; P = 0.004), gross total resection (HR, 0.53; IQR, 0.30-0.91; P = 0.022), and radiotherapy (HR, 0.33; IQR, 0.18-0.61; P < 0.0001) were associated with better survival. Patients with cGBM and stGBM undergoing radiotherapy (7 months vs. 2 months; P < 0.001) and chemotherapy (10 months vs. 3 months; P < 0.0001) had improved survival. Long-term mortality was lower for cGBM in the elderly at 24 months compared with the stGBM cohort (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: In our study, elderly patients with cGBM and stGBM have similar outcomes in overall survival, and those undergoing maximal resection with adjuvant therapies, independent of tumor location, have improved outcomes. Thus, aggressive treatment should be encouraged for cGBM in geriatric patients to confer the same survival benefits seen in stGBM. Single-institutional and multi-institutional studies to identify patient-level prognostic factors are warranted to triage the best surgical candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.11.003DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

Neurocrit Care 2021 06 21;34(3):1009-1016. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Neurology, UT Health McGovern School of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: To investigate the rates, predictors, and outcomes of prolonged mechanical ventilation (≥ 96 h) following endovascular treatment (EVT) of ischemic stroke.

Methods: Hospitalizations with acute ischemic stroke and EVT were identified using validated codes in the National Inpatient Sample (2010-2015). The primary outcome was prolonged mechanical ventilation defined as ventilation ≥ 96 consecutive hours. We compared hospitalizations involving prolonged ventilation following EVT with those that did not involve prolonged ventilation. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences between groups. Clinical predictors of prolonged ventilation were assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses.

Results: Among the 34,184 hospitalizations with EVT, 5087 (14.9%) required prolonged mechanical ventilation. There was a decline in overall intubation and prolonged ventilation during the study period. On multivariable analysis, history of heart failure [OR 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57)] and diabetes [OR 1.22 (95% CI 1-1.50)] was independent predictors of prolonged ventilation following EVT. In a sensitivity analysis of anterior circulation stroke only, heart failure [OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.10-1.61)], diabetes [OR 1.25 (95% CI 1.01-1.57)], and chronic lung disease [OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03-1.66)] were independent predictors of prolonged ventilation. The weighted proportions of in-hospital mortality, post-procedural shock, acute renal failure, and intracerebral hemorrhage were higher in the prolonged ventilation group.

Conclusions: Among a nationally representative sample of hospitalizations, nearly one-in-six patients had prolonged mechanical ventilation after EVT. Heart failure and diabetes were significantly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation following EVT. Prolonged ventilation was associated with significant increase in in-hospital mortality and morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01125-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577519PMC
June 2021

Treatment trends and overall survival in patients with grade II/III ependymoma: The role of tumor grade and location.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 12 6;199:106282. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Treatment of ependymoma (EPN) is guided by associated tumor features, such as grade and location. However, the relationship between these features with treatments and overall survival in EPN patients remains uncharacterized. Here, we describe the change over time in treatment strategies and identify tumor characteristics that influence treatment and survival in EPN.

Methods And Materials: Using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Registries (1973-2016) database, we identified patients with EPN microscopically confirmed to be grade II (EPN-GII) or III (EPN-GIII) tumors between 2004-2016. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. A sub-analysis was performed by tumor location (supratentorial, posterior fossa, and spine). Change over time in rates of gross total resection (GTR), radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy (CS) were analyzed using linear regression, and predictors of treatment were identified using multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: Between 2004-2016, 1,671 patients were diagnosed with EPN, of which 1,234 (74 %) were EPN-GII and 437 (26 %) EPN-GIII. Over the study period, EPN-GII patients underwent a less aggressive treatment (48 % vs 27 %, GTR; 60 % vs 30 %, RT; 22 % vs 2%, CS; 2004 vs 2016; p < 0.01 for all). Age, tumor size, location, and grade were positive predictors of undergoing treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that tumor grade and location were significantly associated with OS (p < 0.0001 for both). In multivariable Cox regression, tumor grade was an independent predictor of OS among patients in the cohort (grade III, HR 3.89 [2.84-5.33]; p < 0.0001), with this finding remaining significant across all tumor locations.

Conclusions: In EPN, tumor grade and location are predictors of treatment and overall survival. These findings support the importance of histologic WHO grade and location in the decision-making for treatment and their role in individualizing treatment for different patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106282DOI Listing
December 2020

Utilization of Endovascular and Surgical Treatments for Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomas: A Population Health Perspective.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020 Oct 9;31(10):1552-1559.e1. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Interventional Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, T. Boone Pickens Academic Tower (FCT14.5092), 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1471, Houston, TX 77030. Electronic address:

Purpose: To conduct a population-level analysis of surgical and endovascular interventions for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata by using administrative data from outpatient medical encounters.

Materials And Methods: By using administrative data from all outpatient hospital encounters in California (2005-2011) and Florida (2005-2014), all patients in the outpatient setting with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were identified. Patients were categorized as undergoing hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization (UAE), or no intervention. Hospital stay durations and costs were recorded for each encounter.

Results: A total of 227,489 patients with uterine leiomyomata were included, among whom 39.9% (n = 90,800) underwent an intervention, including hysterectomy (73%), myomectomy (19%), or UAE (8%). The proportion of patients undergoing hysterectomy increased over time (2005, hysterectomy, 53.2%; myomectomy, 26.9%; UAE, 18.0%; vs 2013, hysterectomy, 80.1%; myomectomy, 14.4%; UAE, 4.0%). Hysterectomy was eventually performed in 3.5% of patients who underwent UAE and 4.1% who underwent myomectomy. Mean length of stay following hysterectomy was significantly longer (0.5 d) vs myomectomy (0.2 d) and UAE (0.3 d; P < .001 for both). The mean encounter cost for UAE ($3,772) was significantly less than those for hysterectomy ($5,409; P < .001) and myomectomy ($6,318; P < .001). Of the 7,189 patients who underwent UAE during the study period, 3.5% underwent subsequent hysterectomy.

Conclusions: The proportion of women treated with hysterectomy in the outpatient setting has increased since 2005. As a lower-cost alternative with a low rate of conversion to hysterectomy, UAE may be an underutilized treatment option for patients with uterine leiomyomata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2020.04.039DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of Initial Imaging Protocol on Likelihood of Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

Stroke 2020 10 3;51(10):3055-3063. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Neurology (V.L.-R., R.A., S.I.S., A.L.C., Y.A., G.S., T.-C.W., L.D.M., S.A.S.).

Background And Purpose: Noncontrast head CT and CT perfusion (CTP) are both used to screen for endovascular stroke therapy (EST), but the impact of imaging strategy on likelihood of EST is undetermined. Here, we examine the influence of CTP utilization on likelihood of EST in patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO).

Methods: We identified patients with acute ischemic stroke at 4 comprehensive stroke centers. All 4 hospitals had 24/7 CTP and EST capability and were covered by a single physician group (Neurology, NeuroIntervention, NeuroICU). All centers performed noncontrast head CT and CT angiography in the initial evaluation. One center also performed CTP routinely with high CTP utilization (CTP-H), and the others performed CTP optionally with lower utilization (CTP-L). Primary outcome was likelihood of EST. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether facility type (CTP-H versus CTP-L) was associated with EST adjusting for age, prestroke mRS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, LVO location, time window, and intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator).

Results: Among 3107 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 715 had LVO, of which 403 (56%) presented to CTP-H and 312 (44%) presented to CTP-L. CTP utilization among LVO patients was greater at CTP-H centers (72% versus 18%, CTP-H versus CTP-L, <0.01). In univariable analysis, EST rates for patients with LVO were similar between CTP-H versus CTP-L (46% versus 49%). In multivariable analysis, patients with LVO were less likely to undergo EST at CTP-H (odds ratio, 0.59 [0.41-0.85]). This finding was maintained in multiple patient subsets including late time window, anterior circulation LVO, and direct presentation patients. Ninety-day functional independence (odds ratio, 1.04 [0.70-1.54]) was not different, nor were rates of post-EST PH-2 hemorrhage (1% versus 1%).

Conclusions: We identified an increased likelihood for undergoing EST in centers with lower CTP utilization, which was not associated with worse clinical outcomes or increased hemorrhage. These findings suggest under-treatment bias with routine CTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030122DOI Listing
October 2020

Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts Reduce Variceal Bleeding and Improve Survival in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Population-Based Analysis.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2020 09 11;31(9):1382-1391.e2. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Interventional Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, T. Boone Pickens Academic Tower (FCT14.5092), 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1471, Houston, TX 77030. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate from a population health perspective the effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation on recurrent variceal bleeding and survival in patients with cirrhosis.

Materials And Methods: Patients with cirrhosis who presented to outpatient and acute-care hospitals in California (2005-2011) and Florida (2005-2014) with variceal bleeding comprised the study cohort. Patients entered the study cohort at their first presentation for variceal bleeding; all subsequent hospital encounters were then evaluated to determine subsequent interventions, complications, and mortality data.

Results: A total of 655,577 patients with cirrhosis were identified, of whom 42,708 (6.5%) had at least 1 episode of variceal bleeding and comprised the study cohort. The median follow-up time was 2.61 years. A TIPS was created in 4,201 (9.8%) of these patients. There were significantly greater incidences of coagulopathy (83.9% vs 72.8%; P < .001), diabetes (45.5% vs 38.8%; P < .001), and hepatorenal syndrome (15.3% vs 12.5%; P < .001) in TIPS recipients vs those without a TIPS. Following propensity-score matching, TIPS recipients were found to have improved overall survival (82% vs 77% at 12 mo; P < .001) and a lower rate of recurrent variceal bleeding (88% vs 83% recurrent bleeding-free survival at 12 months,; P < .001) than patients without a TIPS. Patients with a TIPS had a significant increase in encounters for hepatic encephalopathy vs those without (1.01 vs 0.49 per year; P < .001).

Conclusions: TIPS improves recurrent variceal bleeding rates and survival in patients with cirrhosis complicated by variceal bleeding. However, TIPS creation is also associated with a significant increase in hepatic encephalopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2020.06.005DOI Listing
September 2020

Association of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement With Rates of Pulmonary Embolism in Patients With Cancer and Acute Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 07 1;3(7):e2011079. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Interventional Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

Importance: Venous thromboembolism is the second overall leading cause of death for patients with cancer, and there is an approximately 2-fold increase in fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with cancer. Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are designed to prevent PE, but defining the appropriate use of IVC filters in patients with cancer remains a substantial unmet clinical need.

Objective: To evaluate the association of IVC filters with the development of PE in patients with cancer and deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Design, Setting, And Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted using administrative data on 88 585 patients from the state inpatient databases for California (2005-2011) and Florida (2005-2014). Based on diagnostic and procedure codes, patients with cancer and acute lower extremity DVT were identified. All subsequent hospital visits for these patients were evaluated for the placement of an IVC filter, the development of new PE, the development of new DVT, and in-hospital mortality. Data analysis was performed from September 1 to December 1, 2019.

Exposures: Placement of an IVC filter.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The association of IVC filter placement with rates of new PE and DVT was estimated using a propensity score matching algorithm and competing risk analysis.

Results: The study cohort comprised 88 585 patients (45 074 male; median age, 71.0 years [range, 1.0-104.0 years]) with malignant neoplasms who presented to a health care institution with a diagnosis of acute lower extremity DVT. Of these patients, 33 740 (38.1%) underwent IVC filter placement; patients with risk factors such as upper gastrointestinal bleeding (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.29-1.37), intracranial hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.19-1.24), and coagulopathy (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.08-1.10) were more likely to receive an IVC filter. A total of 4492 patients (5.1%) developed a new PE after their initial DVT diagnosis. There was a significant improvement in PE-free survival for these patients compared with those who did not receive IVC filters across the full, unbalanced study cohort as well as after propensity score matching and competing risk analysis (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.64-0.75; P < .001). Furthermore, IVC filter placement reduced the development of PE in patients with very high-risk malignant neoplasms (eg, pancreaticobiliary cancer), high-risk malignant neoplasms (eg, lung cancer), and low-risk malignant neoplasms (eg, prostate cancer). After accounting for anticoagulation use and imbalanced risk factors, IVC filter placement did not increase the risk of new DVT development.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that, for patients with cancer and DVT and bleeding risk factors, IVC filter placement is associated with an increased rate of PE-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.11079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378756PMC
July 2020

Long-Term Cognitive Impairment Associated With Delirium in Acute Neurological Injury.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Jun 9;2(6):e0130. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Center for Outcomes Research at Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX.

Objectives: To characterize the risk of long-term cognitive impairment associated with delirium in acute neurologic injury patients.

Design: We analyzed a 10-year cohort of adult acute neurologic injury patients (stroke and traumatic brain injury) without preexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia, utilizing administrative databases. Patients were followed for in-hospital delirium and mild cognitive impairment or dementia. We report incidence and adjusted hazard ratios for mild cognitive impairment or dementia associated with delirium. Subgroups analyzed include acute neurologic injury categories, dementia subtypes, repeated delirium exposure, and age strata.

Setting: We used state emergency department and state inpatient databases for New York, Florida, and California. All visits are included in the databases regardless of payer status.

Patients: We included adult patients with diagnosis of stroke and traumatic brain injury as acute neurologic injury. Patients with preexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia were excluded.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Among 911,380 acute neurologic injury patients, 5.2% were diagnosed with delirium. Mild cognitive impairment or dementia incidence among delirium patients was approximately twice that of nondelirium patients. In adjusted models, risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia was higher among patients with delirium (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58). Increased risk was observed across all subgroups including patients less than or equal to 55 years old.

Conclusions: Identification, management, and prevention of in-hospital delirium could potentially improve long-term cognitive outcomes in acute neurologic injury patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314325PMC
June 2020
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