Publications by authors named "Sung Kwan Yoon"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Growth factor withdrawal in combination with sodium butyrate addition extends culture longevity and enhances antibody production in CHO cells.

J Biotechnol 2011 Sep 23;155(2):225-31. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

The effect of growth factor (GF) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, cell viability and antibody production was investigated using shaking flasks in GF-containing and GF-deficient medium containing 0, 1 and 3mM NaBu. The withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu suppressed cell growth, but they significantly increased specific antibody productivity, q(Ab). Interestingly, the withdrawal of GF in combination with the addition of NaBu markedly retarded cell death, leading to extended culture longevity. For instance, at 3mM NaBu, cell viability fell below 80% after day 4 in GF-containing medium, but it remained over 80% until day 18 in GF-deficient medium. Due to the enhanced q(Ab) and the extended culture longevity, approximately 2-fold increase in total antibody production was achieved in pseudo-perfusion culture with 1mM NaBu in GF-deficient medium, compared to the culture in GF-containing medium. The effect of GF and NaBu on the change in the expression and activity of cellular proteins, c-Myc, Bcl-2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), was also investigated. Both the withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu decreased the expression of c-Myc. The expression of Bcl-2 was enhanced by the addition of NaBu in a dose-dependent manner while it was not affected by the withdrawal of GF. In addition, both the withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu reduced metabolic rates, q(Glc), q(Lac) and Y(Lac/Glc), and increased PDH activity while not affecting PDH expression, suggesting that they may reduce the glycolytic rates, but enhance the conversion rates of pyruvate to TCA intermediates. Taken together, the withdrawal of GF in combination with the addition of NaBu can be considered as a relevant strategy for alleviating NaBu-induced cell apoptosis and enhancing antibody production since it can be easily implemented as well as enhance q(Ab) and extend culture longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2011.06.020DOI Listing
September 2011

Effects of culture temperature and pH on flag-tagged COMP angiopoietin-1 (FCA1) production from recombinant CHO cells: FCA1 aggregation.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2011 Jul 21;91(2):305-15. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Department of Biological Sciences and Graduate School of Nanoscience & Technology (WCU), KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701, South Korea.

To maximize the production of flag-tagged cartilage oligomeric matrix protein angiopoietin-1 (FCA1) from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the effects of culture pH and temperature on cell growth and FCA1 production were investigated. Cells were cultivated in a bioreactor at different culture pH (6.7, 6.9, 7.2, and 7.5) and temperatures (33 and 37 °C). Lowering the culture temperature suppressed cell growth while allowing maintenance of high cell viability for a longer culture period. The specific FCA1 productivity (q (FCA1)) was increased at low culture temperature. Accordingly, the highest FCA1 concentration was obtained at pH 7.2 and 33 °C, and was approximately 4.0-fold higher than that at pH 7.2 and 37 °C. However, aggregates and a monomeric form of FCA1, which are undesirable due to reduced biological activity or immunogenicity, were significant at pH 7.2 and 33 °C. It was also found that the expression pattern of FCA1 was affected more significantly by culture pH than by the culture temperature. FCA1 aggregation dramatically decreased at culture pH 7.5 regardless of the culture temperature. Furthermore, the monomeric form of FCA1 was not observed. Taken together, optimization of culture temperature and culture pH (33 °C and pH 7.5) significantly improves the production of biologically active FCA1 with tetrameric or pentameric forms from CHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-011-3266-7DOI Listing
July 2011

Effect of chemical chaperone addition on production and aggregation of recombinant flag-tagged COMP-angiopoietin 1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Biotechnol Prog 2011 Mar-Apr;27(2):587-91. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

To investigate the effect of chemical chaperones on the production and aggregation of flag-tagged cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-Angiopoietin1 (FCA1) in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, CHO cells were cultivated in serum-free media with various chemical chaperones, 1 mM 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), 200 mM proline, 3% glycerol, 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and without chemical chaperone as control. The addition of chemical chaperones enhanced FCA1 production and specific FCA1 productivity, q(FCA)(1). For example, the q(FCA)(1) at 200 mM proline was fourfold higher than that at control. Unlike q(FCA)(1), the aggregation of FCA1 was strongly affected by which chemical chaperone was added. The addition of 2% DMSO and 200 mM proline significantly reduced the proportion of aggregates, but the addition of 1 mM 4-PBA and 3% glycerol was hardly effective. The proportions of aggregates were 29.5 and 55.6% at 2% DMSO and 200 mM proline, respectively, whereas it was 79.6% at control. The exact mechanism how chemical chaperones affected the aggregation of FCA1 was not investigated in this study, and therefore, more extensive works will be needed to clarify why different chemical chaperones behaved differently in reducing the aggregation of FCA1. Among chemical chaperones tested, DMSO was the most effective one in regard to enhancing the production and reducing the aggregation of FCA1 in CHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.579DOI Listing
September 2011

Substitution of glutamine by glutamate enhances production and galactosylation of recombinant IgG in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010 Oct 3;88(4):869-76. Epub 2010 Aug 3.

Bio R&D Center, Aprogen, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

The effect of ammonia on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth and galactosylation of recombinant immunoglobulin (rIgG) was investigated using shaking flasks with serum free media containing 0-15 mM NH(4)Cl. The elevated ammonia inhibited cell growth and negatively affected the galactosylation of rIgG. At 15 mM NH(4)Cl, the proportions of monogalactosylated glycan with fucosex (monogalactosylated glycan with fucose) and digalactosylated glycan with fucose (G2F) were 23.9% and 6.3% lower than those at 0 mM NH(4)Cl, respectively. To reduce ammonia formation by cells, glutamate was examined as a substitute for glutamine. The use of glutamate reduced the accumulation of ammonia and enhanced the production of rIgG while depressing cell growth. At 6 mM glutamate, ammonia level did not exceed 2 mM, which is only one third of that at 6 mM glutamine. Also, a 1.7-fold increase in the titer of rIgG and specific rIgG productivity, q (rIgG), was achieved at 6 mM glutamate. The galactosylation of rIgG was favorable at 6 mM glutamate. The proportion of galactosylated glycans, G1F and G2F, at 6 mM glutamate was 59.8%, but it was 50.4% at 6 mM glutamine. The use of glutamate also increased complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity, one of the effector functions of rIgG. Taken together, substitution of glutamine by glutamate can be considered relevant for the production of rIgG in CHO cells since glutamate not only enhances q (rIgG) but also generates a higher galactosylation essential for the effector function of rIgG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-2790-1DOI Listing
October 2010

Use of NaCl prevents aggregation of recombinant COMP-angiopoietin-1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

J Biotechnol 2009 Aug 24;143(2):145-50. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

Bio R&D Center, Genexel-Sein, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

To investigate the effect of hyperosmotic medium on production and aggregation of the variant of Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1, in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, CHO cells were cultivated in shaking flasks. NaCl and/or sorbitol were used to raise medium osmolality in the range of 300-450mOsm/kg. The specific productivity of COMP-Ang1, q(COMP-Ang1), increased as medium osmolality increased. At NaCl-450mOsm/kg, the q(COMP-Ang1) was 7.7-fold higher than that at NaCl-300mOsm/kg, while, at sorbitol-450mOsm/kg, it was 2.9-fold higher than that at sorbitol-300mOsm/kg. This can be attributed to the increased relative mRNA level of COMP-Ang1 at NaCl-450mOsm/kg which was approximately 2.4-fold higher than that at sorbitol-450mOsm/kg. Western blot analysis showed that COMP-Ang1 aggregates started to occur in the late-exponential phase of cell growth. When sorbitol was used to raise the medium osmolality, a severe aggregation of COMP-Ang1 was observed. On the other hand, when NaCl was used, the aggregation of COMP-Ang1 was drastically reduced at NaCl-400mOsm/kg. At NaCl-450mOsm/kg, the aggregation of COMP-Ang1 was hardly observed. This suggests that environmental conditions are critical for the aggregation of COMP-Ang1. Taken together, the use of NaCl-induced hyperosmotic medium to cell culture process turns out to be an efficient strategy for enhancing COMP-Ang1 production and reducing COMP-Ang1 aggregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2009.06.017DOI Listing
August 2009

Effect of culture temperature on erythropoietin production and glycosylation in a perfusion culture of recombinant CHO cells.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2008 Dec;101(6):1234-44

Life Science R&D, LG Life Sciences, Science Town, Daejon, Korea.

To investigate the effect of culture temperature on erythropoietin (EPO) production and glycosylation in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, we cultivated CHO cells using a perfusion bioreactor. Cells were cultivated at 37 degrees C until viable cell concentration reached 1 x 10(7) cells/mL, and then culture temperature was shifted to 25 degrees C, 28 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 32 degrees C, 37 degrees C (control), respectively. Lowering culture temperature suppressed cell growth but was beneficial to maintain high cell viability for a longer period. In a control culture at 37 degrees C, cell viability gradually decreased and fell below 80% on day 18 while it remained over 90% throughout the culture at low culture temperature. The cumulative EPO production and specific EPO productivity, q(EPO), increased at low culture temperature and were the highest at 32 degrees C and 30 degrees C, respectively. Interestingly, the cumulative EPO production at culture temperature below 32 degrees C was not as high as the cumulative EPO production at 32 degrees C although the q(EPO) at culture temperature below 32 degrees C was comparable or even higher than the q(EPO) at 32 degrees C. This implies that the beneficial effect of lowering culture temperature below 32 degrees C on q(EPO) is outweighed by its detrimental effect on the integral of viable cells. The glycosylation of EPO was evaluated by isoelectric focusing, normal phase HPLC and anion exchange chromatography analyses. The quality of EPO at 32 degrees C in regard to acidic isoforms, antennary structures and sialylated N-linked glycans was comparable to that at 37 degrees C. However, at culture temperatures below 32 degrees C, the proportions of acidic isoforms, tetra-antennary structures and tetra-sialylated N-linked glycans were further reduced, suggesting that lowering culture temperature below 32 degrees C negatively affect the quality of EPO. Thus, taken together, cell culture at 32 degrees C turned out to be the most satisfactory since it showed the highest cumulative EPO production, and moreover, EPO quality at 32 degrees C was not deteriorated as obtained at 37 degrees C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.22006DOI Listing
December 2008

Effect of culture temperature on follicle-stimulating hormone production by Chinese hamster ovary cells in a perfusion bioreactor.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2007 Aug 3;76(1):83-9. Epub 2007 May 3.

Bioprocess R&D, LG Life Science Ltd, P.O. Box 61, Yusong-Gu, Science Town, Daejeon, 305-380, South Korea.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using a perfusion bioreactor. Perfusion culture at 37 degrees C yielded a high cell density but a low FSH production. To investigate the effect of culture temperature in the range of 26-37 degrees C on cell growth and FSH production, batch cultures were performed. Lowering culture temperature below 32 degrees C resulted in growth suppression. However, specific productivity of FSH, q (FSH), increased as culture temperature decreased, and the maximum q (FSH) of 43.4 ng/10(6) cells/h was obtained at 28 degrees C, which is 13-fold higher than that at 37 degrees C. Based on the results obtained from batch cultures, we performed perfusion cultures with two consecutive temperatures. CHO cells were grown up to 3.2 x 10(7) cells/ml at 37 degrees C and culture temperature shifted down to 28 degrees C to obtain a high FSH titer. Soon after the maximum FSH titer of 21 mug/ml was achieved, a rapid loss of not only viable cell concentration but also cell viability was observed, probably due to the low activities of enzymes related to cell growth. Thus, the extension of production period at 28 degrees C is critical for the enhancement of FSH production, and the use of antiapoptotic genes seems to be promising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-007-0985-xDOI Listing
August 2007

Down-regulation of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein does not improve hypothermic growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing erythropoietin.

Metab Eng 2007 Mar 15;9(2):208-16. Epub 2006 Dec 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

Discovery of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in mouse fibroblasts suggests that growth suppression at hypothermic conditions is due to an active response by the cell rather than due to passive thermal effects. To determine the effect of down-regulated CIRP expression on cell growth and erythropoietin (EPO) production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells at low culture temperature, stable CHO cell clones with reduced CIRP expression level were established by transfecting (rCHO) cells with the CIRP siRNA vector with a target sequence of TCGTCCTTCCATGGCTGTA. For comparison of the degree of specific growth rate (micro) reduction at low culture temperature, three CIRP-reduced clones with different mu and three control clones transfected with null vector were cultivated at two different temperatures, 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Unlike mouse fibroblasts, alleviation of hypothermic growth arrest of rCHO cells by CIRP down-regulation was insignificant, as shown by statistical analysis using the t-test (P<0.18, n=3). The ratios of mu at 32 degrees C to micro at 37 degrees C of CIRP-reduced clones and control clones were 0.29+/-0.03 and 0.25+/-0.03 on an average, respectively. Furthermore, it was also found that overexpression of CIRP did not inhibit rCHO cell growth significantly at 37 degrees C. Taken together, the data obtained show that down-regulation of only CIRP in rCHO cells, unlike mouse fibroblasts, is not sufficient to recover growth arrest at low-temperature culture (32 degrees C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2006.11.003DOI Listing
March 2007

Adaptation of Chinese hamster ovary cells to low culture temperature: cell growth and recombinant protein production.

J Biotechnol 2006 Apr 25;122(4):463-72. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing erythropoietin (EPO) and rCHO cells producing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) showed a significant increase in specific productivity (q) when grown at 32 degrees C compared to 37 degrees C. However, low culture temperature suppressed cell growth, and therefore, did not increase volumetric productivity as much as q. In an attempt to increase the volumetric productivity through improvement of hypothermic growth, EPO producing rCHO (CHO-EPO) cells and FSH producing rCHO (CHO-FSH) cells were adapted at 32 degrees C in a repeated batch mode using spinner flasks. Cell growth of both CHO-EPO and CHO-FSH gradually improved during adaptation at 32 degrees C. Specific growth rates of CHO-EPO and CHO-FSH cells at 32 degrees C, through adaptation, were increased by 73% and 20%, respectively. During adaptation at 32 degrees C, mRNA levels of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) of both rCHO cell lines did not change significantly, suggesting that CIRP expression may not be the only cause for growth suppression at low culture temperature. Unlike cell growth, the recombinant protein production of both rCHO cell lines was not increased during adaptation due to decreased specific productivities. The specific EPO productivity and specific FSH productivity were decreased by 49% and 22%, respectively. Southern blot analyses showed that the decreased specific productivities were not due to the loss of foreign gene copies. Taken together, improvement of hypothermic cell growth by adaptation does not appear to be applicable for enhanced recombinant protein production, since specific productivity decreases during adaptation to the low culture temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.09.010DOI Listing
April 2006

Initial transcriptome and proteome analyses of low culture temperature-induced expression in CHO cells producing erythropoietin.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2006 Feb;93(2):361-71

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

Low culture temperature is known to enhance the specific productivity of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing erythropoietin (EPO) (LGE10-9-27). Genomic and proteomic approaches were taken to better understand the intracellular responses of these CHO cells resulting from use of low culture temperature (33 degrees C). For transcriptome analysis, commercially available rat and mouse cDNA microarrays were used. The data obtained from the rat and mouse cDNA chips were only somewhat informative in understanding the gene expression profile of CHO cells because of their different sequence homologies with CHO transcriptomes. Overall, transcriptome analysis revealed that low culture temperature could lead to changes in gene expression in various cellular processes such as metabolism, transport, and signaling pathways. Proteome analysis was carried out using 2-D PAGE. Based on spot intensity, 60 high intensity protein spots, from a total of more than 800, were chosen for MS analysis. Forty of the 60 protein spots, which represent 26 different kinds of proteins, were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and validated by MS/MS. Compared to the reference temperature (37 degrees C), the expression levels of seven proteins (PDI, vimentin, NDK B, ERp57, RIKEN cDNA, phosphoglycerate kinase, and heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein) were increased over twofold at 33 degrees C and those of two proteins (HSP90-beta and EF2) were decreased over twofold at 33 degrees C. Taken together, the results demonstrate the potential of combined analysis of transcriptome and proteome analyses as a tool for the systematic comprehension of cellular mechanisms in CHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.20717DOI Listing
February 2006

Effect of culture pH on erythropoietin production by Chinese hamster ovary cells grown in suspension at 32.5 and 37.0 degrees C.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2005 Feb;89(3):345-56

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

To investigate the effect of culture pH in the range of 6.85-7.80 on cell growth and erythropoietin (EPO) production at 32.5 and 37.0 degrees C, serum-free suspension cultures of recombinant CHO cells (rCHO) were performed in a bioreactor with pH control. Lowering culture temperature from 37.0 to 32.5 degrees C suppressed cell growth, but cell viability remained high for a longer culture period. Regardless of culture temperature, the highest specific growth rate (mu) and maximum viable cell concentration were obtained at pH values of 7.00 and 7.20, respectively. Like mu, the specific consumption rates of glucose and glutamine decreased at 32.5 degrees C compared to 37.0 degrees C. In addition, they increased with increasing culture pH. Culture pH at 32.5 degrees C affected specific EPO productivity (q(EPO)) in a different fashion from that at 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, the q(EPO) was fairly constant in the pH range of 6.85-7.80, while at 32.5 degrees C, the q(EPO) was significantly influenced by culture pH. The highest q(EPO) was obtained at pH 7.00 and 32.5 degrees C, and its value was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that at pH 7.00 and 37.0 degrees C. The proportion of acidic EPO isoforms, which is a critical factor for high in vivo biological activity of EPO, was highest in the stationary phase of growth, regardless of culture temperature and pH. Although cell viability rapidly decreased in death phase at both 32.5 and 37.0 degrees C, the significant degradation of produced EPO, probably by the action of proteases released from lysed cells, was observed only at 37.0 degrees C. Taken together, through the optimization of culture temperature and pH, a 3-fold increase in maximum EPO concentration and a 1.4-fold increase in volumetric productivity were obtained at pH 7.00 and 32.5 degrees C when compared with those at 37.0 degrees C. These results demonstrate the importance of optimization of culture temperature and pH for enhancing EPO production in serum-free, suspension culture of rCHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.20353DOI Listing
February 2005

Enhancing effect of low culture temperature on specific antibody productivity of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells: clonal variation.

Biotechnol Prog 2004 Nov-Dec;20(6):1683-8

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

To understand the different responses of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells to low culture temperature regarding specific productivity (q), 12 parental clones and their corresponding amplified clones producing a humanized antibody were cultivated at 32 and 37 degrees C. The specific growth rate of all clones, including both parental and amplified clones, decreased by 30-63% at 32 degrees C, compared to rates at 37 degrees C. In contrast, their specific antibody productivity (qAb) was significantly enhanced at 32 degrees C. Furthermore, the degree of qAb enhancement at 32 degrees C varied a lot from 4- to 25-fold among the parental clones. At 32 degrees C, most of the amplified clones, regardless of methotrexate (MTX) levels, also showed enhanced qAb but to a lesser extent than their parental clones. However, clone 14 amplified at 0.32 microM MTX (clone 14-0.32) and clone 20 amplified at 1 microM MTX (clone 20-1.00), unlike their parental clones, did not show enhanced qAb at 32 degrees C. Thus, it was found that the enhancing effect of low culture temperature on q of rCHO cells depends on clones. Taken together, the results obtained here emphasize the importance of clonal selection for the successful application of low culture temperature to the enhanced foreign protein production in rCHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bp049847fDOI Listing
April 2005

Effect of simultaneous application of stressful culture conditions on specific productivity and heterogeneity of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Biotechnol Prog 2004 Jul-Aug;20(4):1293-6

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

A single stressful culture condition induced by hypoosmotic stress (210 mOsm kg(-1)), low culture temperature (32 degrees C), or NaBu addition (1 mM) resulted in a 1.8- to 2.2-fold enhancement of specific erythropoietin (EPO) productivity (qEPO) of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells compared to normal culture condition (37 degrees C and 310 mOsm kg(-1)). Simultaneous application of these stressful conditions further enhanced qEPO up to approximately 5-fold. However, the quality of EPO was affected by stressful culture conditions. The proportion of acidic isoforms of EPO under a single stressful condition was 2.8-13.8% lower than that under normal culture condition. Simultaneous application of the stressful conditions further decreased the portion of acidic isoforms but not significantly. Despite 5-fold enhancement of q(EPO), the portion of acidic isoforms under the simultaneous application of stressful culture conditions was 12.9-21.6% lower than that under normal culture condition. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of simultaneous application of different stressful culture conditions to the production phase of two-stage culture, where cell growth and production phases are separated, for improved EPO production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bp034382zDOI Listing
February 2005

Effect of low culture temperature on specific productivity and transcription level of anti-4-1BB antibody in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Biotechnol Prog 2003 Jul-Aug;19(4):1383-6

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

Lowering the culture temperature has been suggested as a useful tool for improving the production of recombinant proteins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In an effort to improve anti-4-1BB antibody production in recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells, rCHO cells producing anti-4-1BB antibody (LGA31-56) were cultivated at three different temperatures, 30, 33, and 37 degrees C. Lowering the culture temperature led to suppressed cell growth, cell cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase, and improved cell viability for a longer period. However, antibody production and q(Ab) were not increased at low culture temperature. The maximum antibody concentration and q(Ab) at 37 degrees C were 110.6 +/- 2.6 microg mL(-)(1) and 0.43 +/- 0.03 microg (10(6) cells h)(-)(1), respectively, whereas those at 30 degrees C were 28.3 +/- 3.8 microg mL(-)(1) and 0.44 +/- 0.07 (10(6) cells h)(-)(1), respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that lowering the culture temperature did not increase the transcription level of heavy and light chains. These results were quite in contrast with the improved production of erythropoietin, which is expressed in the same CHO host and driven by the same CMV promoters, by lowering the temperature. Taken together, the results obtained imply that the beneficial effect of low culture temperature on recombinant protein production in rCHO cells is cell-line-specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bp034051mDOI Listing
June 2004

Effect of low culture temperature on specific productivity, transcription level, and heterogeneity of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2003 May;82(3):289-98

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 371-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon 305-701, Korea.

To determine the effect of low culture temperature on erythropoietin (EPO) production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, rCHO cells producing EPO (LGE10-9-27) were cultivated at 30, 33, and 37 degrees C. At a culture temperature lower than 37 degrees C cell growth was suppressed, but cell viability remained high for a longer culture period. When the culture temperature was lowered from 37 degrees C to 33 degrees C, more than a 2.5-fold increase in the maximum EPO concentration was achieved. This enhanced EPO production at 33 degrees C was not just because of the extended culture longevity with the decreased release of proteolytic enzymes from dead cells, but mainly because of enhanced q(EPO). The q(EPO) at 33 degrees C was 0.35 +/- 0.08 microg/10(6) cells/h, which was approximately 4-fold higher than that at 37 degrees C. Although the highest q(EPO) of 0.49 +/- 0.14 micro/10(6) cells/h was obtained at 30 degrees C, the maximum EPO concentration was lowest because the detrimental effect of lowering culture temperature on cell growth outweighed its beneficial effect on q(EPO). Like q(EPO), the relative EPO mRNA content increased by lowering culture temperature, indicating that the increased transcription level of EPO was responsible in part for the enhanced q(EPO) at low culture temperature. The quality of EPO produced at 33 degrees C in regard to isoform pattern, sialic acid content, and in vivo biological activity was comparable to or even better than that produced at 37 degrees C. Taken together, the results obtained demonstrate the potential of the application of low culture temperature to the commercial EPO production in rCHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.10566DOI Listing
May 2003