Publications by authors named "Sun Ha Choi"

43 Publications

Clinical relevance of emphysema in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: clinical features and prognosis.

Clin Respir J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Introduction: Few studies have investigated the influence of emphysema on clinical features of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and microbiological features of patients with both CAP and emphysema.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients with CAP who underwent computed tomography (CT) scan at the time of presentation. Patients were allocated into emphysema and control groups, and clinical variables were compared between the 2 groups. The emphysema group was further divided into 3 subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to the extent of emphysema on CT scan. The clinical variables of each subgroup were compared with the control group.

Results: Of 1676 patients, 431 patients (25.7%) were classified into the emphysema group. CAP patients with emphysema were more likely to have a high CURB-65 score and pneumonia severity index and a lower incidence of complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema. The emphysema group exhibited longer hospital stay. In addition, 30-day mortality in the severe emphysema group was significantly higher compared with the control group. As etiological agents, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and multi-drug resistant pathogens were significantly more common in the emphysema group compared with the control group.

Conclusions: The presence of emphysema in CAP patients was associated with a more severe form of CAP, a longer hospital stay, and a lower incidence of complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema. Moreover, CAP patients with severe emphysema exhibited higher 30-day mortality than those without emphysema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.13370DOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic Polymorphisms in Activating Transcription Factor 3 Binding Site and the Prognosis of Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncology 2021 Feb 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) plays a significant role in cancer development and progression. We investigated the association between variants in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) within ATF3 binding regions and the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgery.

Methods: A total of 772 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery were enrolled. Using a public database (http://galaxyproject.org), we selected 104 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eQTLs in the ATF3 binding regions. The association of those SNPs with disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated.

Results: Among those SNPs, HAX1 rs11265425T>G was associated with significantly worse DFS (aHR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.00-1.69, p = 0.05), and ME3 rs10400291C>A was associated with significantly better DFS (aHR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46-0.95, p = 0.03). Regarding HAX1 rs11265425T>G, the significant association remained only in adenocarcinoma, and the association was significant only in squamous cell carcinoma regarding ME3 rs10400291C>A. ChIP-qPCR assays showed that the two variants reside in active enhancers where H3K27Ac and ATF3 binding occurs. Promoter assays showed that rs11265425 G allele had significantly higher HAX1 promoter activity than T allele. HAX1 RNA expression was significantly higher in tumor than in normal lung, and higher in rs11265425 TG+GG genotypes than in TT genotype. Conversely, ME3 expression was significantly lower in tumor than in normal lung, and higher in rs10400291 AA genotype than in CC+CA genotypes.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study shows that the functional polymorphisms in ATF3 binding sites, HAX1 rs11265425T>G and ME3 rs10400291C>A are associated with the clinical outcomes of patients in surgically resected NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514131DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of immune checkpoint gene CD155 Ala67Thr and CD226 Gly307Ser polymorphisms on small cell lung cancer clinical outcome.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 19;11(1):1794. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41944, Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to investigate the impact of genetic variants of immune checkpoint genes on the treatment outcome in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In the present study, 261 platinum doublet-treated SCLC patients were enrolled. A total of 96 polymorphisms in 33 immune checkpoint-related genes were selected, and their association with chemotherapy response and survival outcomes were analyzed. Among the polymorphisms studied, CD155 rs1058402G > A (Ala67Thr, A67T) and CD226 rs763361C > T (Gly307Ser, G307S) were significantly associated with SCLC treatment outcome. The rs1058402G > A had a worse chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.99, P = 0.05; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.12-2.14, P = 0.01, respectively). The rs763361C > T had better chemotherapy response and overall survival (under a dominant model, aOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.10-3.75, P = 0.02; aHR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.51-0.94, P = 0.02, respectively). When the rs1058402GA/AA and rs763361CC genotypes were combined, the chemotherapy response and overall survival were significantly decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33-0.81, Ptrend = 0.004; aHR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.19-1.84, Ptrend = 4 × 10, respectively). The 3-D structural model showed that CD155 A67T created a new hydrogen bond and structural change on CD155. These changes resulted in extending the distance and losing the hydrogen bonds between CD155 and CD226, thus weakening CD155/CD226 binding activity. In conclusion, CD155 rs1058402G > A and CD226 rs763361C > T may be useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of SCLC patients after chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81260-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815735PMC
January 2021

Etiological Distribution and Morphological Patterns of Granulomatous Pleurisy in a Tuberculosis-prevalent Country.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Jan 4;36(1):e10. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

The cause of epithelioid granulomatous inflammation varies widely depending on the affected organ, geographic region, and whether the granulomas morphologically contain necrosis. Compared with other organs, the etiological distribution and morphological patterns of pleural epithelioid granulomas have rarely been investigated. We evaluated the final etiologies and morphological patterns of pleural epithelioid granulomatous inflammation in a tuberculosis (TB)-prevalent country. Of 83 patients with pleural granulomas, 50 (60.2%) had confirmed TB pleurisy (TB-P) and 29 (34.9%) had probable TB-P. Four patients (4.8%) with non-TB-P were diagnosed. With the exception of microbiological results, there was no significant difference in clinical characteristics and granuloma patterns between the confirmed TB-P and non-TB-P groups, or between patients with confirmed and probable TB-Ps. These findings suggest that most pleural granulomatous inflammation (95.2%) was attributable to TB-P in TB-endemic areas and that the granuloma patterns contributed little to the prediction of final diagnosis compared with other organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781852PMC
January 2021

Clinical implication of minimal presence of solid or micropapillary subtype in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

Thorac Cancer 2021 01 24;12(2):235-244. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: We investigated the clinical features and surgical outcomes of lung adenocarcinoma with minimal solid or micropapillary (S/MP) components, with a focus on stage IA.

Methods: We enrolled 506 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent curative resection in this study. Clinical features and surgical outcomes were compared between the groups with and without the S/MP subtype (S/MP+ and S/MP-, respectively), and between the group with an S/MP proportion of ≤5% (S/MP5) and the S/MP-.

Results: The S/MP subtype was present in 247 patients (48.8%); 129 (25.5%) were grouped as the S/MP5 group. The S/MP+ and S/MP5 groups had larger tumors, higher frequency of lymph node metastasis, and more advanced stages of disease than the S/MP- group (P < 0.001, all comparisons). Pleural, lymphatic, and vascular invasions occurred more frequently in the S/MP+ and S/MP5 groups (P < 0.001, all comparisons for S/MP+ vs. S/MP-; P ≤ 0.01, all comparisons for S/MP5 vs. S/MP-). The S/MP+ and S/MP5 groups showed a shorter time to recurrence and cancer-related death than the S/MP- group(P < 0.001, both comparisons). For stage I, the presence or absence of the S/MP subtype defined prognostic subgroups better than the stage IA/IB classification. Notably, in the multivariate analysis, the minimal S/MP component was a significant predictor of recurrence, even in stage IA.

Conclusions: The presence of the minimal S/MP component was a significant predictor of poor prognosis after surgery, even in stage IA patients. Clinical trials to evaluate the advantages of adjuvant chemotherapy for this subset of patients and further investigations to understand underlying biological mechanisms of poor prognosis are needed.

Key Points: Significant findings of the study: We demonstrated that only minimal presence of solid or micropapillary component was profoundly associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis after complete resection even in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

What This Study Adds: Our results suggest that minimal presence of these subtypes is a strong prognostic factor which should be taken into account in the risk assessment for adjuvant chemotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812076PMC
January 2021

Laboratory and radiological discrimination between tuberculous and malignant pleural effusions with high adenosine deaminase levels.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background/aims: Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels are useful in discriminating tuberculous pleural effusions (TPEs) from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). However, some patients with MPE exhibit high-ADA levels, which may mimic TPEs. There is limited data regarding the differential diagnosis between high-ADA MPE and high-ADA TPE. This study aimed to identify the predictors for distinguishing high-ADA MPEs from high-ADA TPEs.

Methods: Patients with TPE and MPE with pleural fluid ADA levels ≥40 IU/L were included in this study. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were compared between the two groups. Independent predictors and their diagnostic performance for high-ADA MPEs were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve.

Results: A total of 200 patients (high-ADA MPE, n = 30, and high-ADA TPE, n = 170) were retrospectively included. In the multivariate analysis, pleural fluid ADA, pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and pleural nodularity were independent discriminators between high-ADA MPE and high-ADA TPE groups. Using pleural ADA level of 40-56 IU/L (3 points), pleural CEA level ≥6 ng/mL (6 points), and presence of pleural nodularity (3 points) for predicting high-ADA MPEs, a sum score ≥6 points yielded a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 82%, negative predictive value of 98%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.965.

Conclusions: A scoring system using three parameters may be helpful in guiding the differential diagnosis between high-ADA MPEs and high-ADA TPEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.246DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical Significance of Timing of Intubation in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 2;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

The effect of intubation timing on the prognosis of critically ill patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is not yet well understood. We investigated whether early intubation is associated with the survival of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was done on 47 adult COVID-19 patients with ARDS who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Daegu, Korea between February 17 and April 23, 2020. Clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality were compared between the early intubation and initially non-intubated groups, and between the early and late intubation groups, respectively. Of the 47 patients studied, 23 (48.9%) were intubated on the day of meeting ARDS criteria (early intubation), while 24 (51.1%) were not initially intubated. Eight patients were never intubated during the in-hospital course. Median follow-up duration was 46 days, and 21 patients (44.7%) died in the hospital. No significant difference in in-hospital mortality rate was noted between the early group and initially non-intubated groups (56.5% vs. 33.3%, = 0.110). Furthermore, the risk of in-hospital death in the early intubation group was not significantly different compared to the initially non-intubated group on multivariate adjusted analysis ( = 0.385). Results were similar between early and late intubation in the subgroup analysis of 39 patients treated with mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, in this study of critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS, early intubation was not associated with improved survival. This result may help in the efficient allocation of limited medical resources, such as ventilators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564702PMC
September 2020

Lifetime survival and medical costs of lung cancer: a semi-parametric estimation from South Korea.

BMC Cancer 2020 Sep 3;20(1):846. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, South Korea.

Background: It is essential to have information on the disease burden of lung cancer at an individual level throughout the life; however, few such results have been reported. Thus, this study aimed to assess the lifetime disease burden in patients with lung cancer by assessing various factors, such as survival, years of life lost (YLL) and medical expenditure in South Korea based on real-world data and extrapolation.

Methods: Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients (n = 2919) in 2004-2010 were selected and observed until the end of 2015 using nationwide reimbursement claim database. The patients were categorised into the Surgery group, Chemo and/or Radiotherapy group (CTx/RTx), and Surgery+CTx/RTx according to their treatment modality. Age- and sex-matched control subjects were selected from among general population using the life table. The survival and cost data after diagnosis were analysed by a semi-parametric method, the Kaplan-Meier analysis for the first 100 months and rolling extrapolation algorithm for 101-300 months. YLL were derived from the difference in survival between patients and controls.

Results: Lifetime estimates (standard error) were 4.5 (0.2) years for patients and 14.5 (0.1) years for controls and the derived YLL duration was 10.0 (0.2) years. Lifetime survival years showed the following trend: Surgery (14.2 years) > Surgery+CTx/RTx (8.5 years) > CTx/RTx group (3.0 years), and YLL were increased as lifetime survival years decreased (2.3, 8.7, 12.2 years, respectively). The mean lifetime medical cost was estimated at 30,857 USD/patient. Patients in the Surgery group paid higher treatment cost in first year after diagnosis, but the overall mean cost per year was lower at 4359 USD compared with 7075USD of Surgery+CTx/RTx or 7626USD of CTx/RTx group.

Conclusions: Lung cancer has resulted in about 10 years of life lost in overall patients. The losses were associated with treatment modality, and the results indicated that diagnosing lung cancer in patients with low stage disease eligible for surgery is beneficial for reducing disease burden in terms of survival and treatment cost per year throughout the life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07353-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650522PMC
September 2020

Use of Darunavir-Cobicistat as a Treatment Option for Critically Ill Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Sep;61(9):826-830

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea.

We retrospectively reviewed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Daegu, South Korea. The outcomes of patients who did (cases) or did not (controls) receive darunavir-cobicistat (800-150 mg) therapy were compared. Fourteen patients received darunavir-cobicistat treatment, and 96 received other antiviral therapy (controls). Overall, the darunavir-cobicistat group comprised patients with milder illness, and the crude mortality rate of all patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group was lower than that in the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.89, =0.035]. After 1:2 propensity-score matching, there were 14 patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group, and 28 patients in the controls. In propensity score-matched analysis, the darunavir-cobicistat group had lower mortality than the controls (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.52, =0.009). In conclusion, darunavir-cobicistat therapy was found to be associated with a significant survival benefit in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.9.826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471078PMC
September 2020

Genetic Variants in One-Carbon Metabolism Pathway Predict Survival Outcomes of Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncology 2020 13;98(12):897-904. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study was conducted to investigate the association between genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism and survival outcomes of surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We genotyped 41 potentially functional variants of 19 key genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway among 750 NSCLC patients who underwent curative surgery. The association between genetic variants and overall survival (OS)/disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed.

Results: Among the 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed, 4 SNPs (MTHFD1L rs6919680T>G and rs3849794T>C, MTR rs2853523C>A, and MTHFR rs4846049G>T) were significantly associated with survival outcomes. MTHFD1L rs6919680T>G and MTR rs2853523C>A were significantly associated with better OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54-0.99, p = 0.04) and worse OS (aHR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.13-4.07, p = 0.02), respectively. MTHFD1L rs3849794T>C and MTHFR rs4846049G>T were significantly associated with worse DFS (aHR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.08-1.83, p = 0.01; and aHR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.10-3.53, p = 0.02, respectively). When the patients were divided according to histology, the associations were significant only in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but not in adenocarcinoma (AC). In SCC, MTHFD1L rs6919680T>G and MTR rs2853523C>A were significantly associated with better OS (aHR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.41-1.00, p = 0.05) and worse OS (aHR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.11-6.91, p = 0.03), respectively, and MTHFD1L rs3849794T>C and MTHFR rs4846049G>T were significantly associated with worse DFS (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.17-2.56, p = 0.01; and aHR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.12-6.88, p = 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the genetic variants in the one-carbon metabolism pathway could be used as biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with early-stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509658DOI Listing
December 2020

Expression of key regulatory genes in necroptosis and its effect on the prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

J Cancer 2020 11;11(18):5503-5510. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Accumulating evidence suggests that necroptosis, or programmed necrotic cell death, may play a significant role in cancer. We evaluated the expression of key molecules in necroptosis and their association with clinical features and prognosis in NSCLC. A total of 253 NSCLC patients (96 squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] cases and 157 adenocarcinoma [AC] cases) who underwent curative resection were included. Tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues were investigated for relative mRNA expression levels of , , and . Difference in disease free survival (DFS) was analyzed according to the expression levels of these molecules in tumor tissues. NSCLC tissues had significantly lower expression of , , and than normal tissues ( = 1 x 10, = 8 x 10, and = 4 x 10, respectively). In subgroup analysis, SCCs had significantly lower , , and expression ( = 5 x 10, = 3 x 10, = 1 x 10, respectively), and ACs had significantly lower and expression ( = 0.01 and = 6 x 10, respectively) than normal tissues. Low expression of , , and in tumors was associated with a worse DFS (HR = 1.71, = 0.01; HR = 1.53, = 0.04; and HR = 1.53, = 0.04, respectively) in a multivariate analysis. In SCC, none of the , , and expression was significantly associated with DFS. However, in AC, low expression of , , and was significantly associated with worse DFS (HR = 1.67, = 0.03; HR = 1.70, = 0.03; and HR = 1.81, = 0.02, respectively). Key regulatory genes in necroptosis, , , and , were downregulated in NSCLC, and their lower expression in NSCLC may be used to predict early recurrence after curative resection, especially in AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.46172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391199PMC
July 2020

Effect of genetic variation in Notch regulator DTX1 on SCLC prognosis compared with the effect on NSCLC prongosis.

Thorac Cancer 2020 09 22;11(9):2698-2703. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Deltex-1 (DTX1) is a negative regulator of the Notch signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the clinical effect of DTX1 rs1732786A > G, which is associated with better prognosis in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in 261 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with a significantly worse chemotherapy response and lower overall survival in the codominant model (odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.66, P = 2 × 10 ; hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.17-1.84, P = 0.001, respectively). An in vitro luciferase assay was performed, and the 1732786G allele demonstrated significantly higher promoter activity than the 1732786A allele (P = 2 × 10 ). In summary, DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with poor prognosis in patients with SCLC as opposed to patients with NSCLC. KEY POINTS: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with better prognosis in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in our previous study. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: DTX1 rs1732786A > G was associated with a significantly worse chemotherapy response and lower overall survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471053PMC
September 2020

Clinical Impact of N-Terminal Prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide on Patients Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Am J Med Sci 2020 10 2;360(4):383-391. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Background: Risk stratification is important for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The present study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) on prognosis and to identify clinical characteristics associated with NT-proBNP elevation in CAP patients.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients hospitalized for CAP at a tertiary referral center and who underwent measurement plasma NT-proBNP levels. Based on 30-day mortality, patients (n = 1,821) were divided into 2 groups, survivors (n = 150) and nonsurvivors (n = 1,671), and clinical and laboratory findings were compared.

Results: In multivariate analysis, blood levels of NT-proBNP (>942.5 pg/mL), albumin (<3.3 g/dL), and troponin I (>0.018 ng/mL) independently predicted 30-day mortality. Of these blood biomarkers, NT-proBNP exhibited the highest C-statistic, followed by albumin. NT-proBNP level/CURB-65 score and NT-proBNP level/pneumonia severity index (PSI) class exhibited significantly higher C-statistics than CURB-65 score and PSI class alone, respectively. The 3-test combinations of CURB-65 score/NT-proBNP level/albumin level and PSI class/NT-proBNP level/albumin level exhibited significantly higher C-statistics than the 2-test combinations. NT-proBNP elevation was associated with increased age, heart disease and chronic kidney disease and NT-proBNP levels only weakly or moderately correlated with other blood biomarkers.

Conclusions: NT-proBNP level was a useful marker for the prediction of 30-day mortality in patients hospitalized with CAP, and provided additional prognostic value to PSI or CURB-65 alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2020.05.042DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparison of biochemical parameters and chemokine levels in pleural fluid between patients with anergic and non-anergic tuberculous pleural effusion.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2020 07 13;123:101940. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea; Kyungpook National University Bio-Medical Research Institute, Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

Pleural fluid (PF) immune response in anergic tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) patients is poorly understood. This study aimed to compare PF biochemical parameters and chemokine levels between anergic and non-anergic TPE patients. Chemokine arrays, cytokine measurements, and flow cytometry were performed in 58 patients (TPE [non-anergic (n = 32) and anergic (n = 10)] and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) [n = 16]). PF adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) levels were significantly lower in anergic TPE patients than in non-anergic TPE patients (p = 0.048). Among the 40 chemokines tested, PF CCL27 levels were significantly higher in anergic TPE patients than in non-anergic TPE and MPE patients (p < 0.001). The percentage of CD4CCR10T cells in PF was higher in anergic TPE patients than in non-anergic TPE and MPE patients (p = 0.001). We reported here that CCL27/CCR10 interactions might contribute to pathophysiology in anergic TPE. PF CCL27 and CD4CCR10T cells may help in diagnosing TPE in patients with moderate elevation of PF ADA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2020.101940DOI Listing
July 2020

Electrocardiographic changes as a prognostic tool for hospitalized patients with pulmonary embolism.

Thromb Res 2020 08 19;192:61-63. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.03.013DOI Listing
August 2020

Idiopathic Pleural Effusions: Characteristics and Discrimination From Cytology-Negative Malignant Pleural Effusions.

Am J Med Sci 2020 09 25;360(3):236-242. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The etiology of pleural effusions often remained unknown notwithstanding surgical pleural biopsy and further clinical observation. A better understanding of clinical characteristics of patients with idiopathic pleural effusion (IPE) may improve the ability to differentiate between IPEs and cytology-negative malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and facilitate the identification of patients requiring invasive investigation. However, little is known about the clinical factors that can help distinguish patients with IPE from those with cytology-negative MPE.

Materials And Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with IPE or cytology-negative MPE between 2010 and 2017 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic characteristics were compared between patients with IPE and cytology-negative MPE. Diagnostic performances of predictors for IPE were assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: Of 146 patients undergoing pleural biopsy owing to cytology-negative pleural effusion of uncertain cause, MPE was confirmed in 54 patients. IPE was ultimately diagnosed in 22 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a minimal amount of pleural effusion (odds ratio [OR] = 12.41, P = 0.039), presence of pleural nodularity (OR = 0.01, P < 0.001) and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen levels less than 14 ng/mL (OR = 87.59, P = 0.002) were independent factors for distinguishing IPEs from cytology-negative MPEs. A combination of the absence of pleural nodularity with pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen levels less than 14 ng/mL yielded an area under the curve of 0.94 (sensitivity = 91% and specificity = 96%).

Conclusions: Using these readily available parameters to identify IPE in patients with cytology-negative exudative effusion of unknown cause can help guide decision-making when choosing to perform an invasive pleural biopsy or to take a conservative approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2020.04.020DOI Listing
September 2020

Crucial role of temporary airborne infection isolation rooms in an intensive care unit: containing the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea.

Crit Care 2020 May 18;24(1):238. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-02944-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7234817PMC
May 2020

Polymorphisms in Glycolysis-Related Genes Are Associated with Clinical Outcomes of Paclitaxel-Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncology 2020 6;98(7):468-477. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea,

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms in glycolysis-related genes are associated with clinical outcomes of patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing chemotherapy.

Methods: A total of 377 patients with NSCLC were enrolled. Sixty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 26 genes involved in the glycolytic pathway were evaluated. The associations of the variants with the chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.

Results: Among the 65 variants investigated, PFKL rs2073436C>G and GPI rs7248411C>G significantly correlated with clinical outcomes after chemotherapy in multivariate analyses. PFKL rs2073436C>G was significantly associated with both a worse response to chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90, p = 0.01) and a worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.61, p = 0.001). GPI rs7248411C>G was significantly associated with both a better chemotherapy response (aOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07-2.23, p = 0.02) and a better OS (aHR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.98, p = 0.03). When stratified by tumor histology, PFKL rs2073436C>G was significantly associated with OS only in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas GPI rs7248411C>G exhibited a significant association with the chemotherapy response and OS only in adenocarcinoma.

Conclusion: This result suggests that the PFKL rs2073436C>G and GPI rs7248411C>G are useful for predicting the clinical outcome of first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504175DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism undergoing coronary angiography.

Vasc Med 2020 04 7;25(2):157-159. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X19900239DOI Listing
April 2020

Oxygenation Index in the First 24 Hours after the Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as a Surrogate Metric for Risk Stratification in Children.

Acute Crit Care 2018 Nov 29;33(4):222-229. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The diagnosis of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) is a pragmatic decision based on the degree of hypoxia at the time of onset. We aimed to determine whether reclassification using oxygenation metrics 24 hours after diagnosis could provide prognostic ability for outcomes in PARDS.

Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight pediatric patients admitted between January 1, 2010 and January 30, 2017, who met the inclusion criteria for PARDS were retrospectively analyzed. Reclassification based on data measured 24 hours after diagnosis was compared with the initial classification, and changes in pressure parameters and oxygenation were investigated for their prognostic value with respect to mortality.

Results: PARDS severity varied widely in the first 24 hours; 52.4% of patients showed an improvement, 35.4% showed no change, and 12.2% either showed progression of PARDS or died. Multivariate analysis revealed that mortality risk significantly increased for the severe group, based on classification using metrics collected 24 hours after diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio, 26.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43 to 209.89; P=0.002). Compared to changes in pressure variables (peak inspiratory pressure and driving pressure), changes in oxygenation (arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen) over the first 24 hours showed statistically better discriminative power for mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.701; 95% CI, 0.636 to 0.766; P<0.001).

Conclusions: Implementation of reclassification based on oxygenation metrics 24 hours after diagnosis effectively stratified outcomes in PARDS. Progress within the first 24 hours was significantly associated with outcomes in PARDS, and oxygenation response was the most discernable surrogate metric for mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849030PMC
November 2018

Polymorphism in ASCL1 target gene DDC is associated with clinical outcomes of small cell lung cancer patients.

Thorac Cancer 2020 01 5;11(1):19-28. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and is essential in the differentiation of neuroendocrine cells and neural tissues. ASCL1 is frequently overexpressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCLC.

Methods: This study was conducted to identify the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ASCL1 target genes and clinical outcomes of patients with SCLC after chemotherapy. A total of 261 patients diagnosed with SCLC were enrolled in this study. The association between 103 SNPs in 58 ASCL1 target genes and the response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with SCLC were analyzed.

Results: Among the 103 SNPs, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with the response to chemotherapy, and 19 SNPs were associated with OS in multivariate analyses. Among these, Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC) rs12666409A>T was significantly associated with both a worse response to chemotherapy and worse OS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18-0.90, P = 0.03; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.10, P = 0.01, respectively, under a dominant model). In a stage-stratified analysis, the association was significant only in the extensive disease subgroup (aOR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.60, P = 0.01; aHR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.16-2.56, P = 0.01, respectively, under a dominant model), but not in the limited disease subgroup.

Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that DDC rs12666409A>T may be useful markers for predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with SCLC undergoing chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938757PMC
January 2020

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with a novel frameshift mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor II gene and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein signaling: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Oct;98(42):e17594

Department of Internal medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu.

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is characterized by intense remodeling of small pulmonary arteries. Loss-of-function mutation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2) gene and exaggerated activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling play a critical role in this process.

Patient Concerns And Diagnosis: We report a novel frameshift mutation (c.117InsT, p.Y40fsX48) of the BMPR2 gene identified in a 19-year-old IPAH patient with syncope. Despite BMPR2 mutation, the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and Samd1/5/8 was increased in the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and this event was accompanied by the upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling target genes, but not TGF-β signaling target genes. Moreover, we observed an increased expression of other BMPRs, that is, anti-Mullerian hormone type-2 receptor and the activin receptor-like kinases (ALK) 1, ALK3, and ALK6.

Interventions And Outcomes: The patient was prescribed a combination of macitentan, sildenafil, and nifedipine, which successfully controlled her symptom of syncope and normalized N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level after 3 months of medication.

Lessons: In light of these results, we propose a new pathogenetic mechanism for IPAH, based on enhanced BMP signaling via the functional replacement of mutated BMPR2 by other BMP receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824762PMC
October 2019

Glucose transporter 3 gene variant is associated with survival outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer after surgical resection.

Gene 2019 Jun 4;703:58-64. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Lung Cancer Center, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to explore whether polymorphisms of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) gene affect the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GLUT3 were investigated in a total of 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgery. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) was analyzed. Among the four SNPs investigated, GLUT3 rs7309332C>T was significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analyses. The SNP was associated with significantly worse OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-2.53, P = 0.03, under recessive model), and worse DFS (aHR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.18-2.29, P = 0.003, under recessive model). When stratified by tumor histology, the association between the GLUT3 rs7309332C>T and OS/DFS was not limited to either squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (AC), although the significant association remained only in AC for OS (P = 0.40 for SCC and P = 0.04 for OS) and only in SCC for DFS (P = 0.03 for SCC and P = 0.08 for OS). When AC patients were stratified according to EGFR mutation status, the SNP was significantly associated with DFS in patients with EGFR mutant tumors (aHR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.15-5.30, P = 0.02, under recessive model), but not in those with EGFR wild-type tumors. This study suggests that genetic variation in GLUT3 may be useful in predicting survival of patients with early stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.013DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical and radiological manifestations of lipoid pneumonia according to etiology: Squalene, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, and idiopathic.

Clin Respir J 2019 May 24;13(5):328-337. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.

Objectives: Clinical manifestations of lipoid pneumonia (LP) vary depending on the causative agents or underlying causes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and radiological features of LP, classified according to etiologic agents.

Methods: The clinico-radiological characteristics of LP patients were retrospectively compared among groups: exogenous versus idiopathic and squalene versus omega-3-acid ethyl esters (O-3-AEE) versus idiopathic. Idiopathic group was defined as LP with no proven or reported etiological evidence.

Results: Twenty-two patients met the diagnostic criteria for LP: squalene (9 [41%]), O-3-AEE (6 [27%]), olive oil (1 [5%]), and idiopathic (7 [32%]). Compared with the exogenous group, the idiopathic group showed a higher recurrence rate; higher frequencies of bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis; and a higher rate of crazy-paving pattern and lower rate of consolidation on computed tomography scan. In three-group tests, compared with the O-3-AEE group, the squalene group exhibited a significantly higher percentage of neutrophils and a higher rate of right middle lobe (RML) involvement.

Conclusions: In comparison with the exogenous group, the idiopathic group demonstrated BAL lymphocytosis, higher rates of recurrence and BAF, and a higher rate of crazy-paving pattern. Compared with the O-3-AEE group, the squlaene group showed a higher percentage of BAL neutrophils and predominant RML involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.13015DOI Listing
May 2019

Economic burden of lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study in South Korea, 2002-2015.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212878. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

We evaluated the survival rates and medical expenditure in patients with lung cancer using a nationwide claims database in South Korea. A retrospective observational cohort study design was used, and 2,919 lung cancer patients and their matched controls were included. Medical expenditures were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier sample average method, and patients were categorized into 4 groups by operation and primary treatment method (i.e. Patients with operation: OP = surgery, OP+CTx/RTx = surgery with anti-cancer drugs or radiotherapy; Patients without operation: CTx/RTx = anti-cancer drugs or radiotherapy, Supportive treatment). The 5-year medical expenditure per case was highest in the OP+CTx/RTx group ($36,013), followed by the CTx/RTx ($23,134), OP ($22,686), and supportive treatment group ($3,700). Lung cancer-related anti-cancer drug therapy was the major cost driver, with an average 53% share across all patients. Generalized linear regression revealed that monthly medical expenditure in lung cancer patients, after adjustment for follow-up month, was approximately 3.1-4.3 times higher than that in the control group (cost ratio for OP = 3.116, OP+CTx/RTx = 3.566, CTx/RTx = 4.340, supportive treatment = 4.157). The monthly medical expenditure at end of life was estimated at $2,139 for all decedents, and approximately a quarter of patients had received chemotherapy in the last 3 months. In conclusion, this study presented the quantified treatment costs of lung cancer on various aspects compared with matched controls according to the treatment of choice. In this study, patients with operation incurred lower lifetime treatment costs than patients with CTx/RTx or supportive treatment, indicating that the economic burden of lung cancer was affected by treatment method. Further studies including both cancer stage and treatment modality are needed to confirm these results and to provide more information on the economic burden according to disease severity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212878PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386401PMC
November 2019

Prescription Patterns and Burden of Pediatric Asthma in Korea.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2019 Mar;11(2):280-290

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Institute of Allergy, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, prescription pattern and burden of pediatric asthma in Korea by analyzing the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the insurance claim records from the Korean NHI claims database from January 2010 to December 2014. Asthmatic patients were defined as children younger than 18 years, with appropriate 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases codes (J45 or J46) and a prescription for 1 or more asthma maintenance medications at the same date. Hospitalization and emergency department visits for asthma were defined as use of short-acting beta₂-agonists during hospital visits among asthmatic patients.

Results: There were 1,172,807 asthmatic children in 2010, which increased steadily to 1,590,228 in 2014 in Korea. The prevalence showed an increasing trend annually for all ages. The mean prevalence by age in those older than 2 years decreased during the study period (from 39.4% in the 2-3 year age group to 2.6% in the 15-18 year age group). In an outpatient prescription, leukotriene receptor antagonists were the most commonly prescribed medication for all ages. Patients older than 6 years for whom inhaled corticosteroids were prescribed comprised less than 15% of asthmatic patients. The total direct medical cost for asthma between 2010 and 2014 ranged from $376 to $483 million. Asthma-related medical cost per person reached its peak in $366 in 2011 and decreased to $275 in 2014.

Conclusions: The prevalence of pediatric asthma increased annually and decreased with age. Individual cost of asthma showed a decreasing trend in Korean children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2019.11.2.280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340798PMC
March 2019

Exhaled breath temperature as a tool for monitoring asthma control after an attack in children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 03 4;54(3):230-236. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Institute of Allergy, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has been suggested as a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. There have been no studies examining longitudinal changes in EBT following asthma attacks.

Objective: To investigate changes in EBT during and after an asthma attack and to relate these changes to changes in respiratory physiological measurements.

Methods: We evaluated 38 hospitalized children aged 5-18 years diagnosed with an asthma attack. Spirometry was performed upon hospitalization. During hospitalization, EBT, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and asthma score were measured daily. These tests were repeated 1 week and 1 month after discharge. The overall PEFR change, temporal changes in plateau values at the end of expiration, and time-dynamic associations were evaluated using linear mixed models.

Results: FEV was lower at admission than at discharge (63.3 ± 24 vs 99.5 ± 14 percent of predicted, P < 0.001). The EBT was higher at admission than at 1 week after discharge (34.1°C [range: 33.9-34.8°C] vs 33.6°C [range: 33.0-34.2°C], P = 0.007); overall, EBTs decreased over time (P = 0.007). Among individual subjects, decreased EBT was correlated with increased PEFR over time. Furthermore, plateau values at the end of expiration had a time-dependent, dynamic association with the PEFR during hospitalization (P = 0.005) and between asthma attack onset and asthma status stabilization (P = 0.032).

Conclusions: The EBT was elevated during asthma attacks and gradually decreased until asthma was well controlled. The EBT may be a useful, non-invasive tool for monitoring asthma control in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24225DOI Listing
March 2019

Assessment of within-breath impulse oscillometry parameters in children with asthma.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 02 10;54(2):117-124. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Institute of Allergy, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Impulse oscillometry (IOS) measures respiratory resistance and reactance during tidal breaths and is a convenient tool for evaluation of lung function. Respiratory resistance and reactance can be measured separately during inspiration and expiration (inspiratory-expiratory analysis).

Objective: We investigated the differences in inspiratory-expiratory measurements obtained using IOS between children with and without asthma.

Methods: We analyzed 819 subjects aged 4-18 years, including asthmatic children (n = 600) and controls (n = 219). Asthma was diagnosed in accordance with the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guideline. Spirometry and IOS were performed in all subjects.

Results: In whole-breath analysis, the asthma group had higher resistance at 5 Hz (R5) and reactance area (AX) and lower reactance at 5 Hz (X5) than the control groups. In inspiratory-expiratory analysis, the asthma group showed increased expiratory R5 and AX and decreased expiratory X5 when compared with the control group. The absolute changes in R5, X5, and AX values between inspiration and expiration were greater in children with asthma than those in controls (0.138 ± 0.195 vs 0.102 ± 0.162, P = 0.014; -0.106 ± 0.200 vs -0.086 ± 0.434, P < 0.001 and 0.460 ± 11.63 vs 0.398 ± 2.88, P = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusions: Inspiratory-expiratory IOS analysis differentiated asthmatic children from control subjects, reflecting airway narrowing on expiration in pediatric asthma. The changes in R5, X5, and AX between inspiration and expiration can be a useful index for diagnosis of asthma in children without assessment of the response to a bronchodilator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24201DOI Listing
February 2019

Korean Youth with Comorbid Allergic Disease and Obesity Show Heightened Psychological Distress.

J Pediatr 2019 03 19;206:99-104.e4. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Institute of Allergy, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore psychological distress in Korean adolescents having allergic disease comorbid with obesity.

Study Design: A total of 703 869 adolescents who completed the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey between 2007 and 2016 were analyzed. Participants were divided into 4 groups-healthy control, allergic disease only, obesity only, and comorbidity of allergic disease and obesity-and compared them to determine whether they showed differences in mental health.

Results: Adolescents with both atopic dermatitis and obesity had significantly greater odds of experiencing unhappiness (OR, 1.17), stress (OR, 1.32), and suicidal ideation (OR, 1.25) than those without both conditions. The same was true of adolescents with obesity and allergic rhinitis (OR, 1.21, 1.37, and 1.27, respectively) or bronchial asthma (OR, 1.37, 1.39, and 1.37). The comorbidity groups also showed significantly greater odds of stress and suicidal ideation than the allergic disease-only (atopic dermatitis with obesity, 1.21 and 1.15, respectively; allergic rhinitis with obesity, 1.11 and 1.09; bronchial asthma with obesity, 1.17 and 1.14) and obesity-only groups (atopic dermatitis with obesity, 1.13 and 1.09; allergic rhinitis with obesity, 1.18 and 1.10; bronchial asthma with obesity, 1.18 and 1.21).

Conclusions: Allergic disease and obesity negatively and additively influence mental health in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.10.037DOI Listing
March 2019