Publications by authors named "Sun-Young Park"

418 Publications

Effects of the Combination of Evogliptin and Leucine on Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of treatment with a combination of evogliptin and leucine, a branchedchain amino acid, in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine reduced the body weight of the mice, compared to the case for those from the HFD control group. Long-term treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine resulted in a significant reduction in glucose intolerance; however, leucine alone did not affect postprandial glucose control, compared to the case for the mice from the HFD control group. Furthermore, the combination of evogliptin and leucine prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance, which was associated with improved homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, accompanied by markedly reduced liver fat deposition, hepatic triglyceride content, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. The combination of evogliptin and leucine increased the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, whereas those of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were not altered, compared to the case in the HFD-fed mice (<0.05). Thus, our results suggest that the combination of evogliptin and leucine may be beneficial for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis; however, further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of this combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2021.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Development of a Potent Stabilizer for Long-Term Storage of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Antigens.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Gyeonsangbuk-do, Korea.

A local virus isolate, O/SKR/JC/2014 (O JC), has been considered as a candidate vaccine strain in the development of a domestic foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine in Korea. However, producing and preserving a sufficient quantity of intact vaccine antigens from the O JC strain was difficult owing to its distinctive structural instability compared to other candidate vaccine strains. Based on this feature, the O JC strain was adopted as a model virus for the stabilization study to determine the optimal stabilizer composition, which enables long-term storage of the FMD vaccine antigen in both aqueous and frozen phases. In contrast to O JC vaccine antigens stored in routinely used Tris-buffered or phosphate-buffered saline, those stored in Tris-KCl buffer showed extended shelf-life at both 4 °C and -70 °C. Additionally, the combined application of 10% sucrose and 5% lactalbumin hydrolysate could protect O JC 146S particles from massive structural breakdown in an aqueous state for up to one year. The stabilizer composition was also effective for other FMDV strains, including serotypes A and Asia 1. With this stabilizer composition, FMD vaccine antigens could be flexibly preserved during the general production process, pending status under refrigeration and banking under ultrafreezing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001202PMC
March 2021

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Recombinant BGN4 Expressing Antioxidant Enzymes.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 13;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

BGN4-SK (BGN4-SK), a recombinant strain which was constructed from BGN4 (BGN4) to produce superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, was analyzed to determine its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Culture conditions were determined to maximize the SOD and catalase activities of BGN4-SK. The viability, intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) levels, intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were determined to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BGN4-SK in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) were produced at the highest levels when BGN4-SK was cultured for 24 h in a medium containing 500 μM MnSO and 30 μM hematin, with glucose as the carbon source. The viability and intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities of HO-stimulated HT-29 treated with BGN4-SK were significantly higher ( < 0.05) than those of cells treated with BGN4. The intracellular ROS levels of HO-stimulated HT-29 cells treated with BGN4-SK were significantly lower ( < 0.05) than those of cells treated with BGN4. BGN4-SK more significantly suppressed the production of interleukin (IL)-6 ( < 0.05), tumor necrosis factor-α ( < 0.01), and IL-8 ( < 0.05) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 and LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells compared to BGN4. These results suggest that BGN4-SK may have enhanced antioxidant activities against oxidative stress in HO-stimulated HT-29 cells and enhanced anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated HT-29 and RAW 264.7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998161PMC
March 2021

Efficacy of active forced air warming during induction of anesthesia to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in intraoperative warming patients: Comparison with passive warming, a randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25235

Department of Cardiovascular and thoracic surgery, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Seoul, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of peri-induction forced air warming to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, defined as a reduction in body temperature to <36.0°C during the perioperative period, in intraoperatively warmed patients receiving major surgery lasting >120 minutes.

Methods: In total, 130 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia lasting >120 minutes were divided into 2 groups: peri-induction warming (n = 65) and control (n = 65). Patients in the peri-induction warming group were warmed during the anesthetic induction period using a forced-air warmer set at 47°C, whereas patients in the control group were covered passively with a cotton blanket. All patients were warmed with a forced-air warmer during surgery. Body temperature was measured using a tympanic membrane thermometer in the pre- and postoperative periods and using a nasopharyngeal temperature probe during surgery. Patients were evaluated for shivering scale score, thermal comfort scale score, and satisfaction score in the post-anesthesia care unit.

Results: The incidence rates of intraoperative and postoperative hypothermia were lower in the peri-induction warming group than in the control group (19.0% vs 57.1%, P < .001; 3.3% vs 16.9%, P = .013, respectively). Body temperature was higher in the peri-induction warming group (P < .001). However, intraoperative blood loss, as well as postoperative thermal comfort scale score, shivering scale score, and patient satisfaction score, were similar between groups. Post-anesthesia care unit duration was also similar between groups.

Conclusions: Peri-induction active forced air warming is an effective, simple, and convenient method to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in intraoperatively warmed patients undergoing major surgery lasting >120 minutes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025235DOI Listing
March 2021

Harnessing mobile health technology to support long-term chronic illness management: exploring family caregiver support needs in the outpatient setting.

JAMIA Open 2020 Dec 5;3(4):593-601. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Objective: Family caregiving is an important public health issue, particularly with the aging population. In recent years, mobile health (mHealth) technology has emerged as a potential low-cost, scalable platform to address caregiver support needs, and thereby alleviate the burden on caregivers. This study sought to examine the support needs of family caregivers in their lived experiences of outpatient care to inform the development of a future mHealth intervention.

Materails And Methods: We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews in 2 outpatient hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) clinics at a large academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. A thematic analysis was performed to define emerging themes.

Results: Qualitative data analysis identified 5 primary themes that HCT caregivers faced: (I) lifestyle restrictions due to the patient's immunocompromised state; (II) Unmet needs due to limitations in the current resources, including unfamiliar medical tasks without necessary trainings; and (III) caregivers' adaptive strategies, including reformation of social relationships with family and friends. Based on these findings, we suggest 3 design considerations to guide the development of a future mHealth intervention.

Conclusions: The findings herein captured the family caregiver's lived experiences during outpatient care. There was broad agreement that caregiving was challenging and stressful. Thus, effective and scalable interventions to support caregivers are needed. This study provided data to guide the content and design of a future mHealth intervention in the outpatient setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamiaopen/ooaa053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969961PMC
December 2020

Gender difference in the overlap of irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia: a prospective nationwide multicenter study in Korea.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Background: The overlap between functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with more severe gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and lower quality of life. However, the gender differences in FD-IBS overlap remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in patients with FD-IBS overlap.

Methods: Controls and cases were prospectively enrolled from July 2019 to June 2020 at nine tertiary referral centers. The patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and their symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire including GI symptom-related items and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). FD and IBS were diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria, and the clinical characteristics of the FD-IBS overlap group were compared with those of the FD-only or IBS-only group.

Results: Among 667 subjects (334 healthy controls, 168 with FD-only, 37 with IBS-only, 128 with FD-IBS overlap), the FD-IBS overlap group (19.2%) showed a higher rate of preference for dairy products, a higher rate of history of Helicobacter pylori eradication, and higher HADS scores than the non-overlap group (P < 0.05). In the FD-IBS overlap group, men complained of reflux symptom and loose/watery stools more than women (P < 0.05), whereas women showed more severe GI symptoms, especially epigastric pain/burning symptoms, and higher depression scores than men (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: FD-IBS overlap patients are associated with severe upper GI symptoms and depression compared to non-overlap patients. Moreover, women with FD-IBS overlap experience more severe GI and depression symptoms than men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-021-01775-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Prediction of femoral osteoporosis using machine-learning analysis with radiomics features and abdomen-pelvic CT: A retrospective single center preliminary study.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(3):e0247330. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Statistics and Data Science Convergence Research Center, Hallym University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Osteoporosis has increased and developed into a serious public health concern worldwide. Despite the high prevalence, osteoporosis is silent before major fragility fracture and the osteoporosis screening rate is low. Abdomen-pelvic CT (APCT) is one of the most widely conducted medical tests. Artificial intelligence and radiomics analysis have recently been spotlighted. This is the first study to evaluate the prediction performance of femoral osteoporosis using machine-learning analysis with radiomics features and APCT.

Materials And Methods: 500 patients (M: F = 70:430; mean age, 66.5 ± 11.8yrs; range, 50-96 years) underwent both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and APCT within 1 month. The volume of interest of the left proximal femur was extracted and 41 radiomics features were calculated using 3D volume of interest analysis. Top 10 importance radiomic features were selected by the intraclass correlation coefficient and random forest feature selection. Study cohort was randomly divided into 70% of the samples as the training cohort and the remaining 30% of the sample as the validation cohort. Prediction performance of machine-learning analysis was calculated using diagnostic test and comparison of area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed between training and validation cohorts.

Results: The osteoporosis prevalence of this study cohort was 20.8%. The prediction performance of the machine-learning analysis to diagnose osteoporosis in the training and validation cohorts were as follows; accuracy, 92.9% vs. 92.7%; sensitivity, 86.6% vs. 80.0%; specificity, 94.5% vs. 95.8%; positive predictive value, 78.4% vs. 82.8%; and negative predictive value, 96.7% vs. 95.0%. The AUC to predict osteoporosis in the training and validation cohorts were 95.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 93.7%-98.1%] and 96.0% [95% CI, 93.2%-98.8%], respectively, without significant differences (P = 0.962).

Conclusion: Prediction performance of femoral osteoporosis using machine-learning analysis with radiomics features and APCT showed high validity with more than 93% accuracy, specificity, and negative predictive value.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247330PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932154PMC
March 2021

Combination of shear-wave elastography with ultrasonography for detection of breast cancer and reduction of unnecessary biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ultrasonography 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic performance and biopsy reduction rate of combined shear-wave elastography (SWE) and B-mode ultrasonography (US) versus B-mode US alone for breast lesions and to determine the most discriminatory parameter in SWE.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. The resources for the study were obtained from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed on August 17, 2018. The quality of the articles was evaluated using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool.

Results: Twenty-five articles with 5,147 breast lesions were selected. The meta-analysis showed pooled sensitivities of 0.94 and 0.97 (P=0.083), pooled specificities of 0.85 and 0.61 (P=0.009), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 and 0.96 (P=0.095) for combined SWE and B-mode US versus B-mode US alone. When SWE was combined with B-mode US, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category changed from 4 to 3 in 71.3% of the tests, decreasing the frequency of unnecessary biopsies by 41.1%. All four parameters of SWE (the color grade of lesion stiffness, maximum elasticity, mean elasticity, and color grade of lesion stiffness/homogeneity of the lesion) improved the specificity when they were added to B-mode US. The AUC for each SWE parameter was 0.99, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively.

Conclusion: Adding SWE to B-mode US not only provides additional diagnostic information for differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions, but also decreases the likelihood of unnecessary biopsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14366/usg.20058DOI Listing
December 2020

Naphthalimide-4-(4-nitrophenyl)thiosemicarbazide: A Fluorescent Probe for Simultaneous Monitoring of Viscosity and Nitric Oxide in Living Cells.

Anal Chem 2021 03 22;93(10):4391-4397. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Chemistry, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Korea.

Intracellular viscosity is a physicochemical factor that determines the outcomes of various biological processes, while nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule that controls many cellular processes, including oxidative stress. Anticipating that both may be interrelated with a variety of pathologies, their simultaneous measurement would be highly valuable for the investigation of the pathological condition of cells. However, the development of a sensor for such simultaneous detection has not been attempted yet. Herein, we present the synthesis of naphthalimide-4-(4-nitrophenyl)thiosemicarbazide, probe , and its application to living cells under conditions of lipopolysaccharide or nystatin treatment, adopted as oxidative stress and altered intracellular viscosity models, respectively. The probe showed increased fluorescence in response to elevation of viscosity and NO levels at 470 and 550 nm, respectively, in the solution studies. When the probe was used for a confocal microscopic study of HeLa cells under stressed conditions, simultaneous monitoring of viscosity and NO level elevations was possible through fluorescence imaging using band-pass filters of 420-475 and 505-600 nm, respectively, upon excitation at a wavelength of 405 nm. Interestingly, both the cellular viscosity and NO levels increased together under lipopolysaccharide or nystatin treatment. Therefore, we suggest that probe is a fluorescent chemical probe that enables the monitoring of alterations in intracellular viscosity and NO levels in living cells, which would be valuable in studies of various cellular damage models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04019DOI Listing
March 2021

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Evades Innate Immune Response by 3C-Targeting of MDA5.

Cells 2021 Jan 29;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon-si 39660, Korea.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease caused by FMD virus (FMDV) in cloven-hoofed animals. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are representative receptors in the cytoplasm for the detection of viral RNA and trigger antiviral responses, leading to the production of type I interferon. Although MDA5 is a crucial receptor for sensing picornavirus RNA, the interplay between MDA5 and FMDV is relatively unknown compared to the interplay between RIG-I and FMDV. Here, we observed that the FMDV infection inhibits MDA5 protein expression. Of the non-structural proteins, the Lb and 3C proteinases (Lb and 3C) were identified to be primarily responsible for this inhibition. However, the inhibition by 3C was independent of proteasome, lysosome and caspase-dependent pathway and was by 3C protease activity. A direct interaction between 3C and MDA5 protein was observed. In conclusion, this is the first report that 3C inhibits MDA5 protein expression as a mechanism to evade the innate immune response during FMDV infection. These results elucidate the pathogenesis of FMDV and provide fundamental insights for the development of a novel vaccine or therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10020271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912020PMC
January 2021

Prediction of Postoperative Complications for Patients of End Stage Renal Disease.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 14;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Seoul, Seoul 04401, Korea.

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of chronic kidney disease that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. Many studies reported a higher risk of mortality in ESRD patients compared with patients without ESRD. In this paper, we develop a model to predict postoperative complications, major cardiac event, for patients who underwent any type of surgery. We compare several widely-used machine learning models through experiments with our collected data yellow of size 3220, and achieved F1 score of 0.797 with the random forest model. Based on experimental results, we found that features related to operation (e.g., anesthesia time, operation time, crystal, and colloid) have the biggest impact on model performance, and also found the best combination of features. We believe that this study will allow physicians to provide more appropriate therapy to the ESRD patients by providing information on potential postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21020544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828737PMC
January 2021

Engulfment and cell motility 1 promotes tumor progression via the modulation of tumor cell survival in gastric cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(12):7797-7811. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background/aim: Engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) protein has been implicated in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, cell migration, neurite outgrowth, cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and poor prognosis in various cancers. We investigated the role of ELMO1 in mediating the oncogenic behavior of gastric cancer (GC) cells. We also investigated the correlation between expression of ELMO1 in GC tissues and various clinicopathological parameters.

Methods: We studied the impact of ELMO1 on tumor cell behavior using the pcDNA-myc vector and small interfering RNA in AGS and SNU1750 GC cell lines. We performed western blotting and immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of ELMO1 in GC cells and tissues.

Results: ELMO1 overexpression inhibited apoptosis via the modulation of PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-7 in GC cells. ELMO1 overexpression led to significant increase in the number of migrating and invading GC cells. The expression of E-cadherin decreased and that of Snail increased in GC cells upon ELMO1 overexpression. Phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and GSK-3β was increased and that of β-catenin was decreased upon ELMO1 overexpression in GC cells. These results were reversed after ELMO1 knockdown. ELMO1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, cancer stage, lymph node metastasis and survival. ELMO1-positive tumors had significantly higher mean of Ki-67 labeling index than ELMO1-negative tumors. There was no significant relationship between ELMO1 expression and the mean value of the apoptotic index.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that ELMO1 promotes tumor progression by modulating tumor cell survival in human GC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791502PMC
December 2020

Effects of 10-min of pre-warming on inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in intraoperative warming patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Anesth Pain Med (Seoul) 2020 Jul;15(3):356-364

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 10-min pre-warming in preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, which is defined as a reduction in body temperature to less than 36.0℃ during the perioperative period in intraoperative warming patients.

Methods: In this prospective randomized study, 60 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia lasting less than 120 min were divided into two groups: the 10-min pre-warming group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30). Patients in the 10-min pre-warming group were pre-warmed for 10 min in the pre-anesthetic area using a forced-air warmer set at 47ºC. Intraoperatively, we warmed all patients with a forced-air warmer. Body temperature was measured using a tympanic membrane thermometer pre- or postoperatively and a nasopharyngeal temperature probe intraoperatively. Patients were evaluated on the shivering and thermal comfort scale in the pre-anesthetic area and post-anesthesia care unit.

Results: The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative hypothermia were similar in both groups (10.7% vs. 28.6%, P = 0.177; 10.7% vs. 10.7%, P = 1.000 respectively). Body temperature was higher in the 10-min pre-warming group (P = 0.003). Thermal comfort during the pre-warming period was higher in the 10-min pre-warming group (P < 0.001). However, postoperative thermal comfort and shivering grades of both groups were similar.

Conclusions: Ten minutes of pre-warming has no additional effect on the prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in intraoperative warming patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17085/apm.20027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713844PMC
July 2020

Viscoelastic coagulation test for liver transplantation.

Authors:
Sun Young Park

Anesth Pain Med (Seoul) 2020 Apr 29;15(2):143-151. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Coagulation and transfusion management in patients undergoing liver transplantation is challenging. Proper perioperative monitoring of hemostasis is essential to predict the risk of bleeding during surgery, to detect potential causes of hemorrhage in time, and to guide hemostatic therapy. The value of conventional coagulation test is questionable in the acute perioperative setting due to their long turnaround time and the inability to adequately reflect the complex changes in hemostasis in patients with liver disease. Viscoelastic coagulation tests provide simultaneous measurement of multiple aspects of whole-blood coagulation including plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and inhibitors that reflect most aspects of hemostasis. Coagulation initiation, mechanical clot stability, and fibrinolysis can be estimated immediately using point-of-care techniques. Therefore, viscoelastic coagulation tests including ROTEM & TEG would be useful to guide patient blood management strategy during liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17085/apm.2020.15.2.143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713821PMC
April 2020

Application of Heparin Affinity Chromatography to Produce a Differential Vaccine without Eliciting Antibodies against the Nonstructural Proteins of the Serotype O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses.

Viruses 2020 12 7;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Animal Disease Intervention Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.

Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) application is the most widely used method in removing nonstructural proteins (NSPs) for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine production, some NSPs remaining in the antigen could elicit antibodies against these proteins after repeated vaccinations in livestock. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to purify the FMD virus (FMDV) via affinity chromatography using a heparin ligand to remove most proteins, including NSPs. Chromatography showed an intact virus (146S) particle recovery of 70% or more for three different strains of serotype O FMDV (two locally isolated strains and one genetically modified strain). The experimental vaccine made with antigens eluted via heparin affinity chromatography elicited virus-neutralizing antibodies against homologous viruses but did not induce antibodies against NSPs even after five immunizations in goats; this indicated that the NSPs were effectively removed from the vaccine antigen. This method can then be used to produce a higher-quality vaccine compared with PEG application in terms of the purity of the FMD vaccine. Therefore, this result would be an important groundwork for advanced FMD vaccine manufacturing in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12121405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762290PMC
December 2020

, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Ameliorates Depression by Regulating Hyperactive Glucocorticoid Signaling and .

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 10;2020:8834556. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Republic of Korea.

(SOCG) is a Korean traditional medicine; it has previously been shown to be safe and effective against depression. Persistently increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids have been considered as a pathological mechanism for depression and associated with decreased neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. This study investigated whether SOCG controls the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects and . Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to restraint stress, where SOCG was orally administered to the animals for 2 weeks. An open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and sucrose preference test (SPT) were performed to explore the antidepressant activity of SOCG in WKY rats. Plasma levels of HPA axis hormones were measured by ELISA or western blotting analysis. The expression levels or activation of HPA axis-related signaling molecules such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the brain were determined by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, a corticosterone- (CORT-) induced cell injury model was established using SH-SY5Y cells to explore the antidepressive effects of SOCG . The results of the OFT, FST, and SPT revealed that SOCG ameliorated depressive-like behaviors in the WKY rats. The blood plasma levels of HPA axis hormones such as CORT, CORT-releasing hormone (CRH), and adrenocorticotrophic hormone were downregulated by SOCG. On the other hand, SOCG upregulated the phosphorylation of CREB and ERK in both the rat hippocampus and CORT-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, it also increased the GR expression. These results suggested that SOCG may improve depression by controlling hyperactive glucocorticoid signaling the downregulation of HPA axis hormones and upregulation of GR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8834556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671797PMC
November 2020

Therapeutic effect of Shinkiwhan, herbal medicine, regulates OPG/RANKL/RANK system on ovariectomy-induced bone loss rat.

Phys Act Nutr 2020 Sep 30;24(3):19-24. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Semyung University, Jecheon, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Although physical activity is required to prevent or ameliorate osteoporosis, medicine prescription should precede it, since it may be limited in severe osteoporosis patients. Furthermore, osteoporosis has a great effect on physical activity disorders that accompany fractures and pain, and therefore, research on treatment or prevention to decrease the number of patients is required. The purpose of this study was to discover candidate substances from natural products with an effective pharmacological action and to prepare basic data to help patients.

Methods: To prepare the osteoporosis model, ovariectomy (OVX) was performed using surgical methods. The prepared prescription [Shinkiwhan (SKH), a Korean medicine] was administered orally at a dose of 210 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. After completion of the animal experiment, the bone mineral density (BMD) was analyzed using double-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The analysis of the effect of drugs on bones was performed using histological analysis and immunostaining.

Results: SKH increased the BMD in the OVX rats. Furthermore, SKH significantly increased the expression of osteoprotegerin and downregulated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases in the bones of the OVX model.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest a protective effect of SKH against BMD loss in the OVX model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20463/pan.2020.0017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669470PMC
September 2020

Reliability of 3D image analysis and influence of contrast medium administration on measurement of Hounsfield unit values of the proximal femur.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(10):e0241012. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of 3D image analysis and the effect of an iodine contrast agent on the computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield unit (HU) values of the proximal femur.

Materials And Methods: Fifty female patients (mean age, 61.3 years; age range, 50-79 years) who underwent both pre- and post-enhancement abdominopelvic CT scans were included in this retrospective study. Whole 3D volumes of the left proximal femur from the head to the lesser trochanter were extracted using the regional growth technique with commercial 3D software. Total volume, mean HU, and HU histogram analysis (HUHA) values of the extracted femur were calculated. HUHA distribution was classified into HUHAfat for the assumed fatty marrow (percentage of negative HU values) and HUHAdense-bone (percentage of HU values ≥ 126 HU). Reliability was assessed by calculating intra- and interobserver correlation coefficients (ICCs) and by drawing Bland-Altman plots. The effect of contrast medium administration was evaluated by the paired t-test.

Results: All intra- and interobserver ICCs of 3D volume measurements showed excellent reproducibility (all ICCs > 0.90). On Bland-Altman analysis of two observers' 3D volume measurements, the differences in the mean total volume, HUHAfat, HUHAdense-bone, and mean HU were 2.4 cm3, 0.17%, 0.6%, and 1.9 HU, respectively. The mean difference in HU after contrast agent administration (-2.2 HU) was not significant (P = 0.27). The mean difference in HUHAfat and HUHAdense-bone after contrast agent administration were -1.1% and -2.2%, respectively, on the Bland-Altman plot. HUHAfat and HUHAdense-bone showed significant differences (P < 0.05). The 95% limits of agreement for HUHAfat, HUHAdense-bone, and mean HU were -3.6% to 1.3%, -6.5% to 2.1%, and -30.0 to 25.5 HU, respectively.

Conclusion: Image analysis based on 3D volume measurement of the proximal femur showed excellent reliability, with the contrast agent administration showing negligible influence on the mean HU.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241012PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577441PMC
December 2020

A scoping review of return to work decision-making and experiences of breast cancer survivors in Korea.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Apr 17;29(4):1741-1751. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

College of Nursing, Mo-Im Kim Nursing Research Institute, Yonsei University, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea.

Purpose: Return to work (RTW) is an important component of cancer survivorship for individual rehabilitation and economic development. The focus of prior research on cancer survivor RTW has generally been on Western and general cancer populations. There is a need to examine the existing research on RTW decisions and experiences in Korean breast cancer survivors (BCS).

Methods: This scoping review followed the framework of Arksey and O'Malley, which consisted of identifying the research question, discovering and selecting studies, charting data, analyzing results, and incorporating expert consultations. Quality assessments and a thematic map were included.

Results: Out of 863 original articles found in the literature search, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria. Majority were published in the past 5 years. The scope of the field, socio-demographic and clinical associations, and factors associated with RTW decision-making and experiences were reported. In the thematic analysis, 4 main categories were derived.

Conclusions: Future research needs to be conducted on effective RTW interventions targeting various educational backgrounds, socioeconomic levels, and job types. More institutional and social support would encourage more successful RTW through educational awareness, financial assistance, and workplace accommodations. Future studies should focus on interdisciplinary RTW efforts with multiple stakeholders.

Implication For Cancer Survivors: BCS need programs that include social support, individual coping strategies, reliable RTW information, physical rehabilitation, vocational counseling, workplace allowances, and psychological support. More support should be provided through extending the work law and engaging employers. If they desire to resume working, BCS should be fully supported with RTW specific resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05817-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Supersaturable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system enhances dissolution and bioavailability of telmisartan.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 Jan 18;26(1):60-68. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

To enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of telmisartan (TMS), a poorly water-soluble anti-hypertensive drug, a supersaturable self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SuSMEDDS) was developed. Amorphous alkalinized TMS (AAT) was formulated into a SMEDDS, composed of Capmul® MCM (oil), Cremophor RH40 (surfactant), and tetraglycol (co-surfactant). Although the SMEDDS was rapidly dissolved (>80% within 5 min) in a limited condition (500 mL, pH 6.8), drug precipitation was observed over time, resulting in a decrease in dissolution levels. The precipitation was due to drug recrystallization, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. Several polymers, including Soluplus (SOL), were screened as precipitation inhibitors; ultimately, SuSMEDDS-SOL was prepared by admixing SOL and the SMEDDS at a 5:100 (w/w) ratio. SuSMEDDS-SOL was superior in terms of dissolution efficiency (>90% over 2 h) and dissolution-retaining time (no precipitation over 2 h). An pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the oral bioavailability of SuSMEDDS-SOL was 4.8-, 1.3-, and 1.2-fold greater than those of the TMS suspension, AAT solution, and SMEDDS, respectively. Therefore, SuSMEDDS-SOL is a promising candidate to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of TMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2020.1834580DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-Metastatic Effect of Gold Nanoparticle-Conjugated Extract on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 27;15:5317-5331. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Myrang 627-706, Korea.

Purpose: We aimed to study green-synthesized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from (MT) root (MTR), stem (MTS), leaf (MTL), and fruit (MTF) extracts and evaluate their anti-metastatic properties in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely used as a traditional medicinal plant given its biological activities.

Methods: We quantified the phenolic and flavonoid contents, reducing capacity, and antioxidant activity of all four extracts. The facile and optimum synthesis of MT-GNPs was visualized using UV-vis spectra and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface morphology, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and fast Fourier transform (FFT) pattern of MT-GNPs were assessed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The crystallized gold pattern of MT-GNPs was evaluated using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The functionalizing ligands of MT-extracts and MT-GNPs were determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic capabilities of MT-GNPs were assessed by measuring the reduction of rhodamine B and methylene blue. Cell viability assay was detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 solution. Anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects were assessed using cell migration and invasion assays. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and phospholipase D (PLD) enzymatic activities were measured using gelatin zymography and Amplex Red PLD assay, respectively. Western blotting and luciferase assay were used to detect protein expression.

Results: All extracts had high phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong antioxidant and reducing capacities. Results from UV-Vis spectra, DLS, HR-TEM, EDS, XRD, and FT-IR showed the successful formation of MT-GNP with surface morphology, crystallinity, reduction capacity, capsulation, and stabilization. MTR-GNPs and MTS-GNPs had better catalytic activities than MTL-GNPs and MTF-GNPs for reduction of methylene blue and rhodamine B. Moreover, MTS-GNPs and MTR-GNPs exhibited the highest anti-migratory and anti-invasive potential and seemed to be more biologically active than the MTS and MTR extracts. Treatment with MT-GNPs decreased the enzymatic activity, translation levels of MMP-9 and PLD1. Our results showed that MTS-GNPs and MTR-GNPs could dramatically reverse transforming growth factor-β-induced vimentin and N-cadherin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation.

Conclusion: The application of GNPs as a potential treatment approach for hepatocellular carcinoma can improve therapeutic efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S246724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455757PMC
November 2020

Efficient Removal of Non-Structural Protein Using Chloroform for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Production.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Aug 27;8(3). Epub 2020 Aug 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Disease Intervention Center, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

To differentiate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-infected animals from vaccinated livestock, non-structural proteins (NSPs) must be removed during the FMD vaccine manufacturing process. Currently, NSPs cannot be selectively removed from FMD virus (FMDV) culture supernatant. Therefore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) is utilized to partially separate FMDV from NSPs. However, some NSPs remain in the FMD vaccine, which after repeated immunization, may elicit NSP antibodies in some livestock. To address this drawback, chloroform at a concentration of more than 2% () was found to remove NSP efficiently without damaging the FMDV particles. Contrary to the PEG-treated vaccine that showed positive NSP antibody responses after the third immunization in goats, the chloroform-treated vaccine did not induce NSP antibodies. In addition to this enhanced vaccine purity, this new method using chloroform could maximize antigen recovery and the vaccine production time could be shortened by two days due to omission of the PEG processing phase. To our knowledge, this is the first report to remove NSPs from FMDV culture supernatant by chemical addition. This novel method could revolutionize the conventional processes of FMD vaccine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565013PMC
August 2020

Determination of optimum pixel size and slice thickness for tractography and ulnar nerve diffusion tensor imaging at the cubital tunnel using 3T MRI.

Acta Radiol 2020 Aug 27:284185120951965. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Small peripheral nerve tractography is challenging because of the trade-off among resolution, image acquisition time, and signal-to-noise ratio.

Purpose: To optimize pixel size and slice thickness parameters for fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Material And Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers (mean age 30 ± 6.8 years) were recruited prospectively. Axial T2-weighted and DTI scans were acquired, covering the cubital tunnel, using different pixel sizes and slice thicknesses. Three-dimensional (3D) nerve tractography was evaluated for the median number and length of the reconstructed fiber tracts and visual score from 0 to 5. Two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional DTI was evaluated for fractional anisotropy (FA) values throughout the length of the ulnar nerve.

Results: A pixel size of 1.3 mm revealed the highest number of reconstructed nerve fibers compared to that of 1.1 mm ( = 0.048), with a good visual score. A slice thickness of 4 mm had the highest number of reconstructed nerve fibers and visual score compared with other thicknesses (all  < 0.05). In 2D cross-sectional images, the median FA values were in the range of 0.40-0.63 at the proximal, central, and distal portions of the cubital tunnel. Inter-observer agreement for all parameters was good to excellent.

Conclusion: For fiber tractography and DTI of the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel, optimal image quality was obtained using a 1.3-mm pixel size and 4-mm slice thickness under MR parameters of this study at 3T.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185120951965DOI Listing
August 2020

Configurational entropy of basaltic melts in Earth's mantle.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Sep 24;117(36):21938-21944. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Division of Geological & Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125.

Although geophysical observations of mantle regions that suggest the presence of partial melt have often been interpreted in light of the properties of basaltic liquids erupted at the surface, the seismic and rheological consequences of partial melting in the upper mantle depend instead on the properties of interstitial basaltic melt at elevated pressure. In particular, basaltic melts and glasses display anomalous mechanical softening upon compression up to several GPa, suggesting that the relevant properties of melt are strongly pressure-dependent. A full understanding of such a softening requires study, under compression, of the atomic structure of primitive small-degree basaltic melts at their formation depth, which has proven to be difficult. Here we report multiNMR spectra for a simplified basaltic glass quenched at pressures up to 5 GPa (corresponding to depths down to ∼150 km). These data allow quantification of short-range structural parameters such as the populations of coordination numbers of Al and Si cations and the cation pairs bonded to oxygen atoms. In the model basaltic glass, the fraction of Al is ∼40% at 5 GPa and decreases to ∼3% at 1 atm. The estimated fraction of nonbridging oxygens at 5 GPa is ∼84% of that at ambient pressure. Together with data on variable glass compositions at 1 atm, these results allow us to quantify how such structural changes increase the configurational entropy of melts with increasing density. We explore how configurational entropy can be used to explain the anomalous mechanical softening of basaltic melts and glasses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014519117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486762PMC
September 2020

Gold Nanoparticles Using Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts from UVA-Induced Senescence through Inhibiting MMP-1 and MMP-3.

Mar Drugs 2020 Aug 19;18(9). Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Bio-IT Fusion Technology Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

The effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesized in marine algae has been described in the context of skin, where they have shown potential benefit. (ES) is a brown algae that belongs to the Laminariaceae family, and is widely used as a component of food and medicine due to its biological activities. However, the role of GNPs underlying cellular senescence in the protection of gold nanoparticles (ES-GNPs) against UVA irradiation is less well known. Here, we investigate the antisenescence effect of ES-GNPs and the underlying mechanism in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of ES extracts was analyzed. These analyses showed that ES extract has potent antioxidant properties. The facile and optimum synthesis of ES-GNPs was established using UV-vis spectra. The surface morphology and crystallinity of ES-GNPs were demonstrated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). ES-GNPs presented excellent photocatalytic activity, as shown by the photo-degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B. A cellular senescence model was established by irradiating HDFs with UVA. UVA-irradiated HDFs exhibited increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-galactosidase). However, pretreatment with ES-GNPs resulted in reduced SA-β-galactosidase activity in UVA-irradiated HDFs. Intracellular ROS levels and G1 arrest in UVA-irradiated HDFs were checked against the background of ES-GNP treatment to investigate the antisenescence effects of ES-GNPs. The results showed that ES-GNPs significantly inhibit UVA-induced ROS levels and G1 arrest. Importantly, ES-GNPs significantly downregulated the transcription and translation of MMP (matrix metalloproteinases)-1/-3, which regulate cellular senescence in UVA-irradiated HDFs. These findings indicate that our optimal ES-GNPs exerted an antisenescence effect on UVA-irradiated HDFs by inhibiting MMP-1/-3 expression. Collectively, we posit that ES-GNPs may potentially be used to treat photoaging of the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18090433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551933PMC
August 2020

Protective Effects of Black Raspberry () Extract against Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats Fed High-Fat and High-Choline Diets.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 14;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Choline is converted to trimethylamine by gut microbiota and further oxidized to trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO) by hepatic flavin monooxygenases. Positive correlation between TMAO and chronic diseases has been reported. Polyphenols in black raspberry (BR), especially anthocyanins, possess various biological activities. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of BR extract on the level of choline-derived metabolites, serum lipid profile, and inflammation markers in rats fed high-fat and high-choline diets. Forty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: CON (AIN-93G diet), HF (high-fat diet), HFC (HF + 1.5% choline water), and HFCB (HFC + 0.6% BR extract). Serum levels of TMAO, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and cecal trimethylamine (TMA) level were significantly higher in the HFC than in the HFCB. BR extract decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and protein expression of NF-κB and COX-2 in liver tissue. These results suggest that consistent intake of BR extract might alleviate hypercholesterolemia and hepatic inflammation induced by excessive choline with a high-fat diet via lowering elevated levels of cecal TMA and serum TMAO in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468928PMC
August 2020

A Comparative Study on Physicochemical, Photocatalytic, and Biological Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Formed Using Extracts of Different Parts of .

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Jul 10;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Myrang 627-706, Korea.

Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have great potential for biomedical applications, due to their distinctive optical, chemical, and catalytic properties. In this study, we aimed to develop green-synthesized SNPs from extracts of (CT) roots (CTR), stems (CTS), leaves (CTL), and fruit (CTF) and to evaluate their physicochemical, photocatalytic, and biological properties. CTR, CTS, CTL, and CTF extracts were evaluated and compared for their total phenol and flavonoid content, reducing capacity, and antioxidant activity. The results revealed that CTR, CTS, CTL, and CTF extracts have high phenol and flavonoid content, as well as a powerful antioxidant and reducing capacity. CTR and CTS extracts showed the strongest effects. The results from UV-Vis spectra analysis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed the successful formation of CT-SNPs with surface morphology, crystallinity, reduction capacity, capsulation, and stabilization. Synthesized CT-SNPs successfully photocatalyzed methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, and Reactive Black 5 within 20 min. The CTR- and CTS-SNPs showed better antibacterial properties against different pathogenic microbes (, , , and ) than the CTL- and CTF-SNPs. CTS- and CTR-SNPs showed the most effective cytotoxicity and antiapoptosis properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 and SK-Hep-1). CT-SNPs also seemed to be more biologically active than the CT extracts. The results of this study provide evidence of the establishment of CT extract SNPs and their physicochemical, photocatalytic, and biological properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10071350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407556PMC
July 2020

The first case of tegoprazan-induced urticaria.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2020 Oct 29;45(5):1187-1189. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

What Is Known And Objective: Tegoprazan induces adverse drug reactions during clinical trials; however, tegoprazan-induced urticaria has not been reported. Here, we describe the first case of this.

Case Description: A 55-year-old woman presented with acute urticaria with pruritus after taking the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease medication, tegoprazan. Urticaria disappeared after tegoprazan discontinuation. In an oral provocation test, after taking 10% of tegoprazan, she developed pruritus, and after taking 30%, she developed urticaria on her back.

What Is New And Conclusion: This is the first case of urticaria induced by tegoprazan. Physicians should understand the possibility of a tegoprazan-induced hypersensitivity reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13150DOI Listing
October 2020

Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein carrying a foot-and-mouth disease virus epitope as a vaccine candidate.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Aug 23;82(8):1155-1159. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Gyeonsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most highly contagious animal diseases. In an effort to overcome the drawbacks of the currently used inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine, a novel recombinant protein carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 GH loop epitope linked to vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein was expressed in a baculovirus system. Its antigenicity was confirmed with ELISA using monoclonal antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus. Twice immunizations one month apart in field pigs resulted in a significant antibody increase compared to the glutathione S-transferase carrier containing the same epitope and the commercial vaccine. To my knowledge, this is the first report that the recombinant protein vaccine was superior to the current vaccine. Although further studies are required to examine their immunogenicity in a large number of animals, this study sheds light on the development of a novel recombinant protein vaccine that could be easily produced in a general laboratory as an alternative to the current FMD vaccine, which requires a biosafety level 3 containment facility for vaccine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.19-0559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468052PMC
August 2020

S-petasin inhibits lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells through activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

Food Funct 2020 Jun;11(6):5664-5673

Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Republic of Korea. and Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Republic of Korea.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common medical problems. Inhibition of lipogenesis and promotion of lipolysis are two ways to prevent NAFLD. In this study, oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells are used as a NAFLD cell model to test whether s-petasin exerts inhibition of lipogenesis and promotion of the lipolysis effect. The results showed that s-petasin significantly inhibited the lipid level in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. Moreover, results showed that the triacylglycerol level was reduced by s-petasin in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. Western blot assay revealed that s-petasin stimulated phosphorylation of AMPKα and ACCα. The results also demonstrated that s-petasin can inhibit lipogenesis and enhance triacylglycerol turnover by down-regulation of FAS and SCD-1 and up-regulation of ATGL and HSL through the AMPK signaling-dependent regulation of transcriptional factors, FKHR and SREBP-1. This in vitro study indicates that s-petasin has potential as a candidate compound for NAFLD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo00594kDOI Listing
June 2020