Publications by authors named "Sung-Jun Hong"

87 Publications

Distinct nuclear compartment-associated genome architecture in the developing mammalian brain.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Nuclear compartments are thought to play a role in three-dimensional genome organization and gene expression. In mammalian brain, the architecture and dynamics of nuclear compartment-associated genome organization is not known. In this study, we developed Genome Organization using CUT and RUN Technology (GO-CaRT) to map genomic interactions with two nuclear compartments-the nuclear lamina and nuclear speckles-from different regions of the developing mouse, macaque and human brain. Lamina-associated domain (LAD) architecture in cells in vivo is distinct from that of cultured cells, including major differences in LADs previously considered to be cell type invariant. In the mouse and human forebrain, dorsal and ventral neural precursor cells have differences in LAD architecture that correspond to their regional identity. LADs in the human and mouse cortex contain transcriptionally highly active sub-domains characterized by broad depletion of histone-3-lysine-9 dimethylation. Evolutionarily conserved LADs in human, macaque and mouse brain are enriched for transcriptionally active neural genes associated with synapse function. By integrating GO-CaRT maps with genome-wide association study data, we found speckle-associated domains to be enriched for schizophrenia risk loci, indicating a physical relationship between these disease-associated genetic variants and a specific nuclear structure. Our work provides a framework for understanding the relationship between distinct nuclear compartments and genome function in brain development and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00879-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Multicenter survey of symptoms, work life, economic status, and quality of life of complex regional pain syndrome patients.

Korean J Pain 2021 Jul;34(3):288-303

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an intractable pain disease with various symptoms. Here, we investigated the disease status, work life, sleep problems, medical insurance, economic status, psychological problems, and quality of life (QOL) of CRPS patients.

Methods: CRPS patients from 37 university hospitals in South Korea were surveyed. The survey questionnaire consisted of 24 questions on the following aspects of CRPS patients: sex, age, occupation, cause of injury, activities of daily living (ADL), pain severity, sleep disturbance, level of education, economic status, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation. Additionally, the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, consisting of 26 questions, was used to identify the status of QOL.

Results: A total of 251 patients completed the questionnaire. According to the survey, 54.2% patients could not perform ADL on their own. Over the previous week, the mean pain score was 7.15 ± 1.78 (out of a total of 10 points); 92.1% of patients had sleep disorders and 80.5% had suicidal ideation, with most patients suffering from psychological problems. The average for each domain of WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: 21.74 ± 14.77 for physical, 25.22 ± 17.66 for psychological, 32.02 ± 22.36 for social relationship, and 30.69 ± 15.83 for environmental (out of a total of 100 points each). Occupation, ADL, sleep time, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation were statistically correlated with multiple domains.

Conclusions: Most patients had moderate to severe pain, economic problems, limitations of their ADL, sleep problems, psychological problems, and a low QOL score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.3.288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255153PMC
July 2021

First-Principles-Based Machine-Learning Molecular Dynamics for Crystalline Polymers with van der Waals Interactions.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 24;12(25):6000-6006. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Machine-learning (ML) techniques have drawn an ever-increasing focus as they enable high-throughput screening and multiscale prediction of material properties. Especially, ML force fields (FFs) of quantum mechanical accuracy are expected to play a central role for the purpose. The construction of ML-FFs for polymers is, however, still in its infancy due to the formidable configurational space of its composing atoms. Here, we demonstrate the effective development of ML-FFs using kernel functions and a Gaussian process for an organic polymer, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), with a data set acquired by first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Even though the training data set is sampled only with short PTFE chains, structures of longer chains optimized by our ML-FF show an excellent consistency with density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, when integrated with molecular dynamics simulations, the ML-FF successfully describes various physical properties of a PTFE bundle, such as a density, melting temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, and Young's modulus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01140DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery of μ,δ-Opioid Receptor Dual-Biased Agonists That Overcome the Limitation of Prior Biased Agonists.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Jun 6;4(3):1149-1160. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Research Laboratory, Ildong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 20, Samsung 1-ro 1-gil, Hwaseong 18449, Korea.

Morphine is widely used in pain management although the risk of side effects is significant. The use of biased agonists to the G protein of μ-opioid receptors has been suggested as a potential solution, although oliceridine and PZM21 have previously failed to demonstrate benefits in clinical studies. An amplification-induced confusion in the process of comparing G protein and beta-arrestin pathways may account for previously biased agonist misidentification. Here, we have devised a strategy to discover biased agonists with intrinsic efficacy. We computationally simulated 430 000 molecular dockings to the μ-opioid receptor to construct a compound library. Hits were then verified experimentally. Using the verified compounds, we performed simulations to build a second library with a common scaffold and selected compounds that showed a bias to μ- and δ-opioid receptors in a cell-based assay. Three compounds (ID110460001, ID110460002, and ID110460003) with a dual-biased agonistic effect for μ- and δ-opioid receptors were identified. These candidates are full agonists for the μ-opioid receptor and show specific binding modes. On the basis of our findings, we expect our novel compounds to act as more biased agonists compared to existing drugs, including oliceridine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.1c00044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204323PMC
June 2021

Epidural hematoma treated by aspiration after transforaminal epidural steroid injection - A case report.

Anesth Pain Med (Seoul) 2021 Apr 9;16(2):184-190. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Spinal epidural hematoma is rare condition that can rapidly develop into severe neurologic deficits. The pathophysiology of this development remains unclear. There are several case reports of emergency hematoma evacuations after epidural steroid injection.

Case: We report on two patients who developed acute, large amounts of epidural hematoma without neurological deficits after transforaminal epidural steroid injection. After fluoroscopy guided aspiration for epidural hematoma was performed, neurological defects did not progress and the hematoma was shown to be absorbed on magnetic resonance imaging.

Conclusions: These reports are believed to be the first of treating epidural hematoma occurring after transforaminal epidural steroid injection through non-surgical hematoma aspiration. If large amounts of epidural hematoma are not causing neurological issues, it can be aspirated until it is absorbed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17085/apm.20085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107249PMC
April 2021

miRNA-independent function of long noncoding pri-miRNA loci.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Department of Neurological Surgery, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143;

Among the large, diverse set of mammalian long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), long noncoding primary microRNAs (lnc-pri-miRNAs) are those that host miRNAs. Whether lnc-pri-miRNA loci have important biological function independent of their cognate miRNAs is poorly understood. From a genome-scale lncRNA screen, lnc-pri-miRNA loci were enriched for function in cell proliferation, and in glioblastoma (i.e., GBM) cells with or knockdown, lnc-pri-miRNA screen hits still regulated cell growth. To molecularly dissect the function of a lnc-pri-miRNA locus, we studied (also known as ), which hosts the miR-29a/b1 cluster. In GBM cells, knockdown reduced miR-29a/b1 levels, and these cells exhibited decreased growth. However, genetic deletion of the miR-29a/b1 cluster () did not decrease cell growth, while knockdown of transcripts reduced cell proliferation. The miR-29a/b1-independent activity of corresponded to enhancer-like activation of a neighboring oncogene (), regulating cell propagation. The locus interacts with the promoter, and antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of the lncRNA disrupts these interactions and reduces the enhancer-like activity. More broadly, analysis of genome-wide data from multiple human cell types showed that lnc-pri-miRNA loci are significantly enriched for DNA looping interactions with gene promoters as well as genomic and epigenetic characteristics of transcriptional enhancers. Functional studies of additional lnc-pri-miRNA loci demonstrated cognate miRNA-independent enhancer-like activity. Together, these data demonstrate that lnc-pri-miRNA loci can regulate cell biology via both miRNA-dependent and miRNA-independent mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2017562118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020771PMC
March 2021

Optical bioelectronic nose of outstanding sensitivity and selectivity toward volatile organic compounds implemented with genetically engineered bacteriophage: Integrated study of multi-scale computational prediction and experimental validation.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 13;177:112979. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Genetic engineering of a bacteriophage is a promising way to develop a highly functional biosensor. Almost countless configurational degree of freedom in the manipulation, considerable uncertainty and cost involved with the approach, however, have been huddles for the objective. In this paper, we demonstrate rapidly responding optical biosensor with high selectivity toward gaseous explosives with genetically engineered phages. The sensors are equipped with peptide sequences in phages optimally interacting with the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in visible light regime. To overcome the conventional issues, we use extensive utilization of empirical calculations to construct a large database of 8000 tripeptides and screen the best for electronic nose sensing performance toward nine VOCs belonging to three chemical classes. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations unveil underlying correlations between the chemical affinity and optical property change on an electronic band structure level. The computational outcomes are validated by in vitro experimental design and testing of multiarray sensors using genetically modified phage implemented with five selected tripeptide sequences and wild-type phages. The classification success rates estimated from hierarchical cluster analysis are shown to be very consistent with the calculations. Our optical biosensor demonstrates a 1 ppb level of sensing resolution for explosive VOCs, which is a substantial improvement over conventional biosensor. The systematic interplay of big data-based computational prediction and in situ experimental validation can provide smart design principles for unconventionally outstanding biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.112979DOI Listing
April 2021

Quorum Sensing System Affects the Plant Growth Promotion Traits of GS2.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:536865. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to organize gene expression programs, thereby coordinating collective behaviors. It involves the production, release, and population-wide detection of extracellular signaling molecules. The cellular processes regulated by QS in bacteria are diverse and may be used in mutualistic coordination or in response to changing environmental conditions. Here, we focused on the influence of the QS-dependent genes of our model bacterial strain GS2 on potential plant growth promoting (PGP) activities including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and biofilm formation. Based on genomic and phenotypic experimental data we identified and investigated the function of QS genes in the genome of the model strain. Our gene deletion study confirmed the biological functionality of the QS auto-inducer () and receptor () on potential PGP activities of GS2. A transcriptomic approach was also undertaken to understand the role of QS genes in regulation of genes primarily involved in PGP activities (IAA, ACC deaminase activity, and biofilm formation). Both transcriptomic and phenotypic data revealed that the QS-deletion mutants had considerably less PGP activities, as compared to the wild type. In addition, plant experiments showed that plants treated with GS2 had significantly higher growth rates than plants treated with the QS-deletion mutants. Overall, our results showed how QS-dependent genes regulate the potential PGP activities of GS2. This information may be helpful in understanding the relationship between QS-dependent genes and the PGP activity of bacteria, which aid in the production of practical bio-fertilizers for plant growth promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.536865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720635PMC
October 2020

An Electrophilic Deguelin Analogue Inhibits STAT3 Signaling in H--Transformed Human Mammary Epithelial Cells: The Cysteine 259 Residue as a Potential Target.

Biomedicines 2020 Oct 12;8(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Sciences and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a point of convergence for numerous oncogenic signals that are often constitutively activated in many cancerous or transformed cells and some stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Persistent STAT3 activation in malignant cells stimulates proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and tumor-promoting inflammation. STAT3 undergoes activation through phosphorylation on tyrosine 705, which facilitates its dimerization. Dimeric STAT3 translocates to the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, etc. In the present study, a synthetic deguelin analogue SH48, discovered by virtual screening, inhibited the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of STAT3 in H- transformed human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells (MCF10A-). We speculated that SH48 bearing an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group could interact with a thiol residue of STAT3, thereby inactivating this transcription factor. Non-electrophilic analogues of SH48 failed to inhibit STAT3 activation, lending support to the above supposition. By utilizing a biotinylated SH48, we were able to demonstrate the complex formation between SH48 and STAT3. SH48 treatment to MCF10A- cells induced autophagy, which was verified by staining with a fluorescent acidotropic probe, LysoTracker Red, as well as upregulating the expression of LC3II and p62. In conclusion, the electrophilic analogue of deguelin interacts with STAT3 and inhibits its activation in MCF10A- cells, which may account for its induction of autophagic death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8100407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600869PMC
October 2020

Diminished cognitive control in Internet gaming disorder: A multimodal approach with magnetic resonance imaging and real-time heart rate variability.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 Oct 5:110127. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: Recently, the addiction to online games, classified as Internet gaming disorder (IGD) on DSM-V, has emerged as an important mental health problem. The loss of control over gaming in IGD is associated with diminished cognitive control. This study aimed to link the neurobiological mechanism reflected by brain imaging and the diminished cognitive control reflected by heart rate variability (HRV) measurements during real-time gameplay.

Methods: HRV was assessed in 33 young males with IGD and 29 controls while playing their favorite games. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) was evaluated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsal striatum. Associations between HRV and alterations in FC were tested.

Results: Individuals with IGD showed a reduction of high-frequency HRV during real-time gaming, which is correlated with self-reported severity of IGD. Subjects with IGD showed decreased FC between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right inferior frontal gyrus, corresponding to the cognitive control network. They showed decreased FC between the right anterior cingulate cortex and the superior parietal lobule. They also showed increased FC between the left dorsal putamen and the postcentral gyrus, corresponding to the sensorimotor network. Game-related high-frequency HRV was correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-inferior frontal gyrus connectivity.

Conclusion: The diminished cognitive control reflected by HRV measurements during real-time gameplay was associated with FC alterations, involving a weak FC in the cognitive control network. Individuals with IGD may have less cognitive control, particularly when playing games, and consequently end up playing games in a habitual manner rather than in a goal-oriented manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110127DOI Listing
October 2020

Patients' perception about opioids and addiction in South Korea.

Korean J Pain 2020 Jul;33(3):234-244

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Chronic pain affects approximately 22% of the world's population. Opioids can be useful in chronic pain management. However, some patients have negative perception of opioids. The purpose of this research was to evaluate patients' perception about opioids and investigate problems associated with prescribing and taking opioids in South Korea.

Methods: Patients who visited a pain clinic in 14 university hospitals of South Korea from September through October 2018 were asked to complete anonymous questionnaires about taking opioids.

Results: Of the 368 patients that were surveyed (female 53.3%, male 46.7%), 56.8% were prescribed opioids. In the opioid group, 92.8% patients had heard of opioids from their doctor and 72.6% of them had a positive perception about opioids. The side effects associated with opioid use were constipation (35.4%), dizziness (24.6%), nausea and vomiting (17.4%), dysuria (6.2%), and addiction (2.0%). In the no opioid group, the primary sources of information about opioids were doctors (49.2%), mass media (30.8%), and the internet (16.2%). The main reasons why 39.0% patients did not take opioids were fear of addiction (57.7%) and side effects (38.5%). There were 71.5% and 60.9% patients in the opioid and no opioid group, respectively, who wished to take opioids when their numeric rating scale pain score was ≥ 7.

Conclusions: Perception of opioids among patients who take them was either neutral or positive. However, 39.0% patients who have not been prescribed opioids did not want an opioid prescription, citing fear of addiction and side effects as the primary reasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2020.33.3.234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336346PMC
July 2020

CRISPRi-based radiation modifier screen identifies long non-coding RNA therapeutic targets in glioma.

Genome Biol 2020 03 31;21(1):83. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exhibit highly cell type-specific expression and function, making this class of transcript attractive for targeted cancer therapy. However, the vast majority of lncRNAs have not been tested as potential therapeutic targets, particularly in the context of currently used cancer treatments. Malignant glioma is rapidly fatal, and ionizing radiation is part of the current standard-of-care used to slow tumor growth in both adult and pediatric patients.

Results: We use CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) to screen 5689 lncRNA loci in human glioblastoma (GBM) cells, identifying 467 hits that modify cell growth in the presence of clinically relevant doses of fractionated radiation. Thirty-three of these lncRNA hits sensitize cells to radiation, and based on their expression in adult and pediatric gliomas, nine of these hits are prioritized as lncRNA Glioma Radiation Sensitizers (lncGRS). Knockdown of lncGRS-1, a primate-conserved, nuclear-enriched lncRNA, inhibits the growth and proliferation of primary adult and pediatric glioma cells, but not the viability of normal brain cells. Using human brain organoids comprised of mature neural cell types as a three-dimensional tissue substrate to model the invasive growth of glioma, we find that antisense oligonucleotides targeting lncGRS-1 selectively decrease tumor growth and sensitize glioma cells to radiation therapy.

Conclusions: These studies identify lncGRS-1 as a glioma-specific therapeutic target and establish a generalizable approach to rapidly identify novel therapeutic targets in the vast non-coding genome to enhance radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-020-01995-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110660PMC
March 2020

Maladaptive neurovisceral interactions in patients with Internet gaming disorder: A study of heart rate variability and functional neural connectivity using the graph theory approach.

Addict Biol 2020 07 12;25(4):e12805. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to represent the regulatory adaptive system and is a proxy for neurovisceral integration. Consistent with the view that, like other addictions, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) involves disrupted regulatory function, the present study hypothesized that IGD patients would show (a) decreased HRV, (b) ineffective functional neural connectivity, and (c) differential patterns of association between HRV and functional neural connectivity relative to healthy controls (HCs). The present study included 111 young adults (53 IGD patients and 58 age- and sex-matched HCs) who underwent simultaneous recordings with an electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram during a resting state. Heart rate (HR), HRV, and functional neural connectivity were calculated using the graph theory approach. Compared with the HCs, the IGD patients exhibited elevated HR and decreased HRV based on the high frequency (HF), which reflects suppression of parasympathetic and/or vagal tone. The IGD patients also exhibited a heightened theta band characteristic path length (CPL) compared with HCs, indicating decreased efficacy of the functional network. Furthermore, IGD patients exhibited negative correlations between the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval index (SDNNi) and theta and delta CPL values, which were not observed in HCs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that IGD patients might have maladaptive brain-body integration features involving disruptions of the autonomic nervous system and brain function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317587PMC
July 2020

A survey of patients' perspectives of steroid injection (ppyeojusa) in Korea.

Korean J Pain 2019 Jul;32(3):187-195

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Steroid injections are commonly used in pain clinics to relieve pain and treat inflammation. In Korea, these steroid injections are well known as 'ppyeojusa', which means to inject into the bone in Korean. Some patients often have a negative perception of this treatment method due to inaccurate information about the treatment and side effects of steroids. The purpose of this study is to investigate patients' perception and knowledge of ppyeojusa.

Methods: A questionnaire about ppyeojusa was completed by patients who visited one of the pain clinics in nine university hospitals, from August 1 to September 10, 2017.

Results: Three-hundred seventy-four patients completed the survey. Eighty-five percent of patients had had ppyeojusa, and 74% of the respondents had heard of ppyeojusa from the mass media, friends or relatives. Only 39% of the patients answered that this injection was safe without side effects if properly spaced. Of the patients surveyed, 21% responded that ppyeojusa are "injections into the bone"; while 15% responded that ppyeojusa are "terrible injections that melted 'the bone if used a lot'". Half of the patients did not know what the active constituent is in ppyeojusa. If steroid injections are advised by the pain specialists, 89% of the patients would consent.

Conclusions: Most pain clinic patients have heard of ppyeojusa. Most patients obtained information about ppyeojusa from mass media, rather than their physicians. Therefore, it is likely that most patients have inaccurate knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2019.32.3.187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6615452PMC
July 2019

The Change of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure During Laparoscopic Surgery.

Open Med (Wars) 2019 30;14:431-436. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, Hallym University School of Medicine, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, 77 Sakju-ro, Chuncheon, 24253, South Korea.

Background: We evaluated the endotracheal tube cuff pressure (P) changes during pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the correlations between body mass index (BMI), pneumoperitoneum time, and P changes.

Methods: Total 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were allocated to either a study group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m) or a control group (BMI < 25 kg/m). The endotracheal intubation was performed with a high-volume low-pressure cuffed oral endotracheal tube. A manometer was connected to the pilot balloon using a 3-way stopcock and the cuff was inflated. The change in P was defined as the difference between the pressure just before intra-abdominal CO insufflation and the pressure before CO desufflation.

Results: P increased to 5.3 ± 3.6 cmHO in the study group and 5.7 ± 5.4 cmHO in the control group. There was no significant difference between two groups. While BMI was not correlated with change in P (r = 0.022, = 0.867), there was a significant correlation between change in P and the duration of pneumoperitoneum (r = 0.309, = 0.016).

Conclusion: The change in P was not affected by BMI and was significantly correlated with pneumoperitoneum time. We recommend regular measurement and adjustment of P during laparoscopic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2019-0046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555239PMC
May 2019

The Long Noncoding RNA Pnky Is a Trans-acting Regulator of Cortical Development In Vivo.

Dev Cell 2019 05;49(4):632-642.e7

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. Electronic address:

While it is now appreciated that certain long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important functions in cell biology, relatively few have been shown to regulate development in vivo, particularly with genetic strategies that establish cis versus trans mechanisms. Pnky is a nuclear-enriched lncRNA that is transcribed divergently from the neighboring proneural transcription factor Pou3f2. Here, we show that conditional deletion of Pnky from the developing cortex regulates the production of projection neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) in a cell-autonomous manner, altering postnatal cortical lamination. Surprisingly, Pou3f2 expression is not disrupted by deletion of the entire Pnky gene. Moreover, expression of Pnky from a BAC transgene rescues the differential gene expression and increased neurogenesis of Pnky-knockout NSCs, as well as the developmental phenotypes of Pnky-deletion in vivo. Thus, despite being transcribed divergently from a key developmental transcription factor, the lncRNA Pnky regulates development in trans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2019.04.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556063PMC
May 2019

Plasmonic-Enhanced Luminescence Characteristics of Microscale Phosphor Layers on a ZnO Nanorod-Arrayed Glass Substrate.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jan 17;11(1):1004-1012. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering , Hongik University , Seoul 04006 , Korea.

We present a planar luminescent layer for glare-free, long-lifespan white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with attractive light outputs. The novel and facile remote phosphor approach proposed in this work enhances luminescence properties by combining a waveguiding ZnO-based nanostructure with plasmonic Au nanoparticles. The system comprised a microscale yellow phosphor layer that is applied by simple printing onto an Au nanoparticle-dispersed ZnO nanorod array. This architecture resulted in a considerable enhancement in luminous efficacy of approximately 18% because of the combination of waveguide effects from the nanorod structure and plasmonic effects from the Au nanoparticles. Performance was optimized according to the length of the Zn nanorods and the concentration of Au. An optimal efficiency of ∼84.26 lm/W for a silicate phosphor-converted LED was achieved using long ZnO nanorods and an Au concentration of 12.5 ppm. The finite-difference time-domain method was successfully used to verify the luminous efficacy improvements in the Au nanoparticle-intervened nanostructures via the waveguiding and plasmonic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b13767DOI Listing
January 2019

Altered Heart Rate Variability During Gameplay in Internet Gaming Disorder: The Impact of Situations During the Game.

Front Psychiatry 2018 11;9:429. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control over gaming and a decline in psychosocial functioning derived from excessive gameplay. We hypothesized that individuals with IGD would show different autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the games than those without IGD. In this study, heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed in 21 young males with IGD and 27 healthy controls while playing their favorite Internet game. The subjects could examine the game logs to identify the most and least concentrated periods of the game. The changes in HRV during specific 5-min periods of the game (first, last, and high- and low-attention) were compared between groups via a repeated measures analysis of variance. Significant predictors of HRV patterns during gameplay were determined from stepwise multiple linear regression analyses. Subjects with IGD showed a significant difference from controls in the patterns of vagally mediated HRV, such that they showed significant reductions in high-frequency HRV, particularly during the periods of high attention and the last 5 min, compared with baseline values. A regression analysis showed that the IGD symptom scale score was a significant predictor of this reduction. These results suggest that an altered HRV response to specific gaming situations is related to addictive patterns of gaming and may reflect the diminished executive control of individuals with IGD while playing Internet games.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143769PMC
September 2018

Altered Heart Rate Variability During Gaming in Internet Gaming Disorder.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2018 Apr;21(4):259-267

1 Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by addiction to online gaming and reduced executive control, particularly when individuals are exposed to gaming-related cues. Executive control can be measured as vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV), which corresponds to variability in the time interval between heart beats. In this study, we investigated whether individuals with IGD have altered HRV while playing online games. We hypothesized that while gaming, individuals with IGD would exhibit phasic suppression of vagally mediated HRV, which would reflect executive control dysfunction during game play. To test this, we measured the changes of HRV when young males with IGD were engaged in real-time online gaming. The changes of HRV were associated with the severity of IGD assessed by self-reports and prefrontal gray matter volume (GMV) calculated by voxel-based morphometry. We included 23 IGD subjects and 18 controls in our analyses. Changes in HRV were not statistically different between IGD subjects and controls. Within the IGD group, however, subjects showed significant decreases in high-frequency (HF) HRV during gaming. Furthermore, the degree of decrease correlated with IGD severity and prefrontal GMV. Importantly, this phasic suppression of HF-HRV in response to gaming did not occur in control subjects. In conclusion, young males with IGD showed an altered HRV response while playing an online game, reflecting their difficulties in executive control over gaming. The dynamics between executive control and reward seeking may be out of balance during game play in IGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0486DOI Listing
April 2018

Comparison of the acoustic windows for the thoracic paramedian epidural approach after shoulder rotation: The lateral decubitus versus the sitting position.

Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2019 02 17;38(1):53-56. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, 27, Inhang-ro, Jung-gu, Incheon, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the mean lengths of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) as the acoustic window during the thoracic paramedian epidural approach after shoulder rotation, while subjects were in the lateral decubitus or in the sitting position.

Methods: Thirty-two adult male volunteers were placed in the right decubitus position or sitting position on a horizontal operating table. To obtain an optimal ultrasound view for the PLL on the right side, thoracic spinal ultrasonography was performed at the T6/7 interspace using the paramedian oblique sagittal plane. PLL length was measured on the ultrasound image before and after right shoulder rotation.

Results: Before shoulder rotation, the difference in mean PLL length between the sitting (11.1±1.3mm) and lateral decubitus (10.7±1.2mm) positions was not statistically significant (P=0.05). Within-position, the before and after comparison revealed that after shoulder rotation, PLL length was significantly increased to 12.2±1.4mm (P<0.001) and 12.0±1.5mm (P<0.001) in the sitting and lateral decubitus positions, respectively. However, after shoulder rotation the between-position difference in mean PLL length was not statistically significant (P=0.50) CONCLUSIONS: Shoulder rotation did not result in a statistically significant difference in the dimension of the acoustic target window for paramedian thoracic epidural access in the sitting compared to the lateral decubitus position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2018.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Expression and Characterization of Calcium- and Zinc-Tolerant Xylose Isomerase from G10.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Apr;28(4):606-612

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.

The enzyme xylose isomerase (E.C. 5.3.1.5, XI) is responsible for the conversion of an aldose to ketose, especially xylose to xylulose. Owing to the ability of XI to isomerize glucose to fructose, this enzyme is used in the food industry to prepare high-fructose corn syrup. Therefore, we studied the characteristics of XI from G10, a thermophilic bacterium. First, the gene coding for XI () was inserted into the pET-21a(+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into the competent cell BL21 (DE3). The expression of recombinant XI was induced in the absence of isopropyl-thio-β-galactopyranoside and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimum temperature of recombinant XI was 80°C and measurement of the heat stability indicated that 55% of residual activity was maintained after 2 h incubation at 60°C. The optimum pH was found to be 7.5 in sodium phosphate buffer. Magnesium, manganese, and cobalt ions were found to increase the enzyme activity; manganese was the most effective. Additionally, recombinant XI was resistant to the presence of Ca²⁺ and Zn²⁺ ions. The kinetic properties, and , were calculated as 81.44 mM and 2.237 μmol/min/mg, respectively. Through redundancy analysis, XI of G10 was classified into a family containing type II XIs produced by the genera , , and . These results suggested that the thermostable nature of XI of G10 may be advantageous in industrial applications and food processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1712.12021DOI Listing
April 2018

Genome sequencing to develop Paenibacillus donghaensis strain JH8 (KCTC 13049=LMG 23780) as a microbial fertilizer and correlation to its plant growth-promoting phenotype.

Mar Genomics 2018 Feb 24;37:39-42. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Paenibacillus donghaensis JH8 (KCTC 13049=LMG 23780) is a Gram-positive, mesophilic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from East Sea sediment at depth of 500m in Korea. The strain exhibited plant cell wall hydrolytic and plant growth promoting abilities. The complete genome of P. donghaensis strain JH8 contains 7602 protein-coding sequences and an average GC content of 49.7% in its chromosome (8.54Mbp). Genes encoding proteins related to the degradation of plant cell wall, nitrogen-fixation, phosphate solubilization, and synthesis of siderophore were existed in the P. donghaensis strain JH8 genome, indicating that this strain can be used as an eco-friendly microbial agent for increasing agricultural productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2017.11.006DOI Listing
February 2018

The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the leucosiid crab (Arthropoda, Decapoda, Leucosiidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Nov 27;2(2):885-886. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

is known as leucosiid crab. So far, there is no study about whole mitochondrial genome in Leucosiidae family. Here, we report first the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome from , which is composed of 15,516 base pair encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition of was G + C: 25.5%, A + T: 74.5%, with a strong AT bias. In phylogenetic analysis using whole mitogenome, it was figured out that was closely related to but their family is different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1407717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799897PMC
November 2017

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the greater wax moth (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae): sequence and phylogenetic analysis comparison based on whole mitogenome.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Oct 17;2(2):714-715. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

The larva of is widely used as a model organism for toxicology and pathogenicity testing. Here, we report complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) from , which is comprised of 15,320 base pairs encoding 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and an A + T rich region. The overall base composition was G + C: 19.6%, A + T: 80.4%, with an apparent AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis using whole mitogenome revealed that was closely related to , which is in the same Pyralidae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1390418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800018PMC
October 2017

Automatic assessment of blood pressure for Korotkoff sounds on the basis of human hearing threshold.

Blood Press Monit 2017 Dec;22(6):364-370

aDepartment of Biomedical Engineering bDepartment of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul cDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea.

Objective: In this study, to measure blood pressure (BP) on the basis of human hearing threshold, we proposed a method that detects the audible or inaudible Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds) using the equal loudness contour and automatically assesses the BP.

Methods: In this study, we detected the systolic period of K-sounds using cuff pressure oscillation and then converted the K-sounds corresponding to the systolic interval into sound pressure levels (SPLs). Next, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were assessed by mapping the K-sounds, which were converted into SPLs on an equal loudness contour.

Results: To validate the accuracy of our proposed method, we compared it with the auscultatory method. The mean differences (mean±SD) in the SBP and DBP were 0.31±1.95 and 1.20±2.17 mmHg, respectively. For the SBP, the linear regression equation was y=0.98x+1.56 mmHg (where x and y represent the auscultatory and the proposed method, respectively), with a SE of estimate of 1.93 mmHg and a correlation coefficient of 0.99. For the DBP, the linear regression equation was y=1.01x-1.94 mmHg, with an SE of estimate of 2.18 mmHg and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. All P values were less than 0.0001 for both regressions.

Conclusion: The auscultatory method of BP monitoring is sensitive to the observer's condition or environmental noise. To overcome these disadvantages, we used the human hearing threshold for objective SBP and DBP automatic assessment, and this method can be applicable to an automatic auscultatory method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBP.0000000000000284DOI Listing
December 2017

Range of S-100β levels during functional endoscopic sinus surgery with moderately controlled hypotension.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Sep 29;274(9):3527-3532. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

The aim of this study is to determine the range of S-100β levels during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) when the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was controlled within 60-70 mmHg. After anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil, the patient was positioned in the reverse Trendelenburg position and MAP was controlled within 60-70 mmHg during surgery. For the S-100β assay, blood was taken from a radial arterial catheter before (baseline) and at 20 (T ) and 60 (T ) min after setting the reverse Trendelenburg position and controlled hypotension, and at 60 (T ) min after the end of the operation. In total, 34 patients completed the study. Baseline S-100β was 0.00837 ± 0.00785 ng/mL. The levels at T and T were 0.02057 ± 0.01739 and 0.01987 ± 0.01145 ng/mL, respectively. The level of T was 0.05436 ± 0.02318 ng/mL. The level at T increased significantly versus the baseline level (P < 0.001); there were no significant differences between T and T . The level at T was significantly different versus T and T (P < 0.001). However, all S-100β levels were within the normal range. S-100β-a sensitive biomarker of cerebral ischemia-was within the normal range during FESS when moderate hypotension (MAP >60 mmHg) was provided. Thus, moderate hypotension would be seemed to be a safe and effective anesthetic technique for FESS without risk for cerebral ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-017-4592-xDOI Listing
September 2017

Sufficient explanation of management affects patient satisfaction and the practice of post-treatment management in spinal pain, a multicenter study of 1007 patients.

Korean J Pain 2017 Apr 31;30(2):116-125. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Spinal pain is most common symptom in pain clinic. In most cases, before the treatment of spinal pain, physician explains the patient's disease and treatment. We investigated patient's satisfaction and physician's explanation related to treatments in spinal pain patients by questionnaires.

Methods: Anonymous questionnaires about physician's explanation and patient's satisfaction in each treatment and post-treatment management were asked to individuals suffering from spinal pain. Patients who have spinal pain were participated in our survey of nationwide university hospitals in Korea. The relationships between patient's satisfaction and other factors were analyzed.

Results: Between June 2016 and August 2016, 1007 patients in 37 university hospitals completed the questionnaire. In the statistical analysis, patient's satisfaction of treatment increased when pain severity was low or received sufficient preceding explanation about nerve block and medication ( < 0.01). Sufficient explanation increased patient's necessity of a post-treatment management and patients' performance rate of post-treatment management ( < 0.01).

Conclusions: These results show that sufficient explanation increased patients' satisfaction after nerve block and medication. Sufficient explanation also increased the practice of patients' post-treatment management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2017.30.2.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392655PMC
April 2017

Whole genome sequence of lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici strain S1.

Braz J Microbiol 2017 Jul - Sep;48(3):395-396. Epub 2017 Feb 4.

Silla University, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Major in Food Biotechnology, Busan, Republic of Korea; Silla University, The Research Center for Extremophiles and Marine Microbiology, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Pediococcus acidilactici strain S1, a lactic acid-fermenting bacterium, was isolated from makgeolli-a Korean traditional fermented alcoholic beverage. Here we report the 1,980,172bp (G+C content, 42%) genome sequence of Pediococcus acidilactici strain S1 with 1,525 protein-coding sequences (CDS), of which 47% could be assigned to recognized functional genes. The genome sequence of the strain S1 might provide insights into the genetic basis of the lactic acid bacterium with alcohol-tolerant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2016.09.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5498416PMC
March 2018

Complete genome analysis of Serratia marcescens RSC-14: A plant growth-promoting bacterium that alleviates cadmium stress in host plants.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(2):e0171534. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Serratia marcescens RSC-14 is a Gram-negative bacterium that was previously isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of the Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum. The strain stimulates plant growth and alleviates Cd stress in host plants. To investigate the genetic basis for these traits, the complete genome of RSC-14 was obtained by single-molecule real-time sequencing. The genome of S. marcescens RSC-14 comprised a 5.12-Mbp-long circular chromosome containing 4,593 predicted protein-coding genes, 22 rRNA genes, 88 tRNA genes, and 41 pseudogenes. It contained genes with potential functions in plant growth promotion, including genes involved in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization. Moreover, annotation using NCBI and Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology identified several genes that encode antioxidant enzymes as well as genes involved in antioxidant production, supporting the observed resistance towards heavy metals, such as Cd. The presence of IAA pathway-related genes and oxidative stress-responsive enzyme genes may explain the plant growth-promoting potential and Cd tolerance, respectively. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence of Cd-tolerant S. marcescens and its plant growth promotion pathway. The whole-genome analysis of this strain clarified the genetic basis underlying its phenotypic and biochemical characteristics, underpinning the beneficial interactions between RSC-14 and plants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171534PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302809PMC
August 2017

Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment with GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng ().

Plant Pathol J 2017 Feb 1;33(1):1-8. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Organic Agriculture Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development of Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea.

Seed dehiscence of ginseng ( C. A. Mayer) is affected by moisture, temperature, storage conditions and microbes. Several microbes were isolated from completely dehisced seed coat of ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong and Younpoong at Gumsan, Korea. We investigated the potential of five isolates from the dehiscence of ginseng seed in four traditional stratification facilities. The isolates showed antagonistic activities against fungal plant pathogens, such as , , , , , and . The dehiscence ratios of ginseng seed increased more than 33% by treatment of GG01, GG02, GG04, GG12, and GG23 in comparison to control (28%). Among the treatments, the reformulating treatment of isolates GG01 and GG04 showed the highest of stratification ratio of ginseng seed. After 16 weeks, the reformulating treatment of isolates GG01 and GG04 significantly enhanced dehiscence of ginseng seed by about 81% compared to the untreated control. The candidate's treatment of GG01 and GG04 showed the highest decreasing rate of 93% in seed coat hardness for 112 days in dehiscence period. The results suggested that the pre-inoculation of GG01 and GG04 found to be very effective applications in improving dehiscence and germination of ginseng seed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2016.0146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5291393PMC
February 2017