Publications by authors named "Sun Hee Han"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Role of Pavlov's Theory in North Korea in the Late 1950s: Ideological Struggle in Medicine and Scientification of Traditional Medicine.

Uisahak 2013 Dec;22(3):801-46

Department of the History of Medicine and Medical Humanities, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, KOREA.

This paper deals with Pavlov theory in North Korea in the late 1950s, focusing on its role in ideological struggle in medicine and in reinterpretation of traditional medicine. In North Korean Ministry of Health found Pavlov theory to have rich resources which could be used in the construction of the North Korea's socialist medicine. First of all, Pavlov theory provided the North Korean Communist Party with a powerful ideological weapon against capitalist medical thoughts, representing superior socialist medicine based upon Marx-Leninism and dialectical materialism. This paper examines the contents of Pavlov theory introduced in the North Korea from the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. Pavlov theory in the North Korea was not merely a political slogan but a unified medical system of thought, ranging from biological theory on the organism and pathogenesis to clinical theory. Nonetheless, Pavlov theory became Pavlov doctrine in the ideological struggle in healthcare field initiated by Kim Il Sung and the Communist Party. In the process of the ideological struggle, the abducted surgeon Kim Si-Chang was accused and purged of counter-revolutionary and refusal to conform to Pavlov doctrines by the Communist Party in 1959. Interestingly, Pavlov theory was used in reinterpretation of Traditional Medicine in North Korea from unscientific practice to a rich and scientific complementary medicine by connecting the two with common theoretical components such as Pavlov's typology. By the enthusiastic Communist Party members, Pavlov doctrine was introduced, transformed and exploited to build monolithic ideology system in medicine in North Korea in the late 1950s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2013.22.801DOI Listing
December 2013

A waterborne outbreak and detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water of an older high-rise apartment complex in seoul.

Korean J Parasitol 2013 Aug 30;51(4):461-6. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

Seoul Waterworks Research Institute, Seoul 716-010, Korea.

From May to June 2012, a waterborne outbreak of 124 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the plumbing systems of an older high-rise apartment complex in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The residents of this apartment complex had symptoms of watery diarrhea and vomiting. Tap water samples in the apartment complex and its adjacent buildings were collected and tested for 57 parameters under the Korean Drinking Water Standards and for additional 11 microbiological parameters. The microbiological parameters included total colony counts, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus, fecal streptococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts, total culturable viruses, and Norovirus. While the tap water samples of the adjacent buildings complied with the Korean Drinking Water Standards for all parameters, fecal bacteria and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the tap water samples of the outbreak apartment complex. It turned out that the agent of the disease was Cryptosporidium parvum. The drinking water was polluted with sewage from a septic tank in the apartment complex. To remove C. parvum oocysts, we conducted physical processes of cleaning the water storage tanks, flushing the indoor pipes, and replacing old pipes with new ones. Finally we restored the clean drinking water to the apartment complex after identification of no oocysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2013.51.4.461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770878PMC
August 2013

Sulfiredoxin protein is critical for redox balance and survival of cells exposed to low steady-state levels of H2O2.

J Biol Chem 2012 Jan 15;287(1):81-89. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Cell Signaling and Drug Discovery Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea; College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea. Electronic address:

Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cysteine sulfinic acid of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (Prxs). Having high affinity toward H2O2, 2-Cys Prxs can efficiently reduce H2O2 at low concentration. We previously showed that Prx I is hyperoxidized at a rate of 0.072% per turnover even in the presence of low steady-state levels of H2O2. Here we examine the novel role of Srx in cells exposed to low steady-state levels of H2O2, which can be achieved by using glucose oxidase. Exposure of low steady-state levels of H2O2 (10-20 μm) to A549 or wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells does not lead to any significant change in oxidative injury because of the maintenance of balance between H2O2 production and elimination. In contrast, loss-of-function studies using Srx-depleted A549 and Srx-/- MEF cells demonstrate a dramatic increase in extra- and intracellular H2O2, sulfinic 2-Cys Prxs, and apoptosis. Concomitant with hyperoxidation of mitochondrial Prx III, Srx-depleted cells show an activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways including mitochondria membrane potential collapse, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Furthermore, adenoviral re-expression of Srx in Srx-depleted A549 or Srx-/- MEF cells promotes the reactivation of sulfinic 2-Cys Prxs and results in cellular resistance to apoptosis, with enhanced removal of H2O2. These results indicate that Srx functions as a novel component to maintain the balance between H2O2 production and elimination and then protects cells from apoptosis even in the presence of low steady-state levels of H2O2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.316711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249139PMC
January 2012

A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

Korean J Parasitol 2011 Mar 18;49(1):9-15. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Seoul Waterworks Research Institute, Seoul 143-202, Korea.

To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2011.49.1.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3063933PMC
March 2011

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma presenting as microcalcification in the nipple on screening mammogram: case report and review of the literature of radiologic features.

Clin Imaging 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):462-5

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma (ISA) of the nipple, first described by Rosen in 1983 (Am J Surg Pathol, 1983, 7, 739-745), is a rare benign tumor that can be misdiagnosed as a malignancy. ISA is characterized by its specific location in the subareolar region, its distinct histologic appearance resembling sweat duct or syringomatous tumors, and its locally infiltrating growth. We describes a case of ISA of the nipple presenting as microcalcification that was found on screening mammography. We also reviewed previously reported radiologic features of ISA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2010.01.003DOI Listing
April 2011

A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul.

Korean J Parasitol 2010 Sep 16;48(3):219-24. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Seoul Waterworks Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.

This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009. Water samples were collected quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River and its largest stream and 6 conventional Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) serving drinking water for 10 million people of Seoul. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 22.5% of intake water samples and arithmetic mean was 0.65 oocysts/10 L (range 0-22 oocysts/10 L). Although the annual mean of oocyst number was as low as 0.04-1.90 oocysts/10 L, 3 peaks in 2004 and 2007 were observed and the pollution level was a little higher in winter. The lowest density was observed at Paldang intake and the pollution level increased at Kuui and Jayang intakes. At the end of the largest stream, oocysts were found in 70% of collected samples (mean 5.71 oocysts/10 L) and it seemed that its joining the Han River resulted in the increase at Kuui intake and downstream. Oocyst removal by physical process exceeded 2.0-2.3 log and then all finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Cryptosporidium in each 100 L sample for 10 years. These results suggested that domestic wastewater from the urban region could be a source of Cryptosporidium pollution and separating sewage systems adjacent to the intakes could be meaningful for some intakes having weakness related to parasitological water quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2010.48.3.219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945796PMC
September 2010

Malignant transformation of monostotic fibrous dysplasia in the mandible.

J Craniofac Surg 2010 Mar;21(2):601-3

Departments of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia (FD), which was first introduced by Coley and Steward is very rare. We present a case of malignant transformation of monostotic mandibular FD after 2 surgical excisions, 20 and 15 years ago, respectively. The treatment choice of FD is usually conservative. With the advanced surgical techniques, radical excisions followed by immediate reconstruction have been reported. However, the decision criteria are still controversial and we might think that radical treatment is a good method for recurrent lesions based on the recent literatures. The case discussed here is of sarcomatous transformation of a recurrent FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181d08ca8DOI Listing
March 2010

Inactivation of environmental mycobacteria by free chlorine and UV.

Water Res 2010 Mar 10;44(5):1329-34. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Waterworks Research Institute, Seoul metropolitan Government, 552-1 Cheonhodaero, Gwangjin gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The resistance of environmental mycobacteria (EM) against chlorine and ultraviolet (UV) was evaluated for determination of the Ct value and UV dose to inactivate EM. Chlorine disinfection experiments were done on Mycobacterium fortuitum in oxidant demand-free buffered water at the worst condition (pH 8.5, 4 degrees C) and normal condition (pH 7.0, 20 degrees C). The Ct value for 3log inactivation of M. fortuitum was 600 times greater than that of Escherichia coli. UV experiments were performed for various species of Mycobacterium avium, M. fortuitum, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium lentiflavum. A UV collimated beam device was used for irradiation of four species suspended in phosphate buffered saline with doses of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100mJ/cm(2). UV sensitivity of mycobacteria was species-specific. More than 3log of M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. lentiflavum could be inactivated at 20mJ/cm(2), whereas M. fortuitum was so resistant that 3log inactivation required a dose of more than 50mJ/cm(2). Mycobacteria were found 2-10 times more resistant to UV than E. coli for 3log inactivation. There was no significant difference in the inactivation of mycobacteria with either low-pressure or medium-pressure UV irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.10.046DOI Listing
March 2010

Clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009 Mar;24(3):354-65

Department of Pathology, Bioinformatics Interest Group, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Danwon-Gu, Ansan, Korea.

There is conflicting data regarding the clinicopathological significance of the risk factors associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). To address this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis for the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of EBVaGC. The relevant published studies were reviewed according to the defined selection criteria. The effect sizes of the outcome parameters were estimated by an odds ratio or a weighted mean difference. This meta-analysis included 48 studies that encompassed a total of 9738 patients. The frequency of EBVaGC was 8.8%, and EBVaGC was significantly associated with ethnicity. It was more predominant in men and in younger individuals. Interestingly, EBVaGC was more prevalent in Caucasian and Hispanic patients than in Asian ones. EBVaGC developed most often in the cardia and body, and it generally showed the diffuse histological type. EBV was highly prevalent in the patients with lymphoepithelial carcinoma. EBVaGC was closely associated with remnant cancer and a CpG island methylator-high status, but not with Helicobacter pylori infection, a TP53 expression, and p53 mutation. In addition, EBVaGC was not significantly associated with the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, or the clinical stage. The clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of EBVaGC are quite different from those of conventional gastric adenocarcinoma. However, further study is needed to determine the effect of EBV on the survival of EBVaGC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05775.xDOI Listing
March 2009

Genetic alterations and chemosensitivity profile in newly established human renal collecting duct carcinoma cell lines.

BJU Int 2009 Jun 9;103(12):1721-8. Epub 2009 Jan 9.

Department of Pathology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Korea.

Objective: To determine the genetic alterations and chemosensitivity profile of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of the kidney, as it is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumour with frequent distant metastases.

Materials And Methods: We first established and characterized two human CDC cell lines designated AP3 and AP8, respectively. The CDC cell lines were assessed using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization and chemosensitivity testing.

Results: The CDC cells grew in vitro as an adherent monolayer with epithelial morphology, but had different growth rates. The cell lines had the characteristic immunophenotype of CDC (high molecular weight cytokeratin-+ve/cytokeratin 7-+ve/vimentin-+ve). Both cell lines shared copy number gains in chromosomes 20 and X. The loci showing a copy number gain were SOX22 at 20p tel, topoisomerse I (TOP1) at 20q12-q13.1, TPD52L2 at 20q tel, 20QTEL14 at 20q tel, KAL at Xp22.3, STS 5' at Xp22.3, OCRL1 at Xq25, AR3'at Xq11-q12, and XIST at Xq13.2, respectively. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that the AP3 and AP8 cell lines showed moderate and high levels of TOP1 expression, respectively. By chemosensitivity testing, the AP8 cells were most sensitive to topoisomerase I and II inhibitors such as topotecan, epirubicin and doxorubicin, but the AP3 cells did not. The chemosensitivity to these drugs was paralleled by cell death via apoptosis.

Conclusion: The results suggest that TOP1 might be one of the molecular targets in AP8 CDC cells. Thus, these novel CDC cell lines will be useful for discovering therapeutic targets and developing effective anticancer drugs against CDC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08290.xDOI Listing
June 2009

Occurrence and molecular differentiation of environmental mycobacteria in surface waters.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2008 Jul;18(7):1207-15

Waterworks Research Institute, Seoul Metropolitan Government, 552-1 Cheonhodaero, Seoul, Korea.

To investigate the occurrence and species diversity of mycobacteria in waters, surface water samples were collected monthly from the Han River and tap water samples at the terminal sites of the distribution system. Mycobacteria in each water sample were isolated by decontamination using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cultivation on Middlebrook 7H10 agar, and then identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) and sequencing of the 65-kDa heat-shock protein gene (hsp65 gene). Mycobacteria were detected in 59% of the surface water samples and 26% of the tap water samples. Over half of the 158 isolates could not be identified by hsp65 PRA and gene sequencing, and several identification discrepancies were observed between the two methods. The most frequently isolated species was Mycobacterium gordonae in surface water and M. lentiflavum in tap water. M. avium complex (MAC), the most important pathogen among environmental mycobacteria, was detected in the surface water samples but not found in the tap water samples. The result demonstrated that water is an important environmental source of mycobacteria and the combined application of hsp65 PRA and sequencing was more reliable than hsp65 PRA alone to accurately identify mycobacteria present in water.
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July 2008

Granular cell tumors of the abdominal wall.

Yonsei Med J 2007 Aug;48(4):727-30

Department of Pathology, Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, 516 Gojan-dong, Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 425-707, Korea.

Granular cell tumors (GCT) are found in virtually any body site, including the tongue, skin, subcutaneous tissue, breast, rectum and vulva. However, they are rarely seen in the abdominal wall. We report here on a rare case of GCT in the rectus muscle of the abdominal wall. A 44-year-old woman presented with a non-tender, hard mass in the right lower abdominal wall. Upon microscopic examination, the tumor was found to comprise of large polygonal cells with an abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei. Upon immunohistochemical staining, the large cells showed S-100 and CD68 positive granular aggregates in the cytoplasm. Many lysosomes of variable size were observed in the cytoplasm.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2628063PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2007.48.4.727DOI Listing
August 2007

Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in korean elderly women: a pilot study.

Int J Neurosci 2006 Dec;116(12):1447-55

Research Institute of Nursing Science, College of Nursing Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the anxiety and self-esteem experienced by Korean elderly women. A quasi-experimental, control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 36 elderly females: 16 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, chamomile, rosemary, and lemon was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 20 min, and was performed 3 times per week for two 3-week periods with an intervening 1-week break. The intervention produced significant differences in the anxiety and self-esteem and no significant differences in blood pressure or pulse rate between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage exerts positive effects on anxiety and self-esteem. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450500514268DOI Listing
December 2006

Effect of aromatherapy on symptoms of dysmenorrhea in college students: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

J Altern Complement Med 2006 Jul-Aug;12(6):535-41

School of Nursing, Wonkwang Public Health College, Iksan, Korea.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of aromatherapy on menstrual cramps and symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

Design: The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Subjects: The subjects were 67 female college students who rated their menstrual cramps to be greater than 6 on a 10-point visual analogue scale, who had no systemic or reproductive diseases, and who did not use contraceptive drugs.

Intervention: Subjects were randomized into three groups: (1) an experimental group (n = 25) who received aromatherapy, (2) a placebo group (n = 20), and (3) a control group (n = 22). Aromatherapy was applied topically to the experimental group in the form of an abdominal massage using two drops of lavender (Lavandula officinalis), one drop of clary sage (Salvia sclarea), and one drop of rose (Rosa centifolia) in 5 cc of almond oil. The placebo group received the same treatment but with almond oil only, and the control group received no treatment.

Outcome Measures: The menstrual cramps levels was assessed using a visual analogue scale and severity of dysmenorrhea was measured with a verbal multidimensional scoring system.

Results: The menstrual cramps were significantly lowered in the aromatherapy group than in the other two groups at both post-test time points (first and second day of menstruation after treatment). From the multiple regression aromatherapy was found to be associated with the changes in menstrual cramp levels (first day: Beta = -2.48, 95% CI: -3.68 to -1.29, p < 0.001; second day: Beta = -1.97, 95% CI: -3.66 to -0.29, p = 0.02 and the severity of dysmenorrhea (first day: Beta = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.57, p = 0.02; second day: Beta = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.56, p = 0.006) than that found in the other two groups.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that aromatherapy using topically applied lavender, clary sage, and rose is effective in decreasing the severity of menstrual cramps. Aromatherapy can be offered as part of the nursing care to women experiencing menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2006.12.535DOI Listing
December 2006

[Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother's perineal healing].

Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2004 Feb;34(1):53-62

School of Nursing, Eulji University, chunggu, Daejeon, Korea.

Purpose: This study was designed to verify the effect of aromatherapy on a postpartum mother's perineal healing.

Method: The research design was a clinical trial. The methods of aromatherapy were applied sitz bath or soap application using essential oils with Lavender, Myrrh, Neroli, Rose, Grapefruit, Mandarin, Orange, and Roman Chamomile. The subjects of this experiment were postpartum mothers who delivered vaginally with an episiotomy. They were allocated to one of three groups; the aroma-sitz bath group, aroma-soap application group or control group. To evaluate the effect of aromatherapy, the perineal healing status was measured using the REEDA scale and smears of episiotomy wound were obtained. The data were analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA, ANCOVA, chi2-test, and multiple response analysis via SPSS program.

Result: The REEDA scale was significantly low in the experimental group at postpartum 5th and 7th days (P=.009, P=.003), respectively. Most were observed 'few'(5-10 bacteria per field) bacteria in the smears of episiotomy wound. The one bacteria was identified in the 50.8% of subjects in pretest and two bacteria in the 60.3% in posttest. Most frequently identified bacteria were Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

Conclusion: In conclusion, these findings indicate that postpartum aromatherapy for perineal care could be effective in healing the perineum perineal care could be effective in healing the perineum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2004.34.1.53DOI Listing
February 2004

Anti-angiogenic activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus bovinus.

J Ethnopharmacol 2002 Aug;81(3):373-9

Division of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Wonkwang University, 344-2 Shinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, South Korea.

This study investigated the anti-angiogenic activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Tabanus bovinus by using cultured glomerular capillary endothelial cells (GECs), chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rat cornea. Treatment of GECs with several concentrations (5-50 microg/ml) of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus extracts for 24 h inhibited angiotensin II (10(-8) M)-induced increases of [3H]thymidine uptake and cell numbers in a concentration-dependent manner. The extent of inhibitory rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation by C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus at 50 microg/ml was a similar to that by 10(-5) M of retinoic acid. Herbal extracts also conspicuously inhibited the neovascularization. In contrast to the normal branching of vascular vessels, blood vessel patterns in CAMs treated with extracts (50 microg per egg) of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus were ran parallel to each other without much branching. Moreover, oral administration of herbal extracts (20 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks significantly inhibited the rat corneal neovascularization induced by suture, and the length of blood vessels in herbal medicine-treated rat cornea was conspicuously lower than that in control animals. A similar inhibitory effect to these was also observed in the rat cornea treated with thalidomide (200 mg/kg per day). These findings indicate that the anti-angiogenic properties of C. officinale Makino and T. bovinus may be one of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of herbal extracts tested in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8741(02)00122-8DOI Listing
August 2002