Publications by authors named "Sun-Lim Kim"

33 Publications

Timing and Pattern of Anthocyanin Accumulation during Grain Filling in Purple Waxy Corn ( L.) Suggest Optimal Harvest Dates.

ACS Omega 2020 Jun 19;5(25):15702-15708. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, Suwon-si 16429, Republic of Korea.

Purple-corn kernels contain anthocyanins, a group of antioxidants proposed to be beneficial to human health. This study investigated the concentrations of anthocyanins and amino acids and the composition of fatty acids in the kernels of purple waxy corn ( L.) "Heukjinjuchal" during grain filling to determine when the grain nutritional value is at its highest. During grain filling, anthocyanin contents increased as the kernel color darkened. Among the anthocyanins measured, cyanidin-3-β--glucoside reached the highest contents, 57.0-409.1 mg kg fresh weight in raw kernels and 1027.6 mg kg in dry seeds. Pelargonidin-3-β--glucoside and malvidin-3-β--glucoside became detectable at 21 days after silking; they occurred in the second- and third-highest amounts, respectively, among anthocyanins in the purple-corn cultivars tested. The anthocyanin accumulation pattern was strongly associated with physicochemical properties and partly associated with amino acid content. Anthocyanin contents increased in a stepwise rather than linear fashion. This study showed that kernels undergo dramatic changes that affect the nutritional value of fresh corn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331206PMC
June 2020

Germinated soy germ extract ameliorates obesity through beige fat activation.

Food Funct 2019 Feb;10(2):836-848

Konkuk University, Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.

Obesity is a worldwide public health concern requiring safe and effective strategies. Recent studies suggest that bioactive compounds from soybeans have beneficial effects on weight loss and reducing fat accumulation. However, despite the biochemical and nutritional changes during germination, the biological effects of germinated soy germ have not been fully investigated. In this article, germinated soy germ extract (GSGE) was evaluated as a potential treatment option for obesity using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that GSGE suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into mature adipocytes, along with reductions in lipid accumulation and lipid droplet formation. In vivo studies also showed that a daily dose of 1 mg kg-1 of GSGE reduced weight gain, adipocyte area, serum triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol in HFD-fed mice. The GSGE treatment promoted browning, which was associated with increased UCP1 expression in vitro and in vivo. In addition, GSGE treatment induced beige fat activation by upregulation of lipolysis and beta-oxidation. Furthermore, gene and protein expression levels of endocannabinoid system-related factors such as NAPE-PLD, FAAH, DAGL-α, and CB2 were altered along with browning and beige fat activation by GSGE. The present study indicates that GSGE effectively inhibits lipid accumulation and promotes beige fat transition and activation. Therefore, we suggest that GSGE treatment could be a promising strategy for the prevention of obesity by promoting weight loss, reducing fat accumulation, and improving obesity-related metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02252fDOI Listing
February 2019

Characterization of Soybean Germinated Embryo Extract as an Estrogen Receptor Subtype-Selective and Tissue-Specific Modulator.

J Med Food 2019 Feb 26;22(2):186-195. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.

Phytoestrogens possess beneficial effects in the management of menopausal symptoms with few side effects. Soybeans are major natural sources of isoflavones, with high estrogen receptor (ER)-β selectivity. The objective of this study therefore was to develop a solvent-mediated extraction method for soybean germinated embryos (SGEs) and to investigate the biological activities of the extract. Ethanolic extraction yielded the SGE extract (SGEE), which had a unique composition of biologically active aglycones and soyasaponins. SGEE showed a proliferative effect in MCF7 cells and ERβ-selective transcriptional activities in human embryonic kidney cells. In addition, oral administration of SGEE to ovariectomized rats resulted in the induction of ERβ and estrogen-responsive genes in the uterus and a decrease in tail skin temperature and uterus weight. Our data suggest that germination and ethanolic extraction are effective measures for producing isoflavone-rich food supplements, which may be useful as alternative menopausal hormone therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.4250DOI Listing
February 2019

Changes in the functional components and radical scavenging activity of maize under various roasting conditions.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2018 Jun 19;27(3):837-845. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

1Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, 126, Suin-ro, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, 16429 Gyeonggi-do Republic of Korea.

The phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from maize at various roasting conditions were evaluated in this research. The free sugar contents in roasted maize significantly decreased with higher roasting temperature and longer roasting time. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents in roasted maize significantly increased with higher roasting temperature and longer roasting time. The predominant phenolic acid in the roasted maize was homogentisic acid. The contents of homogentisic acid and myricetin in roasted maize significantly increased with higher roasting temperature and longer roasting time. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of roasted maize significantly increased with higher roasting temperature and longer roasting time. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were positively correlated with phenolic compounds. The activities of these components increased following heat treatments because of the low molecularization effects of the heating process, which resulted in active, low-molecular-weight components that were readily extracted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0294-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049685PMC
June 2018

Germinated soy germ with increased soyasaponin Ab improves BMP-2-induced bone formation and protects against in vivo bone loss in osteoporosis.

Sci Rep 2018 08 28;8(1):12970. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-Gun, 55365, Republic of Korea.

Osteoporosis is frequently induced following menopause, and bone fractures result in serious problems including skeletal deformity, pain, and increased mortality. Therefore, safe and effective therapeutic agents are needed for osteoporosis. This study aimed to clarify the bone protecting effects of germinated soy germ extracts (GSGE) and their mode of action. GSGE increased expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCL) by stimulating the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix (Osx) through activation of Smad signaling molecules. Furthermore, germination of soy germ increased levels of nutritional components, especially soyasaponin Ab. The anabolic activity of soyasaponin Ab in GSGE was also evaluated. GSGE and soyasaponin Ab significantly protected against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss and improved bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) level in mouse serum. These in vitro and in vivo study results demonstrated that GSGE and soyasaponin Ab have potential as therapeutic candidate agents for bone protection in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31118-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113227PMC
August 2018

Acute and Subacute Toxicity Evaluation of Corn Silk Extract.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2018 Mar 31;23(1):70-76. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Chungnam 31116, Korea.

Many studies have reported therapeutic efficacy of corn silk extract. However, research on its toxicity and safe dose range is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the acute and subacute toxicity of corn silk extract in ICR mice. To determine acute toxicity, corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was orally administered to mice at a dose of 0 or 2,000 mg/kg. Clinical symptoms, mortality, and body weight changes were recorded for 14 days. To determine subacute toxicity, corn silk extract was orally administered to mice over a 4-week period, and then body weight, water and food consumption, and organ weight were determined. In addition, urine and serum analyses were performed. In the acute toxicity study, no death or abnormal symptoms was observed in all treatment groups during the study period. Body weights did not show any significant change compared to those of the control group. Lethal dose of corn silk extract was estimated to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. In the 4-week subacute toxicity study, there was no corn silk extract related toxic effect on body weight, water intake, food consumption, urine parameters, clinical chemistry, or organ weight. Histopathological examination showed no abnormality related to the administration of corn silk extract at 500 mg/kg. The maximum non-toxic dose of corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was found to be more than 500 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2018.23.1.70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894788PMC
March 2018

Genome Assembly and Single Nucleotide Variations for Soybean Mosaic Virus Using Soybean Seed Transcriptome Data.

Plant Pathol J 2017 Oct 1;33(5):478-487. Epub 2017 Oct 1.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV), infecting soybean by transcriptome assembly followed by blast search. We assembled a nearly complete consensus genome sequence of SMV China using transcriptome data. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the consensus genome sequence of SMV China was closely related to SMV isolates from South Korea. We examined single nucleotide variations (SNVs) for SMVs in the soybean seed transcriptome revealing 780 SNVs, which were evenly distributed on the SMV genome. Four SNVs, C-U, U-C, A-G, and G-A, were frequently identified. This result demonstrated the quasispecies variation of the SMV genome. Taken together, this study carried out bioinformatics analyses to identify viruses using soybean transcriptome data. In addition, we demonstrated the application of soybean transcriptome data for virus genome assembly and SNV analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2017.0060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624490PMC
October 2017

Corn silk extract improves benign prostatic hyperplasia in experimental rat model.

Nutr Res Pract 2017 Oct 14;11(5):373-380. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, 119, Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 31116, Korea.

Background/objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Materials/methods: The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract. Prostate weight and concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase 2 (5α-R2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum or prostate tissue were determined. The mRNA expressions of 5α-R2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in prostate tissue were also measured.

Results: Compared to the Sham group, prostate weight was significantly higher in the Testo Only group and decreased significantly in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups ( < 0.05), results that were consistent with those for serum DHT concentrations. The concentrations of 5α-R2 in serum and prostate as well as the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 in prostate were significantly lower in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups than that in the Testo Only group ( < 0.05). Similarly, the concentrations of PSA in serum and prostate were significantly lower in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups ( < 0.05) than in the Testo Only group. The mRNA expression of PCNA in prostate dose-independently decreased in the Testo+CSE-treated groups ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: BPH was induced through injection of testosterone, and corn silk extract treatment improved BPH symptoms by inhibiting the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 and decreasing the amount of 5α-R2, DHT, and PSA in serum and prostate tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2017.11.5.373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621359PMC
October 2017

Corn silk maysin ameliorates obesity in vitro and in vivo via suppression of lipogenesis, differentiation, and function of adipocytes.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Sep 21;93:267-275. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 14662, Korea. Electronic address:

Present study was aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of maysin, a major flavonoid of corn silk, in vitro and in vivo using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and C57BL/6 mice. Maysin decreased the levels of intracellular lipid droplets and triglycerides (TG), and down-regulated the protein expression levels of C/EBP-β, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells, suggesting that maysin inhibits lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation. In addition, maysin was shown to induce the apoptotic cell death in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells via activation of caspase cascades and mitochondrial dysfunction, which may ultimately lead to reduction of adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, oral administration of maysin (25mg/kg body weight) decreased weight gain and epididymal fat weight in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. Administration of maysin also reduced serum levels of TG, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and glucose. Taken collectively, these results suggest for the first time that the purified maysin exerts an anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo. These observations may support the applicability of maysin as a potent functional ingredient in health-beneficial foods or as a therapeutic agent to prevent or treat obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.039DOI Listing
September 2017

The pepper virome: natural co-infection of diverse viruses and their quasispecies.

BMC Genomics 2017 06 8;18(1):453. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-921, Republic of Korea.

Background: The co-infection of diverse viruses in a host plant is common; however, little is known about viral populations and their quasispecies in the host.

Results: Here, we report the first pepper viromes that were co-infected by different types of viral genomes. The pepper viromes are dominated by geminivirus DNA-A followed by a novel carlavirus referred to as Pepper virus A. The two pepper cultivars share similar viral populations and replications. However, the quasispecies for double-stranded RNA virus and two satellite DNAs were heterogeneous and homogenous in susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively, indicating the quasispecies of an individual virus depends on the host.

Conclusions: Taken together, we provide the first evidence that the host plant resistant to viruses has an unrevealed antiviral system, affecting viral quasispecies, not replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-3838-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465472PMC
June 2017

Classification of 31 Korean Wheat ( L.) Cultivars Based on the Chemical Compositions.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2016 Dec 31;21(4):393-397. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Gyeonggi 16613, Korea.

Whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) is the entire grain (bran, endosperm, and germ) milled to make flour. The WGWF of 31 Korean wheat ( L.) cultivars were analyzed for the chemical compositions, and classified into groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCL). The average composition values showed a substantial variation among wheat varieties due to different wheat varieties. Wheat cv. Shinmichal1 (waxy wheat) had the highest ash, lipid, and total dietary fiber contents of 1.76, 3.14, and 15.49 g/100 g, respectively. Using HCL efficiently classified wheat cultivars into 7 clusters. Namhae, Sukang, Gobun, and Joeun contained higher protein values (12.88%) and dietary fiber (13.74 %). Regarding multi-trait crop breeding, the variation in chemical compositions found between the clusters might be attributed to wheat genotypes, which was an important factor in accumulating those chemicals in wheat grains. Thus, once wheat cultivars with agronomic characteristics were identified, those properties might be included in the breeding process to develop a new variety of wheat with the trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2016.21.4.393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5216894PMC
December 2016

High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

Nutr Res Pract 2016 Dec 9;10(6):575-582. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, 152, Juljeon-ro, Suji-gu, Yonin-si, Gyeonggi 16890, Korea.

Backgroung/objectives: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals.

Materials/methods: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured.

Results: After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( < 0.05), and kidney fat and epididymal fat pad weights were significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( < 0.05). In the HFCS group, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ1 (PPAR-γ1), and PPAR-γ2 mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced ( < 0.05) in the epididymal fat pad, whereas cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme-4, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in liver and adipose tissues ( < 0.05). In the HFCS group, mRNA expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were elevated ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: It can be concluded that high maysin corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2016.10.6.575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126406PMC
December 2016

Integrated analyses using RNA-Seq data reveal viral genomes, single nucleotide variations, the phylogenetic relationship, and recombination for Apple stem grooving virus.

BMC Genomics 2016 08 9;17:579. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-921, Republic of Korea.

Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides many possibilities for plant virology research. In this study, we performed integrated analyses using plant transcriptome data for plant virus identification using Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) as an exemplar virus. We used 15 publicly available transcriptome libraries from three different studies, two mRNA-Seq studies and a small RNA-Seq study.

Results: We de novo assembled nearly complete genomes of ASGV isolates Fuji and Cuiguan from apple and pear transcriptomes, respectively, and identified single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of ASGV within the transcriptomes. We demonstrated the application of NGS raw data to confirm viral infections in the plant transcriptomes. In addition, we compared the usability of two de novo assemblers, Trinity and Velvet, for virus identification and genome assembly. A phylogenetic tree revealed that ASGV and Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) are the same virus, which was divided into two clades. Recombination analyses identified six recombination events from 21 viral genomes.

Conclusions: Taken together, our in silico analyses using NGS data provide a successful application of plant transcriptomes to reveal extensive information associated with viral genome assembly, SNVs, phylogenetic relationships, and genetic recombination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2994-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4977635PMC
August 2016

Suppression of Akt-HIF-1α signaling axis by diacetyl atractylodiol inhibits hypoxia-induced angiogenesis.

BMB Rep 2016 Sep;49(9):508-13

Division of Crop Foundation, National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), Rural Development Administration (RDA), Wanju 55365, Korea.

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a key regulator associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. HIF-1α regulation under hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate that diacetyl atractylodiol (DAA) from Atractylodes japonica (A. japonica) is a potent HIF-1α inhibitor that inhibits the Akt signaling pathway. DAA dose-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and downregulated Akt signaling without affecting the stability of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, DAA prevented hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis based on in vitro tube formation and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Therefore, DAA might be useful for treatment of hypoxia-related tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 508-513].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5227144PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2016.49.9.069DOI Listing
September 2016

De novo transcriptome assembly of Setatria italica variety Taejin.

Genom Data 2016 Jun 5;8:121-2. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea; The Taejin Genome Institute, Gadam-gil 61, Hoeongseong 25239, Republic of Korea.

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) belonging to the family Poaceae is an important millet that is widely cultivated in East Asia. Of the cultivated millets, the foxtail millet has the longest history and is one of the main food crops in South India and China. Moreover, foxtail millet is a model plant system for biofuel generation utilizing the C4 photosynthetic pathway. In this study, we carried out de novo transcriptome assembly for the foxtail millet variety Taejin collected from Korea using next-generation sequencing. We obtained a total of 8.676 GB raw data by paired-end sequencing. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRR3406552. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 145,332 transcripts. Using the TransDecoder program, we predicted 82,925 putative proteins. BLASTP was performed against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of identified proteins, resulting in 20,555 potentially novel proteins. Taken together, this study provides transcriptome data for the foxtail millet variety Taejin by RNA-Seq.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4878839PMC
June 2016

De novo transcriptome assembly of two Vigna angularis varieties collected from Korea.

Genom Data 2016 Jun 5;8:119-20. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea; The Taejin Genome Institute, Gadam-gil 61, Hoengseong 25239, Republic of Korea.

The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), a member of the family Fabaceae, is widely grown in Asia, from East Asia to the Himalayas. The adzuki bean is known as an ingredient that adds sweetness to diverse desserts made in Eastern Asian countries. Libraries prepared from two V. angularis varieties referred to as Taejin Black and Taejin Red were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession numbers of SRR3406660 and SRR3406553. After de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity, we obtained 324,219 and 280,056 transcripts from Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively. We predicted a total of 238,321 proteins and 179,519 proteins for Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively, by the TransDecoder program. We carried out BLASTP on the predicted proteins against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to predict the putative functions of identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two adzuki bean varieties by RNA-Seq, which might be usefully applied to generate molecular markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4878840PMC
June 2016

De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

Genom Data 2016 Jun 5;8:117-8. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea; The Taejin Genome Institute, Gadam-gil 61, Hoengseong, 25239, Republic of Korea.

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gdata.2016.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4878842PMC
June 2016

The complete genomic sequence of a tentative new polerovirus identified in barley in South Korea.

Arch Virol 2016 Jul 5;161(7):2047-50. Epub 2016 May 5.

Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, 305-350, South Korea.

The complete nucleotide sequence of a new barley polerovirus, tentatively named barley virus G (BVG), which was isolated in Gimje, South Korea, has been determined using an RNA sequencing technique combined with polymerase chain reaction methods. The viral genomic RNA of BVG is 5,620 nucleotides long and contains six typical open reading frames commonly observed in other poleroviruses. Sequence comparisons revealed that BVG is most closely related to maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV, with the highest amino acid identities being less than 90 % for all of the corresponding proteins. These results suggested that BVG is a member of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-016-2881-0DOI Listing
July 2016

Mangosenone F, A Furanoxanthone from Garciana mangostana, Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Decreases Xenograft Tumor Growth.

Phytother Res 2015 Nov 27;29(11):1753-60. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Crop Foundation Division, National Institue of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-Gun, Jeollabuk-do, 565-851, Republic of Korea.

Mangosenone F (MSF), a natural xanthone, was isolated form Carcinia mangotana, and a few studies have reported its glycosidase inhibitor effect. In this study we investigated the anti lung cancer effect of MSF both in vitro and in vivo. MSF inhibited cancer cell cytotoxicity and induced and induced apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NCI-H460. MSF treatment also showed in pronounced release of apoptogenic cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and upregulation of Bax, suggesting that caspase-mediated pathways were involved in MSF-induced apoptosis. ROS activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was shown to play a predominant role in the apoptosis mechanism of MSF. Compared with cisplatin treatment, MSF treatment showed significantly increased inhibition of the growth of NCI-H460 cells xenografted in nude mice. Together, these results indicate the potential of MSF as a candidate natural anticancer drug by promoting ROS production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5428DOI Listing
November 2015

A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars.

J Sci Food Agric 2015 Mar 4;95(4):819-27. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, 441-857, Republic of Korea.

Background: Tocopherols are crucial lipid-soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivars with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding.

Result: Tocopherol contents of seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated for health-promoting activities. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 to 503.1 µg g⁻¹ in seeds and from 20.1 to 230.1 µg g⁻¹ in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g⁻¹), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g⁻¹), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g⁻¹) and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g⁻¹) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with lipid peroxidation. The γ- and δ-tocopherol contents in seeds were related to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (0.434; P < 0.01 and 0.373; P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Total tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross-breeding. These results suggest that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6963DOI Listing
March 2015

Corn silk maysin induces apoptotic cell death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells via mitochondria-dependent pathway.

Life Sci 2014 Dec 30;119(1-2):47-55. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Department of Biotechnology, The CUK Agromedical Research Center, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420-743, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Aims: Despite recent advances in prostate cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, the overall survival rate still remains low. This study was aimed to assess potential anti-cancer activity of maysin, a major flavonoid of corn silk (CS, Zea mays L.), in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3).

Main Methods: Maysin was isolated from CS of Kwangpyeongok, a Korean hybrid corn, via methanol extraction and preparative C18 reverse phase column chromatography. Maysin cytotoxicity was determined by either monitoring cell viability in various cancer cell lines by MTT assay or morphological changes. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression levels of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase-3 and by terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Underlying mechanism in maysin-induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells was explored by evaluating its effects on Akt and ERK pathway.

Key Findings: Maysin dose-dependently reduced the PC-3 cell viability, with an 87% reduction at 200 μg/ml. Maysin treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death, DNA fragmentation, depolarization of MMP, and reduction in Bcl-2 and pro-caspase-3 expression levels. Maysin also significantly attenuated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. A combined treatment with maysin and other known anti-cancer agents, including 5-FU, etoposide, cisplatin, or camptothecin, synergistically enhanced PC-3 cell death.

Significance: These results suggested for the first time that maysin inhibits the PC-3 cancer cell growth via stimulation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic cell death and may have a strong therapeutic potential for the treatment of either chemo-resistant or androgen-independent human prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2014.10.012DOI Listing
December 2014

Variation block-based genomics method for crop plants.

BMC Genomics 2014 Jun 15;15:477. Epub 2014 Jun 15.

National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-857, Republic of Korea.

Background: In contrast with wild species, cultivated crop genomes consist of reshuffled recombination blocks, which occurred by crossing and selection processes. Accordingly, recombination block-based genomics analysis can be an effective approach for the screening of target loci for agricultural traits.

Results: We propose the variation block method, which is a three-step process for recombination block detection and comparison. The first step is to detect variations by comparing the short-read DNA sequences of the cultivar to the reference genome of the target crop. Next, sequence blocks with variation patterns are examined and defined. The boundaries between the variation-containing sequence blocks are regarded as recombination sites. All the assumed recombination sites in the cultivar set are used to split the genomes, and the resulting sequence regions are termed variation blocks. Finally, the genomes are compared using the variation blocks. The variation block method identified recurring recombination blocks accurately and successfully represented block-level diversities in the publicly available genomes of 31 soybean and 23 rice accessions. The practicality of this approach was demonstrated by the identification of a putative locus determining soybean hilum color.

Conclusions: We suggest that the variation block method is an efficient genomics method for the recombination block-level comparison of crop genomes. We expect that this method will facilitate the development of crop genomics by bringing genomics technologies to the field of crop breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229737PMC
June 2014

Neuroprotective effects of corn silk maysin via inhibition of H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death in SK-N-MC cells.

Life Sci 2014 Jul 10;109(1):57-64. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Department of Biotechnology, The CUK Agromedical Research Center, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 420-743, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Aims: Neuroprotective effects of maysin, which is a flavone glycoside that was isolated from the corn silk (CS, Zea mays L.) of a Korean hybrid corn Kwangpyeongok, against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells were investigated.

Main Methods: Maysin cytotoxicity was determined by measuring cell viability using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and by a TUNEL assay. Antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. The cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was measured by western blotting.

Key Findings: Maysin pretreatment reduced the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 on SK-N-MC cells, as shown by the increase in cell viability and by reduced LDH release. Maysin pretreatment also dose-dependently reduced the intracellular ROS level and inhibited PARP cleavage. In addition, DNA damage and H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death were significantly attenuated by maysin pretreatment. Moreover, maysin pretreatment (5-50 μg/ml) for 2h significantly and dose-dependently increased the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GPx-1, SOD-1, SOD-2 and HO-1) in H2O2 (200 μM)-insulted cells.

Significance: These results suggest that CS maysin has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced apoptotic death of human brain SK-N-MC cells through its antioxidative action. This report is the first regarding neuroprotective health benefits of corn silk maysin by its anti-apoptotic action and by triggering the expression of intracellular antioxidant enzyme systems in SK-N-MC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2014.05.020DOI Listing
July 2014

Genistein production in rice seed via transformation with soybean IFS genes.

Plant Sci 2014 Mar 7;217-218:27-35. Epub 2013 Dec 7.

National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon 441-707, Republic of Korea.

To produce genistein in rice, the isoflavone synthase (IFS) genes, SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2 were cloned from the Korean soybean cultivar, Sinpaldalkong II as it has a higher genistein content than other soybean varieties. SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2 show a 99.6% and 98.2% identity at the nucleotide level and 99.4% and 97.9% identity at the amino acid level, respectively, with IFS1 and IFS2 from soybean (GenBank accession Nos. AF195798 and AF195819). Plant expression vectors were constructed harboring SpdIFS1 or SpdIFS2 under the control of a rice globulin promoter that directs seed specific expression, and used to transform two rice varieties, Heugnam, a black rice, and Nakdong, a normal rice cultivar without anthocyanin pigment. Because naringenin, the substrate of SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2, is on the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, the relative production rate of genistein was compared between SpdIFS-expressing transgenic Heugnam and Nakdong. Southern blot analysis of eight of the resulting transgenic rice plants revealed that the T0 plants had one to three copies of the SpdIFS1 or SpdIFS2 gene. The highest level of genistein content found in rice seeds was 103 μg/g. These levels were about 30-fold higher in our transgenic rice lines than the genistein aglycon content of a non-leguminous IFS-expressing transgenic tobacco petal, equaling about 12% of total genistein content of Sinpaldalkong II. There were no significant differences found between the genistein content in Heugnam and Nakdong transgenic rice plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.11.015DOI Listing
March 2014

Immunostimulating activity of maysin isolated from corn silk in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

BMB Rep 2014 Jul;47(7):382-7

Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea.

Corn silk (CS) has long been consumed as a traditional herb in Korea. Maysin is a major flavonoid of CS. The effects of maysin on macrophage activation were evaluated, using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Maysin was isolated from CS by methanol extraction, and preparative C18 reverse phase column chromatography. Maysin was nontoxic up to 100 μg/ml, and dose-dependently increased TNF-α secretion and iNOS production by 11.2- and 4.2-fold, respectively, compared to untreated control. The activation and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB was substantially enhanced upon treatment with maysin (1-100 μg/ml). Maysin also stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs (ERK, JNK). These results indicated that maysin activates macrophages to secrete TNF-α and induce iNOS expression, via the activation of the Akt, NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. These results suggest for the first time that maysin can be a new immunomodulator, enhancing the early innate immunity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163854PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2014.47.7.191DOI Listing
July 2014

Introduction and nutritional evaluation of germinated soy germ.

Food Chem 2013 Jan 24;136(2):491-500. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, Suwon 441-857, Republic of Korea.

Germinated soy germ (GSG) were developed and evaluated for their nutritional value. Separated soy germ was germinated at room temperature for 24h under running water. As germination progressed, the protein and fibre content of GSG increased slightly, while the lipid and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio decreased; free amino acids including GABA increased considerably while free sugars decreased. Linoleic and linolenic acid were the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids in soy germ, and slight changes were observed in GSG. The tocopherol and isoflavone contents showed a rapid increase of 32.4% and 27.9%, respectively, during germination. The abundance of GABA, isoflavones and tocopherols demonstrates the high nutritional value of GSG and suggests that GSG can be utilised as a reasonable and effective source of healthy foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.022DOI Listing
January 2013

Comparison of isoflavones and anthocyanins in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds of different planting dates.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Oct 4;60(41):10196-202. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Department of Applied Bioscience, College of Life and Environmental Science, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

The concentrations of isoflavones and anthocyanins in five soybean seed cultivars of three different planting dates were determined in this study. Among the seeds of three different planting dates, the highest concentration of average total isoflavones (4098 μg g(-1)) was measured in those from early July, whereas the lowest concentration of average total isoflavones (3238 μg g(-1)) was measured in those from late May. Anthocyanin compounds were detected only in the Cheongjakong 3 cultivar. Among the three different planting dates, late-planted Cheongjakong 3 accumulated the highest concentration of total anthocyanins (10103 μg g(-1)), whereas the variety at an earlier planting date exhibited the lowest concentration of average total anthocyanins (7115 μg g(-1)). On the basis of these results, it was concluded that environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation may change the isoflavone and anthocyanin contents of soybean, altering the nutritional values of soy products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf3031259DOI Listing
October 2012

Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Jun 4;60(23):6045-55. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life and Environmental Science, Konkuk University , Seoul 143-701, Korea.

This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (<13 g), medium (13-24 g), and large (>24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g(-1)), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g(-1)). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g(-1)). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g(-1)) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g(-1)), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g(-1) in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g(-1) in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g(-1)), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g(-1)) and large (1949.9 μg g(-1)) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g(-1)) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g(-1)) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g(-1) in American, 1294.5 μg g(-1) in Chinese, and 1241.5 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean varieties. Chinese soybean varieties showed the highest mean concentration of total soyasapogenol, and Korean soybean seeds showed the second highest level. The medium-seed group had the highest soyasapogenol content (1269.3 μg g(-1)) of the seeds that were grouped by size. A larger amount of soyasapogenol B than soyasapogenol A was detected. In whole soybeans, CS01202 showed the highest level of total tocopherols (330.5 μg g(-1)), whereas CSRV056 (Pungsannamulkong) had the lowest content (153.3 μg g(-1)). Chinese soybeans had the highest average concentration of total tocopherols (255.1 μg g(-1)). By comparison, the medium-sized Chinese soybean group had the highest (256.1 μg g(-1)) average total tocopherol content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf300463fDOI Listing
June 2012

Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.

J Agric Food Chem 2008 Aug 11;56(16):7265-70. Epub 2008 Jul 11.

Department of Applied Life science, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.

A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf8008553DOI Listing
August 2008

Comparison of isoflavone concentrations in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) sprouts grown under two different light conditions.

J Agric Food Chem 2007 Nov 18;55(23):9415-21. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.

We determined and compared the composition and content of isoflavones in the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and root of 17 soybean sprout varieties grown under dark and light conditions. The total average isoflavone concentrations in 17 soybean sprout varieties were 2167 microg g(-1) (green sprout) and 2538 microg g(-1) (yellow sprout) in cotyledons, 1169 microg g(-1) (green sprout) and 1132 microg g(-1) (yellow sprout) in hypocotyls, and 2399 microg g(-1) (green sprout) and 2852 microg g(-1) (yellow sprout) in roots. There were no significant differences in total isoflavone concentrations between the green and yellow sprouts. However, significant differences in total isoflavone amounts were observed among the three organs, with roots exhibiting the highest total isoflavone concentrations followed by cotyledons and hypocotyls. Total daidzin concentrations of green (775 microg g(-1)) and yellow (897 microg g(-1)) sprouts increased to more than 4 times that in seeds (187 microg g(-1)). Yellow sprouts contained the highest (1122 microg g(-1)) total genistin concentrations, and green (155 microg g(-1)) and yellow (155 microg g(-1)) sprouts had more total glycitin concentrations than seeds. In cotyledons of green and yellow sprouts, genistin, daidzen, and glycitin constituted more than 67%, more than 28%, and less than 4% of the total isoflavone contents, respectively. In hypocotyls, total daidzin represented more than 45% of the total isoflavones, and total glycitin was higher than in cotyledons and roots. Malonylglycoside concentrations were highest in cotyledons, whereas glycoside concentrations were highest in hypocotyls and roots. The high accumulation of isoflavones in roots is consistent with isoflavones serving as signal molecules in the induction of microbial genes involved in soybean (Glycine max) nodulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf071861vDOI Listing
November 2007