Publications by authors named "Sun Young Lee"

545 Publications

Giant appendiceal mucocele mimicking an ovarian tumour.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 13;14(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National Universiy-Biomedical Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, The Republic of Korea

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-243753DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of perioperative radiation treatment on stricture and fistula formation in hypopharyngeal reconstruction: a meta-analysis.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2021 Apr 20;22(2):71-77. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.

Hypopharyngeal reconstruction is a surgically challenging procedure, and postoperative management is important due to a high rate of complications following surgery. In particular, stricture and fistula formation is the most common long-term postoperative complication. Through systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 studies, a significant radiation effect of stricture and fistula formation was found in patients who underwent hypopharyngeal reconstruction. The perioperative radiation must be seen as a critical factor for stricture and fistula formation in hypopharyngeal reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7181/acfs.2021.00080DOI Listing
April 2021

Non-TZF Protein AtC3H59/ZFWD3 Is Involved in Seed Germination, Seedling Development, and Seed Development, Interacting with PPPDE Family Protein Desi1 in Arabidopsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Systems Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

Despite increasing reports on the function of CCCH zinc finger proteins in plant development and stress response, the functions and molecular aspects of many non-tandem CCCH zinc finger (non-TZF) proteins remain uncharacterized. AtC3H59/ZFWD3 is an Arabidopsis non-TZF protein and belongs to the ZFWD subfamily harboring a CCCH zinc finger motif and a WD40 domain. In this study, we characterized the biological and molecular functions of AtC3H59, which is subcellularly localized in the nucleus. The seeds of -overexpressing transgenic plants (OXs) germinated faster than those of wild type (WT), whereas mutant seeds germinated slower than WT seeds. OX seedlings were larger and heavier than WT seedlings, whereas mutant seedlings were smaller and lighter than WT seedlings. Moreover, OX seedlings had longer primary root length than WT seedlings, whereas mutant seedlings had shorter primary root length than WT seedlings, owing to altered cell division activity in the root meristem. During seed development, OXs formed larger and heavier seeds than WT. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated Desi1, a PPPDE family protein, as an interacting partner of AtC3H59. AtC3H59 and Desi1 interacted via their WD40 domain and C-terminal region, respectively, in the nucleus. Taken together, our results indicate that AtC3H59 has pleiotropic effects on seed germination, seedling development, and seed development, and interacts with Desi1 in the nucleus via its entire WD40 domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the biological functions of the ZFWD protein and Desi1 in Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094738DOI Listing
April 2021

Development of enhanced selective media for detection of in oysters.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Mar 6;30(3):475-485. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Seodong-daero, 4726 Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do Republic of Korea.

This study was undertaken to develop enhanced selective media for detection of in oysters. Primarily, tryptic soy agar (TSA) was supplemented with 4.5-5% NaCl, 0.1-0.5% oxgall, and/or 1-2% sodium citrate, and adjusted to pH 8-9. A total of 21 spp., 24 indicators, and 26 food-borne isolates were streaked on the modified media, followed by 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. While all the indicators and isolates failed to grow on TSA containing 5% NaCl, 0.5% oxgall, and 2% sodium citrate (TSA; pH 9), was culturable on this selective medium. Particularly, the ability of TSA to quantify . in oysters was superior to thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar. distinctly produced its white-yellowish, round, and edge-pointed colony on TSA. TSAO with high selectivity potentials over TCBS may be a promising alternative for detection of . in seafoods or natural reservoirs.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s10068-021-00877-0).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00877-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017045PMC
March 2021

Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α mediates senescence-associated intrinsic mechanisms of age-related bone loss.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 2;53(4):591-604. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacology and Dental Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Aging is associated with cellular senescence followed by bone loss leading to bone fragility in humans. However, the regulators associated with cellular senescence in aged bones need to be identified. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α regulates bone remodeling via the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Here, we report that HIF-2α expression was highly upregulated in aged bones. HIF-2α depletion in male mice reversed age-induced bone loss, as evidenced by an increase in the number of osteoblasts and a decrease in the number of osteoclasts. In an in vitro model of doxorubicin-mediated senescence, the expression of Hif-2α and p21, a senescence marker gene, was enhanced, and osteoblastic differentiation of primary mouse calvarial preosteoblast cells was inhibited. Inhibition of senescence-induced upregulation of HIF-2α expression during matrix maturation, but not during the proliferation stage of osteoblast differentiation, reversed the age-related decrease in Runx2 and Ocn expression. However, HIF-2α knockdown did not affect p21 expression or senescence progression, indicating that HIF-2α expression upregulation in senescent osteoblasts may be a result of aging rather than a cause of cellular senescence. Osteoclasts are known to induce a senescent phenotype during in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Consistent with increased HIF-2α expression, the expression of p16 and p21 was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow macrophages. ChIP following overexpression or knockdown of HIF-2α using adenovirus revealed that p16 and p21 are direct targets of HIF-2α in osteoclasts. Osteoblast-specific (Hif-2α;Col1a1-Cre) or osteoclast-specific (Hif-2α;Ctsk-Cre) conditional knockout of HIF-2α in male mice reversed age-related bone loss. Collectively, our results suggest that HIF-2α acts as a senescence-related intrinsic factor in age-related dysfunction of bone homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00594-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Global Proteomics to Study Silica Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity and Its Mechanisms in HepG2 Cells.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Bioimaging Team, Safety Measurement Institute, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 34113, Korea.

Silica nanoparticles (SiO NPs) are commonly used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Research into the cytotoxicity and overall proteomic changes occurring during initial exposure to SiO NPs is limited. We investigated the mechanism of toxicity in human liver cells according to exposure time [0, 4, 10, and 16 h (h)] to SiO NPs through proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry. SiO NP-induced cytotoxicity through various pathways in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, when cells were exposed to SiO NPs for 4 h, the morphology of the cells remained intact, while the expression of proteins involved in mRNA splicing, cell cycle, and mitochondrial function was significantly downregulated. These results show that the toxicity of the nanoparticles affects protein expression even if there is no change in cell morphology at the beginning of exposure to SiO NPs. The levels of reactive oxygen species changed significantly after 10 h of exposure to SiO NPs, and the expression of proteins associated with oxidative phosphorylation, as well as the immune system, was upregulated. Eventually, these changes in protein expression induced HepG2 cell death. This study provides insights into cytotoxicity evaluation at early stages of exposure to SiO NPs through in vitro experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11030375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000044PMC
March 2021

Incidence of Infection among Subjects with Helicobacter pylori Seroconversion.

Clin Endosc 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seroconversion may occur during screening for gastric cancer. Our study aimed to assess the number of seroconverted subjects with H. pylori and their results in follow-up tests.

Methods: Data were consecutively collected on subjects who were H. pylori-seronegative and presented for gastric cancer screening. Subjects who were followed up using the same serology test and pepsinogen (PG) assays on the day of endoscopy were included in the study.

Results: During the follow-up of 57.7 ± 21.4 months, 61 (15.0%) of 407 seronegative subjects showed seroconversion. H. pylori infection was detected in six (9.8%) of 61 seroconverted subjects. A diffuse red fundal appearance, with a significant increase in the Kyoto classification scores for gastritis, was observed in the infected subjects (p<0.001). Compared to the false-seropositive subjects, infected subjects showed higher serology titers (p<0.001) and PG II levels (p<0.001), and lower PG I/II ratios (p=0.002), in the follow-up tests.

Conclusions: Seroconversion occurred in 3.3% of seronegative subjects per year; however, only 9.8% had H. pylori infection. The majority (90.2%) of the seroconverted subjects showed false seropositivity without significant changes in the follow-up test results. The diffuse red fundal appearance could be an indicator of H. pylori infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5946/ce.2020.299DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the sex disparity in provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in public locations.

Resuscitation 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services, Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Public Healthcare Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (TA-CPR) is an effective community intervention to increase bystander CPR rates. This study evaluated the effect of TA-CPR on the provision of bystander CPR as a function of the patient's sex.

Methods: Adult (aged ≥ 18 years) patients who collapsed in a public location between January 2013 and December 2017 and received emergency medical service (EMS) treatment for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac aetiology were included in the study. The main exposures were TA-CPR and the patients' sex. The primary outcome was the implementation of bystander CPR by laypersons. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, stratified based on the provision of TA-CPR, to examine the effect on bystander CPR according to patient sex.

Results: In the final analysis, 15,840 patients with OHCAs were included. Patients who received TA-CPR accounted for 32.6% (5167/15,840) of the sample. Overall, 84.4% (814/964) of the women and 86.9% (3653/4203) of the men received bystander CPR in the TA-CPR group (P < 0.001). In the non-TA-CPR group, 40.5% (912/2252) of women and 47.3% (3653/8421) of men received bystander CPR (P < 0.001). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, there was no significant difference in the odds ratio (OR) of bystander CPR according to patient sex in the TA-CPR group (adjusted OR [AOR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.01). Women were less likely to receive bystander CPR if the bystanders are not directed by TA-CPR (AOR: 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87).

Conclusions: TA-CPR attenuated the sex disparity in bystander CPR provided in public places.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the sex disparity in provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in public locations.

Resuscitation 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services, Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Public Healthcare Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (TA-CPR) is an effective community intervention to increase bystander CPR rates. This study evaluated the effect of TA-CPR on the provision of bystander CPR as a function of the patient's sex.

Methods: Adult (aged ≥ 18 years) patients who collapsed in a public location between January 2013 and December 2017 and received emergency medical service (EMS) treatment for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac aetiology were included in the study. The main exposures were TA-CPR and the patients' sex. The primary outcome was the implementation of bystander CPR by laypersons. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, stratified based on the provision of TA-CPR, to examine the effect on bystander CPR according to patient sex.

Results: In the final analysis, 15,840 patients with OHCAs were included. Patients who received TA-CPR accounted for 32.6% (5167/15,840) of the sample. Overall, 84.4% (814/964) of the women and 86.9% (3653/4203) of the men received bystander CPR in the TA-CPR group (P < 0.001). In the non-TA-CPR group, 40.5% (912/2252) of women and 47.3% (3653/8421) of men received bystander CPR (P < 0.001). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, there was no significant difference in the odds ratio (OR) of bystander CPR according to patient sex in the TA-CPR group (adjusted OR [AOR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.01). Women were less likely to receive bystander CPR if the bystanders are not directed by TA-CPR (AOR: 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87).

Conclusions: TA-CPR attenuated the sex disparity in bystander CPR provided in public places.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Type of bystander and rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in nursing home patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 15;47:17-23. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services, Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, South Korea.

Aim: We investigated bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provision rate and survival outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in nursing homes by bystander type.

Methods: A population-based observational study was conducted for nursing home OHCAs during 2013-2018. The exposure was the bystander type: medical staff, non-medical staff, or family. The primary outcome was bystander CPR provision rate; the secondary outcomes were prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis which corrected for various demographic and clinical characteristics evaluated bystander type impact on study outcomes. Bystander CPR rate trend was investigated by bystander type.

Results: Of 8281 eligible OHCA patients, 26.0%, 70.8%, and 3.2% cases were detected by medical staff, non-medical staff, and family, respectively. Provision rate of bystander CPR was 69.9% and rate of bystander defibrillation was 0.4% in total. Bystander CPR was provided by medical staff, non-medical staff, and families in 74.8%, 68.9%, and 52.1% respectively. Total survival rate was 2.2%, out of which, 3.3% was for medical staff, 3.2% for non-medical staff, and 0.6% for family. Compared to the results of detection by medical staff, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for provision of bystander CPR were 0.56 (0.49-0.63) for detection by non-medical staff and 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for detection by family. The bystander CPR rates of all three groups increased over time, and among them, the medical staff group increased the most. For prehospital ROSC and survival to discharge, no significant differences were observed according to bystander type.

Conclusion: Although OHCA was detected more often by non-medical staff, they provided bystander CPR less frequently than the medical staff did. To improve survival outcome of nursing home OHCA, bundle interventions including increasing the usage of automated external defibrillators and expanding CPR training for non-medical staff in nursing home are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.03.021DOI Listing
March 2021

High concentration of sodium chloride could induce the viable and culturable states of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 6;72(6):741-749. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si, Republic of Korea.

In the present study, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were transferred into Luria-Bertani medium without NaCl (LBWS) and adjusted to various pHs (4, 5, 6 and 7) with lactic acid containing 0·75, 5, 10 and 30% NaCl, and stored at 25°C until the bacterial populations reached below detectable levels on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Although E. coli O157:H7 and S. Enteritidis did not grow on TSA when incubated in LBWS with 30% NaCl for 35 and 7 days, more than 60 and 70% of the bacterial cells were shown to be viable via fluorescent staining with SYTO9 and propidium iodide (PI), respectively, suggesting that a number of cells could be induced into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. These bacteria that were induced into a VBNC state were transferred to a newly prepared tryptic soy broth (TSB) and then incubated at 37°C for several days. After more than 7 days, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Enteritidis regained their culturability. We, therefore, suggest that E. coli O157:H7 and S. Enteritidis entered the VBNC state under the adverse condition of higher salt concentrations and were revived when these conditions were reversed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lam.13468DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimization of resuscitation-promoting broths for the revival of from a viable but nonculturable state.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jan 18;30(1):159-169. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, 4726, Seodong-daero, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to examine the effect of formulated resuscitation-promoting broths on the revival of viable but nonculturable induced by cold and starvation stresses. was incubated in artificial sea water at 4 °C for more than 8 months until this bacterium became undetectable, while retaining its intact cell count of more than 10 CFU/field over time. On day 250, . was collected and enriched in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 3% NaCl, 10,000 U/mg catalase, 2% sodium pyruvate, 20 mM MgSO, 5 mM EDTA, and a cell-free supernatant taken from ATCC 17802 in the stationary phase (pH 8). returned partially to a culturable state with a maximal cell density of 7.91 log CFU/mL in this formulated medium following 7 days of enrichment at 25 °C. In contrast, no . was resuscitated when enriched in alkaline peptone water and tryptic soy broth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00843-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847471PMC
January 2021

Mass spectrometry imaging of untreated wet cell membranes in solution using single-layer graphene.

Nat Methods 2021 03 4;18(3):316-320. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of New Biology, DGIST, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

We report a means by which atomic and molecular secondary ions, including cholesterol and fatty acids, can be sputtered through single-layer graphene to enable secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging of untreated wet cell membranes in solution at subcellular spatial resolution. We can observe the intrinsic molecular distribution of lipids, such as cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and various fatty acids, in untreated wet cell membranes without any labeling. We show that graphene-covered cells prepared on a wet substrate with a cell culture medium reservoir are alive and that their cellular membranes do not disintegrate during SIMS imaging in an ultra-high-vacuum environment. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations and ion dose-dependence studies suggest that sputtering through single-layer graphene occurs through a transient hole generated in the graphene layer. Cholesterol imaging shows that methyl-β-cyclodextrin preferentially extracts cholesterol molecules from the cholesterol-enriched regions in cell membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-020-01055-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of radiation dose on complications among women with breast cancer who underwent breast reconstruction and post-mastectomy radiotherapy: A multi-institutional validation study.

Breast 2021 Apr 20;56:7-13. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Emerging data suggest that higher radiation doses in post-mastectomy radiotherapy may be associated with an increased risk of reconstruction complications. This study aimed to validate previous findings regarding the impact of radiation dose on complications among women with breast cancer using a multi-center dataset.

Methods: Fifteen institutions participated, and women with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after either autologous or prosthetic breast reconstruction were included. The primary endpoint was major post-radiation therapy complications requiring re-operation for explantation, flap failure, or bleeding control.

Results: In total, 314 patients were included. Radiotherapy was performed using both conventional fractionation and hypofractionation in various schedules. The range of the radiation therapy dose in Equivalent Dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2; α/β = 3.5) varied from 43.4 to 71.0 Gy (median dose: 48.6 Gy). Boost radiation therapy was administered to 49 patients. Major post-radiation therapy complications were observed in 24 (7.6%) patients. In multivariate analysis, an increasing EQD2 per Gy (odds ratio [OR]: 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.98; p < 0.001), current smoking status (OR: 25.48, 95% CI: 1.56-415.65; p = 0.023), and prosthetic breast reconstruction (OR: 9.28, 95% CI: 1.84-46.70; p = 0.007) were independently associated with an increased risk of major complications.

Conclusion: A dose-response relationship between radiation dose and the risk of complications was validated in this multi-center dataset. In this context, we hypothesize that the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy (40 Gy in 15 fractions) may improve breast reconstruction outcomes. Our multi-center prospective observational study (NCT03523078) is underway to further validate this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848800PMC
April 2021

Giant Rugae in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Stomachs.

Authors:
Sun-Young Lee

Clin Endosc 2021 Jan 21;54(1):1-3. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5946/ce.2021.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939776PMC
January 2021

The Psychological Burden of COVID-19 Stigma: Evaluation of the Mental Health of Isolated Mild Condition COVID-19 Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Jan 18;36(3):e33. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Public Healthcare Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The objective of this article is to assess the mental health issues of the mild condition coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC) in Korea.

Methods: A total of 107 patients admitted to a CTC were included as the study population, and their mental health problems including depression (patient health questionnaire-9), anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder scale-7), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (PTSD checklist-5) and somatic symptoms (by patient health questionnaire-15) were evaluated every week during their stay. The stigma related to COVID-19 infection was evaluated with an adjusted version of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) stigma scale.

Results: During the first week of isolation, the prevalence of more-than-moderate depression was 24.3%, more-than-moderate anxiety was 14.9%, more-than-moderate somatic symptoms was 36.5% and possible PTSD was 5.6% of total population. For depression and anxiety, previous psychiatric history and stigma of COVID-19 infection were significant risk factors. For PTSD, previous psychiatric history and stigma of COVID-19 infection as well as total duration of isolation were found to be significant risk factors. Prevalence of depression, anxiety and possible PTSD remained similar across the four weeks of observations, though the prevalence of severe depression, increased after four weeks of stay. Somatic symptoms seemed to decrease during their stay.

Conclusion: The results suggest that social mitigation of COVID-19 related stigma, as well as care of patients with pre-existing mental health problems are important mental health measures during this crisis period. It is also important that clinical guidelines and public health policies be well balanced over the protection of the public and those quarantined to minimize the negative psychosocial consequences from isolation of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813581PMC
January 2021

Host genetics and gut microbiota cooperatively contribute to azoxymethane-induced acute toxicity in Collaborative Cross mice.

Arch Toxicol 2021 03 17;95(3):949-958. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Biological Systems and Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Azoxymethane (AOM) is a widely used carcinogen to study chemical-induced colorectal carcinogenesis and is an agent for studying fulminant hepatic failure. The inter-strain susceptibility to acute toxicity by AOM has been reported, but its association with host genetics or gut microbiota remains largely unexplored. Here a cohort of genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mice was used to assess the contribution of host genetics and the gut microbiome to AOM-induced acute toxicity. We observed variation in AOM-induced acute liver failure across CC strains. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis revealed three chromosome regions significantly associated with AOM toxicity. Genes located within these QTL, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara), were enriched for enzyme activator and nucleoside-triphosphatase regulator activity. We further demonstrated that the protein level of PPARα in liver tissues from sensitive strains was remarkably lower compared to levels in resistant strains, consistent with protective role of PPAR family in liver injury. We discovered that the abundance levels of gut microbial families Anaeroplasmataceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Akkermansiaceae and Clostridiaceae were significantly higher in the sensitive strains compared to the resistant strains. Using a random forest classifier method, we determined that the relative abundance levels of these microbial families predicted AOM toxicity with the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.75. Combining the three genetic loci and five microbial families increased the predictive accuracy of AOM toxicity (AUC of 0.99). Moreover, we found that Ruminococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae acted as mediators between host genetics and AOM toxicity. In conclusion, this study shows that host genetics and specific microbiome members play a critical role in AOM-induced acute toxicity, which provides a framework for analysis of the health effects from environmental toxicants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-021-02972-xDOI Listing
March 2021

A Cross-Sectional Study on the Impacts of Perceived Job Value, Job Maintenance, and Social Support on Burnout Among Long-Term Care Staff in Hawaii.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 8;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department Human Welfare, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima 723-0053, Japan.

Extensive research has demonstrated the factors that influence burnout among social service employees, yet few studies have explored burnout among long-term care staff in Hawaii. This study aimed to examine the impact of job value, job maintenance, and social support on burnout of staff in long-term care settings in Hawaii, USA. This cross-sectional study included 170 long-term care staff, aged 20 to 75 years, in Hawaii. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the relationships between the key independent variables and burnout. The results indicate that staff with a higher level of perceived job value, those who expressed a willingness to continue working in the same job, and those with strong social support from supervisors or peers are less likely to experience burnout. Interventions aimed at decreasing the level of burnout among long-term care staff in Hawaii may be more effective through culturally tailored programs aimed to increase the levels of job value, job maintenance, and social support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827641PMC
January 2021

Post-mastectomy radiation therapy in breast reconstruction: a patterns of care study of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group.

Radiat Oncol J 2020 Dec 16;38(4):236-243. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The details of breast reconstruction and radiation therapy (RT) vary between institutions; therefore, we sought to investigate the practice patterns of radiation oncologists who specialize in breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: We identified the practice patterns and inter-hospital variations from a multi-center cohort of women with breast cancer who underwent post-mastectomy RT (PMRT) to the reconstructed breast at 16 institutions between 2015 and 2016. The institutions were requested to contour the target volume and produce RT plans for one representative case with five different clinical scenarios and answer questionnaires which elicited infrastructural information. We assessed the inter-institutional variations in RT in terms of the target, normal organ delineation, and dose-volume histograms.

Results: Three hundred fourteen patients were included; 99% of them underwent immediate reconstruction. The most irradiated material was tissue expander (36.9%) followed by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (23.9%) and silicone implant (12.1%). In prosthetic-based reconstruction with tissue expander, most patients received PMRT following partial deflation. Conventional fractionation and hypofractionation RT were used in 66.6% and 33.4% patients, respectively (commonest: 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions [17.5%]). Furthermore, 15.6% of the patients received boost RT and 53.5% were treated with bolus. Overall, 15 physicians responded to the questionnaires and six submitted their contours and RT plans. There was a significant variability in target delineations and RT plans between physicians, and between clinical scenarios.

Conclusion: Adjuvant RT following post-mastectomy reconstruction has become a common practice in Korea. The details vary significantly between institutions, which highlights an urgent need for standard protocol in this clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3857/roj.2020.00738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785842PMC
December 2020

Ecofriendly Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by sp. nov. and Their Antibacterial Application against Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 21;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea.

It is essential to develop and discover alternative eco-friendly antibacterial agents due to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant microorganisms. In this study, we isolated and characterized a novel bacterium named MAHUQ-38, utilized for the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the synthesized AgNPs were used to control multi-drug-resistant microorganisms. The novel strain was Gram stain positive, strictly aerobic, milky white colored, rod shaped and non-motile. The optimal growth temperature, pH and NaCl concentration were 30 °C, 6.5 and 0%, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain MAHUQ-38 belongs to the genus and is most closely related to several type strains (98.2%-98.8%). MAHUQ-38 had a genome of 5,156,829 bp long (19 contigs) with 4555 protein-coding genes, 48 tRNA and 5 rRNA genes. The culture supernatant of strain MAHUQ-38 was used for the eco-friendly and facile synthesis of AgNPs. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed the spherical shape of AgNPs with a size of 6 to 24 nm, and the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed the functional groups responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited strong anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug-resistant pathogens, and . Minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations against and were 6.25/50 and 12.5/50 μg/mL, respectively. The AgNPs altered the cell morphology and damaged the cell membrane of pathogens. This study encourages the use of for the ecofriendly synthesis of AgNPs to control multi-drug-resistant microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766514PMC
December 2020

Antibody Responses 8 Months after Asymptomatic or Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 03 22;27(3):928-931. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Waning humoral immunity in coronavirus disease patients has raised concern over usefulness of serologic testing. We investigated antibody responses of 58 persons 8 months after asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. For 3 of 4 immunoassays used, seropositivity rates were high (69.0%-91.4%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2703.204543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920668PMC
March 2021

Improved Practical Vulnerability Analysis of Mouse Data According to Offensive Security based on Machine Learning in Image-Based User Authentication.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Mar 18;22(3). Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Information Security Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan-si, Chungnam 31538, Korea.

The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of mouse data exposure by deriving features to improve the accuracy of a mouse data attack technique using machine learning models. To improve the accuracy, the feature appearing between the mouse coordinates input from the user was analyzed, which is defined as a feature for machine learning models to derive a method of improving the accuracy. As a result, we found a feature where the distance between the coordinates is concentrated in a specific range. We verified that the mouse data is apt to being stolen more accurately when the distance is used as a feature. An accuracy of over 99% was achieved, which means that the proposed method almost completely classifies the mouse data input from the user and the mouse data generated by the defender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22030355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516828PMC
March 2020

Cervical Cancer Screening and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Korean Sexual Minority Women by Sex of Their Sexual Partners.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 30;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Cervical cancer-preventive behaviors in Korean sexual minority women (SMW) are underexplored. We aimed to assess the differences in cervical cancer screening uptake and completion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among Korean SMW by sex of their sexual partners. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 Korean Sexual Minority Women's Health Study; we included Korean lesbian and bisexual women aged ≥20 years. They were divided into three groups: SMW with more than one male sexual partner (male only/both), SMW with only female sexual partners (female-only), or no sexual partner (no partner). Among the 671 participants, 266 (39.6%), 294 (43.8%), and 111 (16.5%) belonged to the male-only/both, female-only, and no partner groups, respectively. Compared to the male-only/both group, the female-only group was significantly less likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.37) and to have completed HPV vaccinations (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37-0.91). In conclusion, Korean SMW with only female sexual partners had lower cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination completion rates than SMW who had male sexual partners. More extensive efforts are needed to improve cervical cancer-preventive behaviors among Korean SMW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731128PMC
November 2020

Dry eye symptoms in children: can we reliably measure them?

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 Jan 22;41(1):105-115. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Purpose: Many dry eye questionnaires are available, but these may not be suitable for paediatric eye care. The feasibility of use and repeatability of symptom questionnaires administered to children was examined.

Methods: Participants aged 6-15 years (n = 62; 25M:37F; 40% male) completed six questionnaires twice in random order at a single visit: Symptoms assessment in dry eye (SANDE), ocular surface disease index (OSDI), numerical rating scale (NRS), ocular comfort index (OCI, n = 30), dry eye questionnaire 5 (DEQ-5) and the instant ocular symptoms survey (IOSS). Completion time and need for assistance were recorded and relationships with age examined (Pearson correlation, independent t-test). The number of participants requiring assistance and with which items were compared (linear mixed model, pairwise test). Repeatability (coefficient of repeatability (CoR), limit of agreement, bias) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were examined.

Results: Completion time was ≤2 min for each individual questionnaire. Younger participants took longer to complete (r = -0.43 to -0.60, p ≤ 0.01), and required more assistance (p ≤ 0.001). Forty-eight participants required assistance with at least one questionnaire. Older children (13-15 years) only required assistance with OSDI (p ≤ 0.004) and NRS (p ≤ 0.003). Participants required more assistance with SANDE, OSDI and NRS than with DEQ-5 and IOSS (p ≤ 0.02) and with gritty (OSDI, 77% of participants; OCI, 100%) and foreign body sensation (NRS, 92%) items. CoR was similar for all questionnaires with no evidence of a learning effect (p > 0.05). ICC was moderate to excellent.

Conclusions: Dry eye questionnaires can be used reliably in paediatric eye care; more time and assistance may be required for younger children. The DEQ-5 and IOSS are recommended for use in younger age children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opo.12762DOI Listing
January 2021

Synergistic effects of blue light-emitting diodes in combination with antimicrobials against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their mode of action.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Dec 10;213:112079. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of 460-470 nm light-emitting diodes illumination (460/470 LED) combined with various antimicrobials at inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and identify the antibacterial mechanisms. When carvacrol, thymol, citric acid, malic acid, citrus fruit extract, 3% NaCl, or 5% NaCl was combined with 460/470 LED, there was a higher reduction in E. coli O157:H7 compared to 460/470 LED treatment or antimicrobials alone at 4 °C. Particularly, a marked synergistic effect (>8.74 log CFU/ml) was observed when 460/470 LED was combined with carvacrol, malic acid, citrus fruit extract, or 3% NaCl. Levels of intracellular ROS and lipid peroxidation of E. coli O157:H7 were higher in the combination of 460/470 LED and antimicrobials compared to individual treatments. Moreover, the combination treatment increased depolarization of the cell membrane leading to membrane damage as well as the loss of DNA integrity. Thus, adding antimicrobial treatment to 460/470 LED could improve its efficacy against pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.112079DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparative study on formation of protein coronas under three different serum origins.

Biointerphases 2020 11 13;15(6):061002. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Bioimaging Team, Safety Measurement Institute, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 34113, South Korea.

Nanomaterials form a complex called "protein corona" by contacting with protein-containing biological fluids such as serum when they are exposed to physiological environments. The characteristics of these proteins, which are one of the substantial factors in cellular response, are affected by the interactions between the nanomaterials and the biological systems. Many studies have investigated the biological behaviors of nanomaterials by conducting experiments in vitro and in vivo; however, the origin of the biological materials used is rather inconsistent. This is due to the fact that the composition of the protein coronas may differ depending on the animal origin, not on the composition or size of the nanoparticles. The resulting differences in the composition of the protein coronas can lead to different conclusions. To identify the differences in protein corona formation among sera of different species, we investigated protein coronas of gold and silica nanoparticles in serum obtained from various species. Using comparative proteomic analysis, common proteins adsorbed onto each nanoparticle among the three different sera were identified as highly abundant proteins in the serum. These findings indicate that protein corona formation is dependent on the serum population rather than the size or type of the nanoparticles. Additionally, in the physiological classification of protein coronas, human serum (HS) was found to be rich in apolipoproteins. In conclusion, our data indicate that HS components are different from those of bovine or mouse, indicating that the serum species origin should be carefully considered when selecting a biological fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/6.0000396DOI Listing
November 2020

Operation and Management of Seoul Metropolitan City Community Treatment Center for Mild Condition COVID-19 Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Oct 19;35(40):e367. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services, Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.

Background: In response to the disaster of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) established a patient facility for mild condition patients other than hospital. This study was conducted to investigate the operation and necessary resources of a community treatment center (CTC) operated in Seoul, a metropolitan city with a population of 10 million.

Methods: To respond COVID-19 epidemic, the SMG designated 5 municipal hospitals as dedicated COVID-19 hospitals and implemented one CTC cooperated with the Boramae Municipal Hospital for COVID-19 patients in Seoul. As a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, retrospective medical records review was conducted for patients admitted to the Seoul CTC. The admission and discharge route of CTC patients were investigated. The patient characteristics were compared according to route of discharge whether the patient was discharged to home or transferred to hospital. To report the operation of CTC, the daily mean number of tests (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and chest X-ray) and consultations by medical staffs were calculated per week. The list of frequent used medications and who used medication most frequently were investigated.

Results: Until May 27 when the Seoul CTC was closed, 26.5% (n = 213) of total 803 COVID-19 patients in Seoul were admitted to the CTC. It was 35.7% (n = 213) of 597 newly diagnosed patients in Seoul during the 11 weeks of operation. The median length of stay was 21 days (interquartile range, 12-29 days). A total of 191 patients (89.7%) were discharged to home after virologic remission and 22 (10.3%) were transferred to hospital for further treatment. Fifty percent of transferred patients were within a week since CTC admission. Daily 2.5-3.6 consultations by doctors or nurses and 0.4-0.9 tests were provided to one patient. The most frequently prescribed medication was symptomatic medication for COVID-19 (cough/sputum and rhinorrhea). The next ranking was psychiatric medication for sleep problem and depression/anxiety, which was prescribed more than digestive drug.

Conclusion: In the time of an infectious disease disaster, a metropolitan city can operate a temporary patient facility such as CTC to make a surge capacity and appropriately allocate scarce medical resource.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572227PMC
October 2020

Flavobacterium agri sp. nov., a novel bacterial species isolated from rhizospheric soil of Coriandrum sativum.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Mar 10;203(2):701-706. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Biotechnology and Natural Resource, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17546, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, cream yellow colored, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated MAH-1 was isolated from rhizospheric soil of Coriandrum sativum. A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on the isolated strain. Optimal growth occurred at 28-30 °C, pH 6.5 and 0% NaCl. The strain showed activity for both catalase and oxidase tests. Cell growth occurs on R2A agar, nutrient agar and Luria-Bertani agar. Cells were able to hydrolyze starch, aesculin, gelatin, and Tween 20. Alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MAH-1 was associated with the genus Flavobacterium and was most closely related to Flavobacterium longum YIT 12745 (94.5% sequence similarity) and Flavobacterium caeni LM5 (93.0%). Strain MAH-1 had a genome size of 3,975,600 bp. Genome contained 67 contigs encoded by 3,522 protein-coding genes with 38 tRNA and 6 rRNA genes. The genomic DNA G + C contents of strain MAH-1 was 47.1 mol %. The genomic ANI and dDDH values between strain MAH-1 and one of the close relatives F. caeni LM5 were 72.2 and 18.8%, respectively. The major fatty acids were C, C and C. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). Based on physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic data for this isolate, it was confirmed that strain MAH-1 was affiliated to the genus Flavobacterium and represented a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium agri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MAH-1 (= KACC 19300 = CGMCC 1.16617).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02068-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Quo Vadis Oncological Hyperthermia (2020)?

Front Oncol 2020 4;10:1690. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Wits Donald Gordon Medical Center, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Heating as a medical intervention in cancer treatment is an ancient approach, but effective deep heating techniques are lacking in modern practice. The use of electromagnetic interactions has enabled the development of more reliable local-regional hyperthermia (LRHT) techniques whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) techniques. Contrary to the relatively simple physical-physiological concepts behind hyperthermia, its development was not steady, and it has gone through periods of failures and renewals with mixed views on the benefits of heating seen in the medical community over the decades. In this review we study in detail the various techniques currently available and describe challenges and trends of oncological hyperthermia from a new perspective. Our aim is to describe what we believe to be a new and effective approach to oncologic hyperthermia, and a change in the paradigm of dosing. Physiological limits restrict the application of WBH which has moved toward the mild temperature range, targeting immune support. LRHT does not have a temperature limit in the tumor (which can be burned out in extreme conditions) but a trend has started toward milder temperatures with immune-oriented goals, developing toward immune modulation, and especially toward tumor-specific immune reactions by which LRHT seeks to target the malignancy systemically. The emerging research of bystander and abscopal effects, in both laboratory investigations and clinical applications, has been intensified. Our present review summarizes the methods and results, and discusses the trends of hyperthermia in oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499808PMC
September 2020