Publications by authors named "Sunan Wang"

37 Publications

Clinicopathological features of gastric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: Report of five cases.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 1;22(3):948. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

School of Electronic and Communication Engineering, Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, P.R. China.

The present study reported on the histomorphological observations and immunohistochemical features of five cases of gastric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Loosely arranged fat fusiform myofibroblast-fibroblasts and diffusely or patchily distributed inflammatory cells, which formed a diverse morphological structure, were observed. In the mucous vascular structure, mucoid or collagenous areas, fibromatosis- or scar-like lesions were generally <10 mm in size and both had diffuse or patchy plasma cells, lymphocytes and other inflammatory-cell infiltration backgrounds. The immunophenotype was vimentin- and smooth muscle actin-positive with pan-cytokeratin, desmin and calponin expression and CD34-positive foci; furthermore, three cases were positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression. Gastric IMT is rare, with unique histopathological changes and corrosion-like invasion of the smooth muscle of the stomach wall, blood vessels, nerves and adipose tissue. It should be differentiated from a variety of spindle cell tumor types and tumor-like lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290396PMC
September 2021

Chemical and biological properties of cocoa beans affected by processing: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 28:1-32. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Cocoa ( L.) is widely cultivated in tropical countries. The cocoa beans are a popular ingredient of confectionery. Cocoa beans contain various chemicals that contribute to their bioactivity and nutritional properties. There has been increasing interest in developing cocoa beans for "healthy" food products. Cocoa beans have special combination of nutrients such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and other compounds of biological activities. The bioactive phytochemicals include methylxanthines, polyphenols, biogenic amines, melanoidins, isoprostanoids and oxalates. These phytochemicals of cocoa are related to various and biological activities such as antioxidation, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetes, cardiovascular protection, physical improvement, anti-photoaging, anti-depression and blood glucose regulation. The potential of bioactive compounds in cocoa remains to be maximized for food and nutritional applications. The current processing technology promotes the degradation of beneficial bioactive compounds, while maximizing the flavors and its precursors. It is not optimized for the utilization of cocoa beans for "healthy" product formulations. Modifications of the current processing line and non-conventional processing are needed to better preserve and utilize the beneficial bioactive compounds in cocoa beans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1928597DOI Listing
May 2021

Histomorphological Characteristics and Pathological Types of Hyperproliferation of Gastric Surface Epithelial Cells.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2021 9;2021:8828326. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Shen Zhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 518055, China.

Objective: To investigate the histomorphological characteristics and pathological types of hyperproliferation of gastric surface epithelial cells.

Methods: Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff, and immunohistochemical staining were performed on biopsy specimens obtained from 723 patients with hyperproliferation of gastric surface epithelial cells and/or hyperplasia of gastric pits. Follow-up gastroscopic reexaminations were performed on 475 patients included. Improvement probability was analyzed using Kaplan-Meyer as well as Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Seven different histomorphologies and clinicopathologies of hyperproliferation of gastric surface epithelial cells were identified: (1) common hyperplasia of gastric epithelial cells, which was characterized by focal glandular epithelial hyperplasia of gastric pits with chronic inflammation; (2) drug-induced hyperplasia of gastric epithelial cells, which was characterized by increased hyperplasia of gastric pits and cells arranged in a monolayer; (3) Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection-induced hyperplasia of gastric epithelial cells, which was characterized by the disappearance of oval, spherical, and bounded membrane-enclosed mucus-containing granules in the cytoplasm and on the nucleus together with cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolation; (4) metaplastic hyperplasia of gastric epithelial cells, which was characterized by the coexistence of intestinal metaplastic cells with hyperplastic gastric epithelial cells; (5) atrophic hyperplasia of gastric epithelial cells, which was characterized by the mucosal atrophy accompanied with hyperplasia of gastric pits; (6) low-grade neoplasia of epithelial cells, which was characterized by the mild to moderate dysplasia of gastric epithelial cells; and (7) high-grade neoplasia of epithelial cells, which was characterized by the evident dysplasia of hyperplastic epithelial cells and losses of cell polarity. The different pathological types are associated with different improvement probabilities.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the histomorphological characteristics and pathological types, which might guide clinicians to track malignant cell transformation, perform precise treatment, predict the clinical prognosis, and control the development of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8828326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969108PMC
March 2021

Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.): A review of chemical diversity and biological activities.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 26;350:128469. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is a commercially important fruit crop. Various species and cultivars, non-fruit plant parts, and agricultural and processing wastes are underutilized. A broad-scoped review of kiwifruit guides further innovative applications. Different kiwifruit varieties and edible and nonedible parts varied in the composition of dietary nutrients including polyphenols, vitamins, dietary fiber, and functional ingredients, such as starch and protease and bioactive phytochemicals. Kiwifruits exhibit antioxidative, antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antihypercholesterolemic, neuroprotective, antiobese properties and promote gut health. Clinically significant effects of kiwifruit on prevention and/or treatment of major chronic diseases are not yet evident. Varieties and plant parts, extraction, analytical and processing methods affect the physicochemical and biological properties of kiwifruit-derived ingredients. Allergens, mycotoxins, pesticides and heavy metals are the chemical hazards of kiwifruits. Future research should be focused on sustainable uses of underutilized resources as functional ingredients, bioactive compound purification, composition-activity relationships, and physiological mechanisms and clinical significance of kiwifruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128469DOI Listing
July 2021

Significance of Detection of the HER2 Gene and PD-1/PD-L1 in Gastric Cancer.

J Oncol 2020 13;2020:8678945. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Pathology, ShenZhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, ShenZhen 518110, China.

Objective: To explore the relationship between the HER2 gene and PD-1/PD-L1 in gastric cancer and its significance.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to detect HER2 protein expression, HER2 gene amplification, and PD-1/PD-L1 expression in 78 cases of gastric cancer.

Results: The expression rate of HER2 protein was 43.6% (34/78), of which 19.4% (14/78) were HER2 3+, 14.1% (11/78) were HER2 2+, and 11.5% (9/78) were HER2 1+. The results showed that 19.2% (15/78) of samples had HER2 gene amplification, 3.8% (3/78) of samples had a HER2/CEP17 ratio <2.0, and 19.2% (15/78) of samples had HER2 gene amplificationf and HER2 copy/cell ≥6.0, as detected by FISH. The positive rate of PD-L1 was 38.5% (30/78) in gastric cancer cells and 50.0% (39/78) in interstitial lymphocytes. The expression of the HER2 gene, PD-L1, and PD-1 in gastric cancer was correlated with the stage and lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The combined detection of the HER2 gene and PD-1/PD-L1 in gastric cancer provides an important reference index for the prognosis of gastric cancer and the benefit of targeted antitumor drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8678945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584973PMC
October 2020

Sustainable supercapacitors of nitrogen-doping porous carbon based on cellulose nanocrystals and urea.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 5;164:4095-4103. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, PR China.

The development of porous carbon materials from sustainable natural sources is an attractive topic in the field of energy storage materials. This study proposed the production of nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) materials from the renewable cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as carbon source and water-soluble urea as nitrogen source without any external activation. The liquid compounding treatment and subsequent carbonization provided the NPC materials a uniform and stable N-doping (7.4% nitrogen content), high specific surface area (366.5 m/g) and various superior electrochemical properties. The fabricated NPC sample (CU-3, with the weight ratio of 1:10 for CNC and urea) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 570.6 F/g at a current density load of 1 A/g and good cycling stability (91.2% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles at a current density of 10 A/g) in the 6 M KOH electrolyte. Applying this NPC material as the electrode component in the assembled symmetric supercapacitor demonstrated the promising electrochemical stability with the specific capacitances of 88.2 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g and capacitance retention of 99.8% after 5000 cycles. The developed N-doped porous carbon material from CNCs and urea is expected to be a sustainable electrode component for the supercapacitor materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.011DOI Listing
December 2020

Cross-priming isothermal amplification combined with nucleic acid test strips for detection of meat species.

Anal Biochem 2020 05 2;597:113672. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Key Laboratory of Marine Food Quality and Hazard Controlling Technology of Zhejiang Province, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, 310018, China. Electronic address:

Adulteration of high-quality meat with their cheaper counterparts can be minimized by rapid and reliable methods for detecting meat species. Here an isothermal cross-primer amplification (CPA) technique combined with colloidal gold nucleic acid test strips (CPA strips) was developed to differentiate cow, sheep, arctic fox, and pig meat. A simple primer design for multiplex differentiation using a universal single-labeled CPA primer system and four detection-level species-specific labeling primers were analyzed by colloidal gold-based test strip assay. Moreover, simultaneous detection of fox and pig meat on a double-test line strip was feasible. The CPA strip assay indicated a lower amounts sensitivity of 0.3 ng DNA when one targeted species was tested and a detection limit of 1% when arctic fox meat was detected in the meat mixtures. Using a minimal set of primers, this study provides a promising tool for detecting the species of different types of meat using a constant temperature amplification technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2020.113672DOI Listing
May 2020

Vascular habitat analysis based on dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI predicts IDH mutation status and prognosis in high-grade gliomas.

Eur Radiol 2020 Jun 20;30(6):3254-3265. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Radiology, Army Medical Center of PLA, Army Medical University, 10# Changjiangzhilu, Chongqing, 400042, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The current study aimed to evaluate the clinical practice for hemodynamic tissue signature (HTS) method in IDH genotype prediction in three groups derived from high-grade gliomas.

Methods: Preoperative MRI examinations of 44 patients with known grade and IDH genotype were assigned into three study groups: glioblastoma multiforme, grade III, and high-grade gliomas. Perfusion parameters were analyzed and were used to automatically draw the four reproducible habitats (high-angiogenic enhancing tumor habitats, low-angiogenic enhancing tumor habitats, infiltrated peripheral edema habitats, vasogenic peripheral edema habitats) related to vascular heterogeneity. These four habitats were then compared between inter-patient with IDH mutation and their wild-type counterparts at these three groups, respectively. The discriminating potential for HTS in assessing IDH mutation status prediction was assessed by ROC curves.

Results: Compared with IDH wild type, IDH mutation had significantly decreased relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) at the high-angiogenic enhancing tumor habitats and low-angiogenic enhancing tumor habitats. ROC analysis revealed that the rCBVs in habitats had great ability to discriminate IDH mutation from their wild type in all groups. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis yielded significant differences for the survival times observed from the populations dichotomized by low (< 4.31) and high (> 4.31) rCBV in the low-angiogenic enhancing tumor habitat.

Conclusions: The HTS method has been proven to have high prediction capabilities for IDH mutation status in high-grade glioma patients, providing a set of quantifiable habitats associated with tumor vascular heterogeneity.

Key Points: • The HTS method has a high accuracy for molecular stratification prediction for all subsets of HGG. • The HTS method can give IDH mutation-related hemodynamic information of tumor-infiltrated and vasogenic edema. • IDH-relevant rCBV difference in habitats will be a great prognosis factor in HGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06702-2DOI Listing
June 2020

Chemical composition and health effects of maca (Lepidium meyenii).

Authors:
Sunan Wang Fan Zhu

Food Chem 2019 Aug 22;288:422-443. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has emerged as a popular functional plant food due to various claimed health effects. This review details the major (i.e., starch, dietary fiber, and protein) and minor constituents (i.e., minerals, non-starch polysaccharides, polyphenols (flavonolignans), macaenes, macamides, glucosinolates, and alkaloids) of maca (root and aerial parts). Diverse health effects of maca are also summarized. Various bioactivities of maca include enhanced reproductive health, antifatigue, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, and improving skin health and digestive system's function. Plant genetics, botanical parts, processing, extraction, and experimental protocols represent the major factors affecting the chemical composition, physicochemical attributes, and health effects of maca-based products. However, clinical studies to support the claimed health effects of maca and related mechanisms appear to be lacking. Product innovation and diversification in food and non-food utilization of different parts of maca to maximize the value perceptions are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.02.071DOI Listing
August 2019

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 Fermentation on Asparagus officinalis Polysaccharide: Characterization, Antioxidative, and Immunoregulatory Activities.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 8;66(41):10703-10711. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, China-Canada Joint Lab of Food Science and Technology (Nanchang) , Nanchang University , 235 Nanjing East Road , Nanchang 330047 , China.

Lactic acid fermentation represents a novel method to produce bioactive functional ingredients, including polysaccharides. In this work, a selected lactic acid bacteria strain NCU116 was used to ferment Asparagus officinalis (asparagus) pulps. Two polysaccharides were subsequently separated from both unprocessed and fermented asparagus pulps, namely, asparagus polysaccharide (AOP) and fermented-AOP (F-AOP). The physicochemical and bioactive properties of AOP and F-AOP were characterized and investigated. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography showed that fermentation increased the proportions of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid in polysaccharides by 46.70, 114.09, and 12.75‰, respectively. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography revealed that fermentation decreased the average molecular weight from 181.3 kDa (AOP) to 152.8 kDa (F-AOP). Moreover, the fermentation reduced the particle size and changed the rheology property. In vitro, F-AOP displayed superior free radical scavenging properties compared to AOP, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. In vivo, F-AOP administration dose-dependently promoted a gradual shift from Th17-dominant acute inflammatory response (IL-17 and RORγt) to Th1-dominant defensive immune response (IFN-γ and T-bet). These results indicated that the Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 fermentation was practical and useful to obtain promising bioactive polysaccharides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03220DOI Listing
October 2018

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.): Nutritional composition, biological activity, and uses.

Food Chem 2018 Nov 29;265:316-328. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is native to the Peruvian Amazon and is recognised in other parts of the world as a sustainable crop with viable commercial applications. In recent years, there has been growing interest in developing the sacha inchi plant as a novel source of oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. This review presents information on the major and minor chemical components, health effects and utilization of different parts (seeds, seed shells and leaves) of this plant. In particular, the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of sacha inchi seed oil are described. The whole sacha inchi plant has been utilized to generate nutritional, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products with the goal to maximize its economic value. The sacha inchi plant may become a valuable resource for high value-added compounds used in many diverse food and non-food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.05.055DOI Listing
November 2018

Combinatorial usage of fungal polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum ameliorate drug-induced liver injury in mice.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Sep 16;119:66-72. Epub 2018 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanjing East Road, Nanchang, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response. Relatively, through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PSG increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content depleted by CTX, as well as prevented mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins (Bad, Bax and Bcl-2). In addition, protective effect of CFP was associated with enhanced modulations on cellular oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and pro-inflammatory factors via PPARα upregulation and TLR9 downregulation. Taking together, the combinatorial approach based on CSP and PSG presented a practical option for the management of drug-induced liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.05.027DOI Listing
September 2018

Comparative study on the chemical composition, anthocyanins, tocopherols and carotenoids of selected legumes.

Food Chem 2018 Sep 9;260:317-326. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China.

Twenty-nine legumes were assessed for their nutritional and phytochemical compositions. Soybean and black soybean had the highest protein contents (34.05-42.65 g/100 g DW, dry weight of legumes), particularly being a rich source of lysine (1.78-2.23 g/100 g DW. Soybean and black soybean had the highest fat contents (14.13-22.19 g/100 g DW). Broad beans had the highest unsaturated fatty acids (83.57-89.01 g/100 g fatty acid), particularly rich in α-linolenic and linoleic acid. The highest and the lowest dietary fiber were found in red kidney beans (35.36 g/100 g DW) and mung beans (22.77 g/100 g DW), respectively. Except for soybean and white kidney bean, 6 major anthocyanins in the legumes samples were identified. The soybean contained the highest total tocopherols content (90.40-120.96 μg/g dry weight of beans), followed by black soybean (66.13-100.76 μg/g DW). The highest carotenoids were found in lentils (4.53-21.34 μg/g DW) and red kidney beans (8.29-20.95 μg/g DW).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.148DOI Listing
September 2018

Protective properties of combined fungal polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum on colon immune dysfunction.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Jul 4;114:1049-1055. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047, China.

In vivo an ecological network of polysaccharides utilization by gut microbiota is not only an intense competition but also an impressive cooperation pattern. The present study evaluated the in vivo protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP) from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum on colon immune dysfunction, induced by 150mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP). The results showed that C. sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) significantly promoted microbial-derived butyrate to improve histone h3 acetylation mediating regulatory T (Treg) cell specific Foxp3, as well as significantly restored CP-induced elevation of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-21. Additionally, G. atrum polysaccharides (PSG) significantly down-regulated MyD88, as well as significantly increased IL-10 and TGF-β3. Furthermore, CFP balanced the disequilibrium of cytokines secretion and Foxp3/RORγt ratio related Treg/T helper 17 (Th17) balance, as well as down-regulated the TLR-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway and promoted secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) secretion to suppress colonic inflammation. Therefore, our results typically contribute to understand the in vivo immunoregulatory function of fungal polysaccharides compounds, involving microbial-associated inflammatory signals and specific metabolic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.004DOI Listing
July 2018

Cross priming amplification with nucleic acid test strip analysis of mutton in meat mixtures.

Food Chem 2018 Apr 1;245:641-645. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha High Education Area, Hangzhou 310018, PR China. Electronic address:

A simple, sensitive, accurate and affordable rapid detection of meat species authentication is urgently needed in food industry. In this study, a cross priming amplification (CPA) combining nucleic acid test strip (CPA-Strip) assay for rapid detection of mutton from meat mixture were developed and its feasibility was investigated. In an isothermal CPA system, cytochrome b (cytb) gene as target was amplified at 63°C for 60min. The nucleic acid strip was able to show the corresponding test line in the presence of target gens in 5min. Non-targeting gene interference was not evident. The CPA-Strip has been applied for the detection of 0.1-100% mutton in a thermal treated meat mixtures with a detection limit of a detect limit of 1%. CPA-Strip assay would be a promising simple, rapid and sensitive method for identification of target species in raw and processed meat mixtures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.107DOI Listing
April 2018

Chemical composition and biological activity of staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina).

Authors:
Sunan Wang Fan Zhu

Food Chem 2017 Dec 23;237:431-443. Epub 2017 May 23.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is native to North America, and has been used by indigenous peoples for food and non-food applications for a long time. It has been adapted to the other parts of the world for cultivation as a potential source of functional food ingredients. This review summarises the updated information on the chemical composition and diverse biological activities of staghorn sumac. Various factors affect the chemical composition, function retention during processing, and nutritional properties of staghorn sumac-derived products. These factors include botanical characteristics and environmental conditions, extraction and quantification methods, and processing parameters. Various innovative and potential uses of staghorn sumac in food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries are suggested on the basis of the chemical constituents. This review provides a scientific basis for the development of staghorn sumac as a sustainable economic plant for food and other industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.111DOI Listing
December 2017

Quality attributes of bread fortified with staghorn sumac extract.

Authors:
Sunan Wang Fan Zhu

J Texture Stud 2018 02 6;49(1):129-134. Epub 2017 Aug 6.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.

Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesive), and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an antistaling agent in bread formulation.

Practical Applications: The rising healthy food market demands bakery products fortified with novel functional ingredients. Staghorn sumac is an emerging healthy food ingredient that has attracted much research attention recently. This study provides a scientific basis to develop bread fortified with sumac-derived functional ingredients. The results pointed out the feasibility of making sumac-fortified breads with enhanced phenolic content, increased shelf life, and acceptable sensory profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12283DOI Listing
February 2018

Chemical constituents and health effects of sweet potato.

Food Res Int 2016 Nov 27;89(Pt 1):90-116. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to their unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects. Factors affecting the nutritional composition and bio-functions of sweet potato include the varieties, plant parts, extraction time and solvents, postharvest storage, and processing. The assays for bio-function evaluation also contribute to the variations among different studies. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the chemical composition of sweet potato, and their bio-functions studied in vitro and in vivo. Leaves, stems, and stalks of sweet potato remain much underutilized on commercial levels. Sweet potato can be further developed as a sustainable crop for diverse nutritionally enhanced and value-added food products to promote human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2016.08.032DOI Listing
November 2016

Bidirectional Estrogen-Like Effects of Genistein on Murine Experimental Autoimmune Ovarian Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Nov 8;17(11). Epub 2016 Nov 8.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China.

This study was to investigate the bidirectional estrogen-like effects of genistein on murine experimental autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD). Female BALB/c mice were induced by immunization with a peptide from murine zona pellucida. The changes of estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphology were measured, and the levels of serum sex hormone were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. Proliferative responses of the ovary were also determined by immunohistochemistry. Administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein enhanced ovary development with changes in serum sex hormone levels and proliferative responses. Meanwhile, the proportions of growing and mature follicles increased and the incidence of autoimmune oophoritis decreased, which exhibited normal ovarian morphology in administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein, while a lower dose (5 mg/kg body weight genistein) produced the opposite effect. These findings suggest that genistein exerts bidirectional estrogen-like effects on murine experimental AOD, while a high dose (45 mg/kg body weight) of genistein may suppress AOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133855PMC
November 2016

Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

Food Chem 2017 Mar 31;218:56-63. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.123DOI Listing
March 2017

Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of 26 kidney bean cultivars.

Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Oct 7;108(Pt B):467-477. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047, China.

Detailed characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals with antioxidant activities of 26 kidney beans was performed. The kidney beans contained high levels of dietary fiber (29.32-46.77%), resistant starch (9.16-18.09%) and protein (22.06-32.63%) but low levels of lipid (1.05-2.83%) and sugars (1.55-9.07%). The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. The ratio of essential amino acid to the total amino acid was ranged from 0.29 to 0.36. The predominant fatty acid was polyunsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 47.54-67.26% of total fatty acids. The total tocopherol content was in the range of 12.83-68.35 μg/g, predominantly γ-tocopherol, followed by δ-tocopherol. In addition, certain levels of total phenolics and flavonoids with respective values of 0.25-3.79 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 0.19-7.05 mg rutin equivalent/g dry weight resulted in significant antioxidant activities. And a good correlation was observed between TPC and FRAP values (R2 = 0.8030). The results indicated that kidney beans are excellent sources of health-promoting compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.09.007DOI Listing
October 2017

Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

J Sci Food Agric 2017 Mar 28;97(5):1459-1466. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047, China.

Background: Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured.

Results: A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity.

Conclusions: The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7885DOI Listing
March 2017

Antidiabetic dietary materials and animal models.

Authors:
Sunan Wang Fan Zhu

Food Res Int 2016 Jul 10;85:315-331. Epub 2016 May 10.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

The ever-increasing occurrence of diabetes worldwide demands cost-effective anti-diabetic strategies. Food-based materials have great potential as efficient anti-diabetic agents. Focusing on the literatures of the recent 5years, this review summarizes the methods, findings, and limitations of each research involving non-medicinal foods (individual and mixed) and diabetic animal models. Various types of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, spices, beverages, oilseeds, and edible oils showed antidiabetic effects in different animal models. Animal feeding trials rarely had identical designs in food doses, feeding schedules, and routes of administration, as well as biochemical markers for antidiabetic evaluation. Various possible cellular and metabolic targets were speculated for the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary materials, and the molecular mechanisms of action remain to be better explored. Short-term (maximum 16weeks) antidiabetic studies have been established. Limited safety/tolerability data are available for antidiabetic dietary materials. Findings from current animal studies present a generic antidiabetic dietary pattern associated with plant-based whole foods, which agrees well with the findings of epidemiological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2016.04.028DOI Listing
July 2016

Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

Carbohydr Polym 2016 Feb 17;137:328-338. Epub 2015 Oct 17.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.064DOI Listing
February 2016

Effect of black tea on antioxidant, textural, and sensory properties of Chinese steamed bread.

Food Chem 2016 Mar 28;194:1217-23. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Canadian Food and Wine Institute, Niagara College, 135 Taylor Road, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario L0S 1J0, Canada.

Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.110DOI Listing
March 2016

Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

Authors:
Sunan Wang Fan Zhu

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017 Jul;57(11):2343-2357

b School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland , Auckland , New Zealand.

Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1046546DOI Listing
July 2017

Influences of Operating Parameters on the Formation of Furan During Heating Based on Models of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

J Food Sci 2015 Jun 27;80(6):T1432-7. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330047, China.

Furan, a possible carcinogen, is commonly produced by thermal processing in a number of heated foods. The existence of furan levels in foods has attracted considerable attention worldwide. Recent research of furan in food has focused on the possible influences of operating parameters on the furan formation during heat processing. The aim of our study was to investigate the impacts of multiple factors (pH, temperature, heating time, ferric, and glutamic acid) on furan formation using linolenic and linoleic acids-based model systems in which furan was analyzed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). The results revealed that the content of furan increased rapidly when the heating temperature was elevated, with the highest levels of furan in neutral buffer solutions, the furan levels were also found to be related to heating time in all model systems. Ferric promoted furan formation from polyunsaturated fatty acids, conversely glutamic acid with an optimum concentration suppressed the furan formation. The minimal level of furan in foods during thermal treatment could be achieved via adding furan formation suppressors, and/or avoidance of furan forming promoter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12864DOI Listing
June 2015

Staghorn Sumac Reduces 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Toxicity in Normal Cells.

J Med Food 2015 Aug 26;18(8):938-40. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

3 Department of Food Science, University of Guelph , Guelph, Canada .

Edible staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) fruit extract was applied in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to promote cytotoxicity of the drugs toward human breast cancer cells MCF-7 while protecting normal cells MCF-10A from drug toxicity. Sumac extract would be a promising chemotherapeutic drug conjugate in cancer chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2014.0114DOI Listing
August 2015

Synergistic interaction of sumac and raspberry mixtures in their antioxidant capacities and selective cytotoxicity against cancerous cells.

J Med Food 2015 Mar 14;18(3):345-53. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

1 Canadian Food and Wine Institute, Niagara College , Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada .

Previous works on staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) were mostly dedicated to its phytochemical profiles, antioxidant properties, and antidiabetic potentials. This study explored the potential of staghorn-sumac-derived functional ingredients for food and pharmacological applications. Sumac may have other biological functions, such as inhibitory effect on cancerous cells independent of its antioxidant properties. We characterized sumac and raspberry interactions, and their antioxidant capacities (ACs) and their inhibitory effect on both normal and cancerous cells. Mixing sumac and raspberry extracts yielded significantly higher ACs than the sum of sumac and raspberry as evaluated by three in vitro AC assays. However, the potential use of staghorn sumac as a natural source of dietary antioxidant supplement for oxidative-stress-related disorders might be challenged by its cytotoxicity in culturing normal cells. Remarkably, mixing sumac and raspberry showed maximal inhibition of the growth of both rat colon and human breast cancer cells with relatively low cytotoxicity toward normal rat colon and human breast epithelial cells, as compared with sumac or raspberry treatment alone. Sumac-derived products and their synergistic interactions with other food ingredients have great promise as functional food or nutraceutical products that would target cancer cells with minimal toxic effects to normal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0171DOI Listing
March 2015

Antioxidant capacity of food mixtures is not correlated with their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

J Med Food 2013 Dec;16(12):1138-45

1 Canadian Food and Wine Institute , Niagara College, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada .

Combining different foods may produce additive, synergistic, or antagonistic interactions that may modify certain physiological effects (i.e., anticancer properties). For investigating these interactions and potential synergetic combinations, thirteen foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberries, blackberries, apples, grapes), vegetables (broccoli, tomatoes, mushrooms, purple cauliflowers, onions), and legumes (soy beans, adzuki beans, red kidney beans, black beans), were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Grape, onion, and adzuki bean showed maximal growth inhibition of MCF-7 from the fruit, vegetable, and legume groups, respectively. When these three foods were combined in pairs, unique interactions were observed that were not seen when individual extracts were used. Combining onion and grape resulted in a synergistic antiproliferative effect (APE) against MCF-7 compared with either onion or grape treatment alone. In contrast, combining grape and adzuki bean resulted in an antagonistic interaction. Additionally, four antioxidant assays (total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities (AC) of individual foods and their combinations. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic AC in all four assays, but they did not show synergistic APE against the MCF-7 cells. Combining broccoli and soy produced antioxidant antagonism, but did not have an antagonistic APE against MCF-7. The synergistic or antagonistic AC of food mixtures did not correlate with the synergistic or antagonistic APE against MCF-7. Further investigation is to determine the mechanisms of these interactions and to predict and enhance the therapeutic benefits of foods and food components through strategic food combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0051DOI Listing
December 2013
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