Publications by authors named "Sung I Koo"

63 Publications

Long-Term Blackcurrant Supplementation Modified Gut Microbiome Profiles in Mice in an Age-Dependent Manner: An Exploratory Study.

Nutrients 2020 Jan 21;12(2). Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Recent studies have suggested that blackcurrant (BC) anthocyanins have promising health benefits, possibly through regulating gut microbiome. Three- and eighteen-month old female mice were fed standard mouse diets for 4 months, each with or without BC (1% ) supplementation ( = 3 in each treatment group, 12 in total). We then assessed gut microbiome profiles using 16S sequencing of their feces. Old mice had a less diverse microbiome community compared to young mice and there was a remarkable age-related difference in microbiome composition in the beta diversity analysis. BC supplementation did not significantly affect alpha or beta diversity. The relative abundance of several phyla, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Tenericutes, was lower in old mice. BC downregulated Firmicutes abundance in young mice and upregulated Bacteroidetes in both age groups, leading to a decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. There were age-specific differences in the effect of BC supplementation on the microbiome. Twenty-four operational taxonomic units showed a significant interaction between age and BC supplementation ( < 0.01), which suggests that the ecosystem and the host health status affect the functions and efficiency of BC intake. These results indicate that BC supplementation favorably modulates gut microbiome, but there are distinct age-specific differences. Studies with human hosts are needed to better understand BC's regulatory effects on the gut microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12020290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070352PMC
January 2020

Astaxanthin attenuates the increase in mitochondrial respiration during the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

J Nutr Biochem 2019 09 20;71:82-89. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Upon liver injury, quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs) transdifferentiate to myofibroblast-like activated HSCs (aHSCs), which are primarily responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins during the development of liver fibrosis. Therefore, aHSCs may exhibit different energy metabolism from that of qHSCs to meet their high energy demand. We previously demonstrated that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, prevents the activation of HSCs. The objective of this study was to determine if ASTX can exert its antifibrogenic effect by attenuating any changes in energy metabolism during HSC activation. To characterize the energy metabolism of qHSCs and aHSCs, mouse primary HSCs were cultured on uncoated plastic dishes for 7 days for spontaneous activation in the presence or absence of 25 μM ASTX. qHSCs (1 day after isolation) and aHSCs treated with or without ASTX for 7 days were used to determine parameters related to mitochondrial respiration using a Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux analyzer. aHSCs had significantly higher basal respiration, maximal respiration, ATP production, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak than those of qHSCs. However, ASTX prevented most of the changes occurring during HSC activation and improved mitochondrial cristae structure with decreased cristae junction width, lumen width and the area in primary mouse aHSCs. Furthermore, qHSCs isolated from ASTX-fed mice had lower mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis than control qHSCs. Our findings suggest that ASTX may exert its antifibrogenic effect by attenuating the changes in energy metabolism during HSC activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707861PMC
September 2019

The relationship between zinc intake and cadmium burden is influenced by smoking status.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Mar 4;125:210-216. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA. Electronic address:

A preliminary study by our group suggested that the absorption and accumulation of cadmium may be affected by zinc intake. Tobacco smoke is one major source of cadmium exposure that highly influences cadmium burden among smokers, but it is unclear whether this zinc-cadmium relationship differs by smoking status. The objective of this study was to examine whether the association between zinc intake and cadmium burden differs by smoking status using data from 3900 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. In an adjusted regression model, dietary cadmium was positively associated with blood and urinary cadmium. There was a significant interaction between zinc intake and smoking status, so we analyzed associations within smoking status subgroups. In an adjusted regression model, zinc intake was inversely associated with urinary cadmium only among non-smokers. Failure to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc was more common among current smokers than non-smokers, and among those in the highest quintile of blood and urinary cadmium than those in lower quintiles. Zinc intake was inversely associated with urinary cadmium only among subjects meeting the zinc RDA, suggesting that the relationship between zinc intake and cadmium burden differs by smoking status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.01.004DOI Listing
March 2019

Dietary Cadmium Intake and Sources in the US.

Nutrients 2018 Dec 20;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can contribute to numerous diseases as well as increased mortality. Diet is the primary source of Cd exposure for most individuals, yet little is known about the foods and food groups that contribute most substantially to dietary Cd intake in the US. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate dietary Cd intake and identify major food sources of Cd in the US population and among subgroups of the population. Individuals aged 2 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007⁻2012 were included in this study ( = 12,523). Cd intakes were estimated from two days of 24-h dietary recalls by matching intake data with the Cd database of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Total Diet Study 2006 through 2013. The average dietary Cd consumption in the population was 4.63 μg/day, or 0.54 μg/kg body weight/week, which is 22% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 2.5 μg/kg body weight/week. Greater daily Cd intakes were observed in older adults, males, those with higher income, higher education, or higher body mass index. The highest Cd intakes on a body weight basis were observed in children 10 years and younger (38% of TWI), underweight individuals (38% of TWI), and alcohol non-consumers (24% of TWI). The food groups that contributed most to Cd intake were cereals and bread (34%), leafy vegetables (20%), potatoes (11%), legumes and nuts (7%), and stem/root vegetables (6%). The foods that contributed most to total Cd intake were lettuce (14%), spaghetti (8%), bread (7%), and potatoes (6%). Lettuce was the major Cd source for Caucasians and Blacks, whereas tortillas were the top source for Hispanics, and rice was the top contributor among other ethnic subgroups including Asians. This study provides important information on the dietary Cd exposure of Americans, and identifies the groups with the greatest dietary Cd exposure as well as the major sources of dietary Cd among sociodemographic subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11010002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356330PMC
December 2018

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) Prevents Obesity-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 01;27(1):112-120

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

Objective: With increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), effective strategies to prevent NASH are needed. This study investigated whether the consumption of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) can prevent the development of obesity-induced NASH in vivo.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat control diet, a low-fat diet with 6% whole blackcurrant powder, an obesogenic high-fat/high-sucrose control diet (HF), or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet containing 6% whole blackcurrant powder (HF-B) for 24 weeks.

Results: HF significantly increased, whereas HF-B markedly decreased, liver weights and triglyceride. Furthermore, blackcurrant attenuated obesity-induced infiltration of macrophages in the liver, in particular, the M1 type, and also suppressed the hepatic expression of fibrogenic genes and fibrosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that HF significantly increased the percentages of monocytes of total splenocytes, which was markedly attenuated by blackcurrant. HF-B decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mRNA expression of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α in splenocytes, compared with those from HF controls. Moreover, the levels of circulating and hepatic miR-122-5p and miR-192-5p, known markers for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, were significantly increased by HF but decreased by HF-B.

Conclusions: The study's findings indicate that blackcurrant consumption prevents obesity-induced steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22353DOI Listing
January 2019

Blackcurrant Supplementation Improves Trabecular Bone Mass in Young but Not Aged Mice.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 5;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Due to deleterious side effects of currently available medications, the search for novel, safe, and effective preventive agents for improving bone health in aging continues and is urgently needed. This study aimed to determine whether dietary blackcurrants (BC), an anthocyanin-rich berry, can improve bone mass in a mouse model of age-related bone loss. Thirty-five female C57BL/6J mice, 3 months old ( = 20) and 18 months old ( = 15), were randomized to consume either a standard chow diet or a standard chow diet with 1% (/) BC for four months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Micro computed tomography (µCT), and histomorphometric analyses were conducted to assess bone parameters on femurs. Biochemical assays were conducted to determine bone resorption, antioxidant activity, and inflammation in humerus homogenates. Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) was significantly lower in aged mice compared to young mice (young control, 3.7 ± 0.4% vs aged control, 1.5 ± 0.5%, mean ± SEM (standard error of mean), < 0.01; young BC, 5.3 ± 0.6% vs aged BC, 1.1 ± 0.3%, < 0.001). µCT analysis revealed that BC supplementation increased trabecular BV/TV in young mice by 43.2% ( < 0.05) compared to controls. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a 50% increase, though this effect was not statistically significant ( = 0.07). The osteoblast surface increased by 82.5% in aged mice with BC compared to controls ( < 0.01). In humerus homogenates of young mice, BC consumption reduced C-telopeptide of type I collagen by 12.4% ( < 0.05) and increased glutathione peroxidase by 96.4% ( < 0.05). In humerus homogenates of aged mice, BC consumption increased catalase by 12% ( = 0.09). Aged mice had significantly elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine contributing to bone resorption, which was reduced by 43.3% with BC consumption ( = 0.06). These results suggest that early consumption of BC may protect from aging-associated bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10111671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266496PMC
November 2018

Astaxanthin inhibits inflammation and fibrosis in the liver and adipose tissue of mouse models of diet-induced obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

J Nutr Biochem 2017 05 2;43:27-35. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to determine if astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, can prevent obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities, inflammation and fibrosis in diet-induced obesity (DIO) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (6% fat, w/w), a high-fat/high-sucrose control (HF/HS; 35% fat, 35% sucrose, w/w), or a HF/HS containing ASTX (AHF/HS; 0.03% ASTX, w/w) for 30 weeks. To induce NASH, another set of mice was fed a HF/HS diet containing 2% cholesterol (HF/HS/HC) a HF/HS/HC with 0.015% ASTX (AHF/HS/HC) for 18 weeks. Compared to LF, HF/HS significantly increased plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose, which were lowered by ASTX. ASTX decreased hepatic mRNA levels of markers of macrophages and fibrosis in both models. The effect of ASTX was more prominent in NASH than DIO mice. In epididymal fat, ASTX also decreased macrophage infiltration and M1 macrophage marker expression, and inhibited hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α and its downstream fibrogenic genes in both mouse models. ASTX significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor α mRNA in the splenocytes from DIO mice upon lipopolysaccharides stimulation compared with those from control mice fed an HF/HS diet. Additionally, ASTX significantly elevated the levels of genes that regulate fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle compared with control obese mice, whereas no differences were noted in adipose lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that ASTX inhibits inflammation and fibrosis in the liver and adipose tissue and enhances the skeletal muscle's capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in obese mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.01.006DOI Listing
May 2017

Histone deacetylase 9 plays a role in the antifibrogenic effect of astaxanthin in hepatic stellate cells.

J Nutr Biochem 2017 02 12;40:172-177. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is critical for liver fibrosis development. Previously, we showed that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has antifibrogenic effects in LX-2 cells, a human HSC cell line. We sought to determine the effect of ASTX on HSC activation, and to identify molecular mediators that are critically involved in the processes. ASTX prevented the activation of mouse primary HSCs, as evidenced by attenuated induction of procollagen type I α1. In human primary HSCs, ASTX also inhibited transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)-induced fibrogenic gene expression. Among 11 classical histone deacetylases (HDACs), difference in HDAC9 mRNA levels between quiescent and activated HSCs was most evident while ASTX significantly decreased the expression of HDAC9 and its transcriptional regulator myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). ASTX decreased HDAC9 protein as well. In the activated HSCs, ASTX significantly reduced mRNA of HDAC9 and MEF2. Human primary biliary cirrhosis livers showed significantly higher HDAC9 mRNA and protein levels than normal livers, and other liver pathologies also exhibited induced HDAC9 expression. HDAC9 knockdown in LX-2 cells decreased TGFβ1-induced fibrogenic gene expression. In conclusion, ASTX inhibits HSC activation and facilitates HSC inactivation, which is attributable to its inhibitory action on HDAC9 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.11.003DOI Listing
February 2017

Validation of Analytical Methods for Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity by Comparing with Urinary 8-Isoprostane Level.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Feb;27(2):388-394

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-4017, USA.

Although several analytical methods for measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) have been applied to biological samples, there were often dissimilar results due to the different principles of methods applied. Thus, this study aimed to validate four conventional analytical methods for measuring plasma TAC, including the ABTS assay, DPPH assay, FRAP assay, and ORAC assay, by comparing with urinary 8-isoprostane concentration. In addition, TAC results were compared with antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte, and catalase in plasma. Plasma TAC measure by ABTS assay was strongly correlated with the result by FRAP assay. Plasma TAC by FRAP and ORAC assays were negatively correlated with erythrocyte SOD activity. The agreement among the four TAC assay methods and 8-isoprostane was determined using 95% prediction limits of linear regression, expressed as the mean of 8-isoprostane ± 95% prediction limits. The ABTS method better agreed with 8-isoprostane than the other methods, demonstrating narrow prediction of limits. Furthermore, only plasma TAC determined by the ABTS assay was inversely correlated with urinary 8-isoprostane ( = -0.35, < 0.05). In summary, the ABTS assay would be an appropriate method to measure overall plasma antioxidant capacity and predict the body's antioxidant status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1604.04053DOI Listing
February 2017

Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice.

Nutr Res Pract 2016 Oct 29;10(5):494-500. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2016.10.5.494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037066PMC
October 2016

Anthocyanin-Rich Blackcurrant Extract Attenuates Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

J Med Food 2016 Apr;19(4):390-7

1 Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut , Storrs, Connecticut, USA .

Although several animal and cell studies have indicated that blackcurrant anthocyanins exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, which could potentially improve bone mass, the effect of blackcurrant on bone health has not been reported yet. Thus, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of blackcurrant anthocyanins on bone mass in an estrogen deficiency mouse model. Fourteen-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n = 54) were ovariectomized or sham operated. The ovariectomized mice were divided into two groups, basal diet (OVX) or basal diet containing 1% anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract (OVX+BC), and sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, respectively, and serum bone markers were measured. Ovariectomy significantly reduced BMD and trabecular bone volume at all time points (P < .05). Blackcurrant supplementation attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss measured by BMD and trabecular bone volume at 8 weeks (P = .055 and P = .057) and the effect was more pronounced at 12 weeks (P = .053 and P < .05). Ovariectomy and blackcurrant treatment did not alter serum biomarkers of bone formation and resorption. Bone marrow cells extracted from OVX mice significantly induced osteoclast-like (OCL) cell formation compared with cells from sham controls (P < .05). Blackcurrant treatment decreased the number of TRAP(+) OCL compared with OVX mice at 8 and 12 weeks (P < .05). Furthermore, blackcurrant supplementation reduced bone resorption activity when measured by resorption pit assay, compared with OVX group (P < .05). These results demonstrate that blackcurrant may be effective in mitigating osteoclast-induced postmenopausal bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2015.0148DOI Listing
April 2016

Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2016 4;67(3):344-52. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

a Department of Food Science and Biotechnology , Kyung Hee University , Yongin , Korea ;

To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2016.1153612DOI Listing
December 2016

Astaxanthin prevents and reverses the activation of mouse primary hepatic stellate cells.

J Nutr Biochem 2016 Mar 24;29:21-6. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA; Institute of Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a critical step that leads to the development of liver fibrosis. We showed that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, displays antifibrogenic effects in LX-2 cells, a human HSC cell line. In this study, we further determined the effect of ASTX on HSC activation and inactivation using primary HSCs from C57BL/6J mice. Quiescent and activated HSCs were incubated with ASTX (25μM) at different stages of activation. ASTX prevented the activation of quiescent HSCs, as evidenced by the presence of intracellular lipid droplets and reduction of α-smooth muscle actin, an HSC activation marker. Also, ASTX reverted activated HSCs to a quiescent phenotype with the reappearance of lipid droplets with a concomitant increase in lecithin retinol acyltransferase mRNA. Cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species was significantly reduced by ASTX, which was attributable to a decrease in NADPH oxidase 2 expression. The antifibrogenic effect of ASTX was independent of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 as it was observed in HSCs from wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. In conclusion, ASTX inhibits HSC activation and reverts activated HSCs to a quiescent state. Further investigation is warranted to determine if ASTX effectively prevents the development of liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.11.005DOI Listing
March 2016

Intake of dietary antioxidants is inversely associated with biomarkers of oxidative stress among men with prostate cancer.

Br J Nutr 2016 Jan 2;115(1):68-74. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

1Department of Nutritional Sciences,University of Connecticut,Storrs,CT 06269-4017,USA.

Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood (n 278), urine (n 298) and prostate tissue (n 55) were determined among men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. The association between antioxidant intake and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and urine was determined using linear regression, adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer aggressiveness and smoking status. Greater antioxidant intake was found to be associated with lower urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, with a 10% increase in antioxidant intake corresponding to an unadjusted 1·1% decrease in urinary 8-isoprostane levels (95% CI -1·7, -0·3%; P value<0·01) and an adjusted 0·6% decrease (95% CI -1·4, 0·2%; P value=0·16). In benign prostate tissue, thioredoxin 1 was inversely associated with antioxidant intake (P=0·02). No significant associations were found for other blood or urinary biomarkers or for malignant prostate tissue. These results indicate that antioxidant intake may be associated with less oxidative stress among men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515004249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817245PMC
January 2016

Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2015 Dec;70(4):427-32

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, 3624 Horsebarn Road Extension Unit 4017, Storrs, CT, 06269-4017, USA.

The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0514-5DOI Listing
December 2015

Eliciting the mitochondrial unfolded protein response by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide repletion reverses fatty liver disease in mice.

Hepatology 2016 Apr 16;63(4):1190-204. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Laboratory of Integrative and Systems Physiology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Unlabelled: With no approved pharmacological treatment, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries and its worldwide prevalence continues to increase along with the growing obesity epidemic. Here, we show that a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, eliciting chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver, lowers hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) levels driving reductions in hepatic mitochondrial content, function, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, in conjunction with robust increases in hepatic weight, lipid content, and peroxidation in C57BL/6J mice. To assess the effect of NAD(+) repletion on the development of steatosis in mice, nicotinamide riboside, a precursor of NAD(+) biosynthesis, was added to the HFHS diet, either as a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that NR prevents and reverts NAFLD by inducing a sirtuin (SIRT)1- and SIRT3-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response, triggering an adaptive mitohormetic pathway to increase hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial complex content and activity. The cell-autonomous beneficial component of NR treatment was revealed in liver-specific Sirt1 knockout mice (Sirt1(hep-/-) ), whereas apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (Apoe(-/-) ) challenged with a high-fat high-cholesterol diet affirmed the use of NR in other independent models of NAFLD.

Conclusion: Our data warrant the future evaluation of NAD(+) boosting strategies to manage the development or progression of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.28245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4805450PMC
April 2016

Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants.

Prostate Cancer 2015 18;2015:728046. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher's exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P = 0.01) and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P = 0.03). In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P = 0.01). No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P = 0.04). Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/728046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4556330PMC
September 2015

Astaxanthin prevents TGFβ1-induced pro-fibrogenic gene expression by inhibiting Smad3 activation in hepatic stellate cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2015 Jan 23;1850(1):178-85. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subset of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common chronic liver disease in the U.S. Fibrosis, a common feature of NASH, results from the dysregulation of fibrogenesis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In this study, we investigated whether astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, can inhibit fibrogenic effects of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), a key fibrogenic cytokine, in HSCs.

Methods: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was measured in LX-2, an immortalized human HSC cell line. Quantitative realtime PCR, Western blot, immunocytochemical analysis, and in-cell Western blot were performed to determine mRNA and protein of fibrogenic genes, and the activation of Smad3 in TGFβ1-activated LX-2 cells and primary mouse HSCs.

Results: In LX-2 cells, ROS accumulation induced by tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide and TGFβ1 was abolished by ASTX. ASTX significantly decreased TGFβ1-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and procollagen type 1, alpha 1 (Col1A1) mRNA as well as α-SMA protein levels. Knockdown of Smad3 showed the significant role of Smad3 in the expression of α-SMA and Col1A1, but not TGFβ1, in LX-2 cells. ASTX attenuated TGFβ1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation with a concomitant inhibition of Smad3, Smad7, TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), and TβRII expression. The inhibitory effect of ASTX on HSC activation was confirmed in primary mouse HSCs as evidenced by decreased mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA during activation.

Conclusion: Taken together, ASTX exerted anti-fibrogenic effects by blocking TGFβ1-signaling, consequently inhibiting the activation of Smad3 pathway in HSCs.

General Significance: This study suggests that ASTX may be used as a preventive/therapeutic agent to prevent hepatic fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.10.014DOI Listing
January 2015

Relationship between oxidative stress and bone mass in obesity and effects of berry supplementation on bone remodeling in obese male mice: an exploratory study.

J Med Food 2015 Apr 8;18(4):476-82. Epub 2014 Sep 8.

1 Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut , Storrs, Connecticut, USA .

Berry consumption can prevent bone loss. However, the effects of different berries with distinct anthocyanin composition have not been thoroughly examined. The present study compared the effects of blueberry, blackberry, and black currant on bone health using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. To investigate the effect of different berry supplements against a high-fat (HF) diet in vivo, 40 HF diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL mice were assigned into four groups and fed a HF diet (35% w/w) with or without berry supplementation for 12 weeks (n=10). We measured adipose tissue mass (epididymal and retroperitoneal), plasma antioxidant, bone-related biomarkers, femur bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (proximal and distal). Adipose masses were negatively correlated with proximal BMD, but positively associated with plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations (P<.001). Berry supplementation did not change the plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power, SOD, and insulin-like growth factor-1. However, the black currant group exhibited greater plasma alkaline phosphatase compared with the control group (P<.05). BMD in the distal epiphysis was significantly different between the blueberry and blackberry group (P<.05). However, berry supplementation did not affect bone mass compared with control. The present study demonstrates a negative relationship between fat mass and bone mass. In addition, our findings suggest that the anthocyanin composition of berries will affect bone turnover, warranting further research to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0182DOI Listing
April 2015

Lithospermum erythrorhizon extract protects keratinocytes and fibroblasts against oxidative stress.

J Med Food 2014 Nov 19;17(11):1189-96. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

1 Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University , Yongin, Gyeonggi, Korea.

Oxidative stress damages dermal and epidermal cells and degrades extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, ultimately leading to skin aging. The present study evaluated the potential protective effect of the aqueous methanolic extract obtained from Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) against oxidative stress, induced by H2O2 and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and human dermal fibroblast-neonatal (HDF-n) cells. Exposure of cells to H2O2 or UVB irradiation markedly increased oxidative stress and reduced cell viability. However, pretreatment of cells with the LE extract not only increased cell viability (up to 84.5%), but also significantly decreased oxidative stress. Further, the LE extract downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, an endopeptidase that degrades extracellular matrix collagen. In contrast, treatment with the LE extract did not affect the expression of procollagen type 1 in HDF-n cells exposed to UVA irradiation. Thirteen phenolic compounds, including derivatives of shikonin and caffeic acid, were identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that LE-derived extracts may protect oxidative-stress-induced skin aging by inhibiting degradation of skin collagen, and that this protection may derive at least in part from the antioxidant phenolics present in these extracts. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential utility of LE-derived extracts in both therapeutic and cosmetic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.3088DOI Listing
November 2014

Impact of orange juice consumption on bone health of the U.S. population in the national health and nutrition examination survey 2003-2006.

J Med Food 2014 Oct 23;17(10):1142-50. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

1 Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut , Storrs, Connecticut, USA .

Orange juice (OJ) fortified with calcium (Ca) and vitamin D has turned OJ into a readily available source of these nutrients for children and adults. However, the impact of OJ consumption on Ca and vitamin D adequacy and bone health has not been documented. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the contribution of 100% OJ consumption to dietary and serum Ca and vitamin D status, and bone health parameters in the U.S. population aged 4 years and older (n=13,971) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Food consumption data were coded to produce micronutrient intake values using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0. Serum concentrations of bone-related micronutrients and biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Analysis of data was conducted using SAS software 9.2 and SUDAAN. OJ consumers showed higher intakes of bone-related micronutrients, compared with nonconsumers (P<.05). In addition, OJ consumers had higher serum Ca levels in adults (P<.01) and had a lower odds ratio for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 <20 ng/mL in children (P<.05). OJ consumption was positively associated with femur BMD in children (P<.05) and with femur BMC in both children and adults (P<.05). In conclusion, OJ may be recommended as an effective dietary means of improving the status of Ca and vitamin D, acid-base balance, and of promoting bone health in children and adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0072DOI Listing
October 2014

Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

J Nutr 2014 Jul 17;144(7):1067-74. Epub 2014 Apr 17.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT

Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05) and lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.001), and with tHcy for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05), lycopene (P < 0.05), and total carotenoids (P < 0.05). Dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). Most of these associations were null after additional adjustment for corresponding serum carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction < 0.05), and quartile 4 of dietary β-carotene was associated with lower CRP concentrations only among participants with serum β-carotene > 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study, serum carotenoids were mediators of dietary carotenoids and CVD risk biomarker associations. Serum β-carotene was also a moderator of the dietary β-carotene and CRP association. These findings may help in the design of future intervention studies on dietary carotenoids in the prevention of CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.184317DOI Listing
July 2014

Berry anthocyanins suppress the expression and secretion of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB independent of NRF2-mediated mechanism.

J Nutr Biochem 2014 Apr 31;25(4):404-11. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

The objectives of this study were to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins from blueberry (BBA), blackberry (BKA), and blackcurrant (BCA) and to determine the relationship between their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages. Major anthocyanins in BBA, BKA and BCA were malvidin-3-glucoside (16%), cyanidin-3-glucoside (98%) and delphinidin-3-rutinoside (44%), respectively. BKA showed higher total antioxidant capacity than BBA and BCA. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with 0-20 μg/ml of BBA, BKA and BCA, and subsequently activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure proinflammatory cytokine production. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were significantly decreased by all berry anthocyanins at 10 μg/ml or higher. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNA levels and secretion were also significantly decreased in LPS-treated macrophages. The levels of the repression were comparable for all berry anthocyanins. LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation to the nucleus was markedly attenuated by all of the berry anthocyanins. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) mice, BBA, BKA and BCA significantly decreased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels with a concomitant decrease in IL-1β mRNA levels upon LPS stimulation. However, in the BMM from Nrf2(-/-) mice, the anthocyanin fractions were able to significantly decrease IL-1β mRNA despite the fact that ROS levels were not significantly affected. In conclusion, BBA, BKA and BCA exert their anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages, at least in part, by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB independent of the NRF2-mediated pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.001DOI Listing
April 2014

Diets high in total antioxidant capacity improve risk biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: a 9-month observational study among overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

Eur J Nutr 2014 Sep 17;53(6):1363-9. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, 3624 Horsebarn Road Extension Unit 4017, Storrs, CT, 06269-4017, USA.

Background: Previous studies have shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of typical diets is associated with higher plasma TAC and antioxidant enzyme activities. At present, however, little is known for the association between dietary TAC and inflammatory biomarkers.

Aim: The present study was designed to examine the association between dietary TAC and inflammatory biomarkers in a group of overweight/obese postmenopausal women, a population with high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, during a 9-month period.

Methods: Thirty-five postmenopausal, overweight or obese, but apparently healthy women aged 40-70 years were recruited for a 9-month observational study. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study for dietary and plasma biomarker assessments. Dietary TAC was calculated theoretically for taking account of both diet and dietary supplements, and energy-adjusted values were obtained using residual method.

Results: At baseline, subjects consuming diets with high dietary TAC had lower levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p < 0.05) compared with those with low dietary TAC. Over the 9-month period, change in dietary TAC had a negative partial correlation with plasma CRP levels (p < 0.01) when age, ethnicity, and changes in BMI, blood total cholesterol and triglyceride were adjusted.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that consumption of diets high in TAC are inversely associated with plasma CRP levels cross-sectionally and dynamically and may contribute to CVD protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0637-0DOI Listing
September 2014

Dietary fructose feeding increases adipose methylglyoxal accumulation in rats in association with low expression and activity of glyoxalase-2.

Nutrients 2013 Aug 21;5(8):3311-28. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Methylglyoxal is a precursor to advanced glycation endproducts that may contribute to diabetes and its cardiovascular-related complications. Methylglyoxal is successively catabolized to D-lactate by glyoxalase-1 and glyoxalase-2. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary fructose and green tea extract (GTE) differentially regulate methylglyoxal accumulation in liver and adipose, mediated by tissue-specific differences in the glyoxalase system. We fed six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats a low-fructose diet (10% w/w) or a high-fructose diet (60% w/w) containing no GTE or GTE at 0.5% or 1.0% for nine weeks. Fructose-fed rats had higher (P < 0.05) adipose methylglyoxal, but GTE had no effect. Plasma and hepatic methylglyoxal were unaffected by fructose and GTE. Fructose and GTE also had no effect on the expression or activity of glyoxalase-1 and glyoxalase-2 at liver or adipose. Regardless of diet, adipose glyoxalase-2 activity was 10.8-times lower (P < 0.05) than adipose glyoxalase-1 activity and 5.9-times lower than liver glyoxalase-2 activity. Adipose glyoxalase-2 activity was also inversely related to adipose methylglyoxal (r = -0.61; P < 0.05). These findings suggest that fructose-mediated adipose methylglyoxal accumulation is independent of GTE supplementation and that its preferential accumulation in adipose compared to liver is due to low constitutive expression of glyoxalase-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5083311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775256PMC
August 2013

Protective effect of detoxified Rhus verniciflua stokes on human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress and identification of the bioactive phenolics.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2013 7;77(8):1682-8. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University.

Oxidative stress due to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with human skin aging. This study was designed to identify the bioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS) that may protect human skin against oxidative stress. Under oxidative stress caused by H₂O₂, the 40% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of DRVS protected human keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) was also inhibited by the DRVS extract in human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal cells exposed to ultraviolet A. The major bioactive phenolics of DRVS were tentatively identified by LC/Q-TOF-ESI-MS/MS, and included gallic acid, 2-(ethoxymethoxy)-3-hydroxyphenol, fustin, a fustin isomer, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, fisetin, sulfuretin, a sulfuretin isomer, and butein. The results suggest that a DRVS extract may be effective in slowing skin aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating MMP-1 expression. Further studies are needed to examine whether this effect would be mediated by the phenolics identified in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.130236DOI Listing
April 2014

Dietary antioxidants and prostate cancer: a review.

Nutr Cancer 2013 ;65(6):793-801

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA.

Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on prostate cancer, with alpha-tocopherol potentially increasing and gamma-tocopherol potentially decreasing risk of the disease. There is no strong evidence for a beneficial effect of selenium, vitamin C, or beta-carotene, whereas lycopene appears to be negatively associated with risk of the disease. The effect of dietary antioxidants on prostate cancer remains undefined and inconclusive, with different antioxidants affecting prostate cancer risk differentially. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between antioxidants and prostate cancer risk and to delineate the underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2013.806672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823537PMC
March 2014

Validation of an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.

Public Health Nutr 2014 Jul 26;17(7):1467-75. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

1Department of Nutritional Sciences,University of Connecticut,3624 Horsebarn Road Extension Unit 4017,Storrs,CT 06269-4017,USA.

Objective: To validate an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.

Design: A seventy-four-item antioxidant 1-month FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. Forty overweight postmenopausal women participated in a 9-month observational study and completed four sets of FFQ and 7 d food record (7dFR) every 3 months. Twelve-hour fasting blood was collected for plasma antioxidant measurement at the first visit.

Setting: Connecticut, USA.

Subjects: Forty overweight postmenopausal women.

Results: Spearman correlation coefficients of 1-month antioxidant intake estimated from the first set of FFQ and 7dFR ranged from 0·34 to 0·87, except for γ-tocopherol. The proportion of participants categorized into the extremely opposite tertiles averaged 7 %. Significant correlations were observed for diet-plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and carotenoids (P < 0·05). No time effect was observed on the dietary antioxidant intakes estimated from four 7dFR and four FFQ. Dietary antioxidants estimated from averaged four 7dFR showed moderate to high correlation with those estimated from averaged four FFQ and from each FFQ collected every 3 months. Bland-Altman plots did not show any systematic bias. Averaged misclassifications were below 10 % between these two instruments.

Conclusions: These findings attested a reasonable validity and a good acceptance of this 1-month FFQ in assessing both short-term and long-term diverse antioxidant intakes in these overweight postmenopausal women. The use of this FFQ in associating antioxidant intake with disease risk needs further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013001638DOI Listing
July 2014

Anthocyanins in the ripe fruits of Rubus coreanus Miquel and their protective effect on neuronal PC-12 cells.

Food Chem 2013 Aug 16;139(1-4):604-10. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology and Skin Biotechnology Center, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701, South Korea.

Phenolics of the fresh ripe fruits of Rubus coreanus Miquel were extracted and separated into anthocyanin and the non-anthocyanin fractions, which were used for the evaluation for antioxidant capacity and neuroprotective effects. The anthocyanin fraction accounted for approximately 47-55% of the total antioxidant capacity of the whole extract and had significantly higher free radical-scavenging capacity than the non-anthocyanin fraction. Furthermore, the anthocyanins alleviated intracellular oxidative stress, as assayed by in vitro fluorescent measurements. The anthocyanins showed neuroprotective effects on PC-12 cells in vitro against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Triple quadrupole LC/MS and Q-TOF LC/MS analyses revealed four major anthocyanins; cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-xylosylrutinoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside in increasing order of amounts. These results demonstrated that anthocyanins are the major components and contributors to the antioxidant capacity of ripe R. coreanus Miquel fruits. Further studies are warranted to determine whether consumption of the fruits reduces oxidative stress in the brain and promotes health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.12.057DOI Listing
August 2013

Dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with improved serum antioxidant status and decreased serum C-reactive protein and plasma homocysteine concentrations.

Eur J Nutr 2013 Dec 4;52(8):1901-11. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, 3624 Horsebarn Road Extension Unit 4017, Storrs, CT, 06269-4017, USA.

Purpose: To investigate the associations of dietary TAC from diet and supplements with serum antioxidant concentrations and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) in US adults.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Food consumption data, serum antioxidant levels, and serum CRP and Plasma tHcy concentrations of 4,391 US adults aged ≥19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002 were analyzed. The USDA flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases and dietary supplement data as well as antioxidant capacities of 43 antioxidants were also utilized.

Result: Serum CRP and plasma tHcy concentrations were higher in older adults, smokers, and those with lower non-leisure time physical activity levels (P < 0.05). Energy-adjusted daily total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and supplements was positively associated with serum vitamin E and carotenoid concentrations (P < 0.05). Adjusted odds ratio (OR) for plasma tHcy >13 μmol/L significantly decreased across quartiles of TAC from diet and supplements (Q1 = 2.18 (1.56-2.77); Q2 = 1.30 (1.00-2.07); Q3 = 1.34 (0.84-2.28); Q4 = 1.00; P for linear trend <0.001). A negative trend across quartiles of TAC from diet and supplements was also observed in OR for serum CRP ≥3 mg/L (Q1 = 1.26 (0.97-1.70); Q2 = 1.21 (0.91-1.66); Q3 = 0.97 (0.80-1.24); Q4 = 1.00; P for linear trend <0.05).

Conclusions: These findings indicated that dietary TAC provided an integrated conceptual tool in assessing serum antioxidants and investigating the associations between antioxidant intake and CVD risk. The implicated applicability of dietary TAC needs further validation in prospective cohort studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-012-0491-5DOI Listing
December 2013