Publications by authors named "Sumeet Gujral"

113 Publications

Clinical impact of panel-based error-corrected next generation sequencing versus flow cytometry to detect measurable residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Leukemia 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Haematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, India.

We accrued 201 patients of adult AML treated with conventional therapy, in morphological remission, and evaluated MRD using sensitive error-corrected next generation sequencing (NGS-MRD) and multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM-MRD) at the end of induction (PI) and consolidation (PC). Nearly 71% of patients were PI NGS-MRD and 40.9% PC NGS-MRD (median VAF 0.76%). NGS-MRD patients had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (p = 0.003), inferior overall survival (p = 0.001) and relapse free survival (p < 0.001) as compared to NGS-MRD patients. NGS-MRD was predictive of inferior outcome in intermediate cytogenetic risk and demonstrated potential in favorable cytogenetic risk AML. PI NGS-MRD patients had a significantly improved survival as compared to patients who became NGS-MRD subsequently indicating that kinetics of NGS-MRD clearance was of paramount importance. NGS-MRD identified over 80% of cases identified by flow cytometry at PI time point whereas FCM identified 49.3% identified by NGS. Only a fraction of cases were NGS-MRD but FCM-MRD. NGS-MRD provided additional information of the risk of relapse when compared to FCM-MRD. We demonstrate a widely applicable, scalable NGS-MRD approach that is clinically informative and synergistic to FCM-MRD in AML treated with conventional therapies. Maximum clinical utility may be leveraged by combining FCM and NGS-MRD modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01131-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Expression of CD304/neuropilin-1 in adult b-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and its utility for the measurable residual disease assessment.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, HBNI University, Navi Mumbai, India.

Introduction: Many new markers are being evaluated to increase the sensitivity and applicability of multicolor flow cytometry (MFC)-based measurable residual disease (MRD) monitoring. However, most of the studies are limited to childhood B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL), and reports in adult B-ALL are extremely scarce and limited to small cohorts. We studied the expression of CD304/neuropilin-1 in a large cohort of adult B-ALL patients and evaluated its practical utility in MFC-based MRD analysis.

Methods: CD304 was studied in blasts from adult B-ALL patients and normal precursor B cells (NPBC) from non-B-ALL bone marrow samples using MFC. CD304 expression intensity and pattern were studied with normalized-mean fluorescent intensity (nMFI) and coefficient of variation of immunofluorescence (CVIF), respectively. MFC-based MRD was performed at end of induction (EOI; day-35), end of consolidation (EOC; day 78-80), and subsequent follow-up (SFU) time points.

Results: CD304 was positive in 120/214(56.07%) and was significantly associated with BCR-ABL1 fusion (P = .001). EOI-MRD and EOC-MRD were positive in 129/214(60.3%) and 50/81(61.72%), respectively. CD304 was positive in a significant percentage of EOI (48%, 62/129) and EOC (52%, 26/50) MRD-positive B-ALL samples. Its expression was retained, lost, and gained in 73.7%, 26.3%, and 11.3% of EOI-MRD and 85.7%, 14.3%, and none of EOC-MRD samples, respectively. Low-level MRD (<0.01%) was detectable in 34 of all (EOI + EOC + SFU = 189) MRD-positive samples, and CD304 was found useful in 50% of these samples.

Conclusion: CD304 is commonly expressed in adult B-ALL and clearly distinguish B-ALL blasts from normal precursor B cells. It is a stable MRD marker and distinctly useful in the detection of MFC-based MRD monitoring, especially in high-sensitivity MRD assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13456DOI Listing
January 2021

Hodgkin Lymphoma in Adolescent and Young Adults: Real-World Data from a Single Tertiary Cancer Center in India.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2020 Oct 22. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.

There is lack of consensus on management of adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma with respect to chemotherapy approach (adult or pediatric). Hence we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a retrospective, observational, single-center study. From January 2013 to December 2016, all consecutive patients with AYA (15-25 years, all stages) were analyzed. The primary endpoint of the study was event-free survival (EFS). Secondary endpoints were complete response rates (CR) and overall survival (OS). A total of 220 patients (70% men) with median age 20 years were evaluated. A significant proportion of patients had adverse features such as stage III/IV disease (63%), bulky disease (63%), extranodal involvement (37%), and marrow involvement (22%). After two cycles and end of therapy, 77% patients achieved complete response. Primary progressive disease was seen in 6% patients. With a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 19 (8.6%) patients relapsed, 1 patient developed second malignancy, and 6 patients died. Three-year EFS and OS were 81.3% and 97%, respectively. Bleomycin-induced lung injury was seen in 16% patients. On multivariate analysis stage at presentation, bone marrow involvement, partial response at interim positron emission tomography and International prognosis score (IPS) >3 were predictors of poor EFS. ABVD is an effective and safe regimen in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced disease with high IPS (>3) score needs an early escalation approach to escBEACOPP regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jayao.2020.0061DOI Listing
October 2020

Sudden blast phase in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase with abnormal lymphoid blasts detected by flow cytometry at diagnosis: Can it be considered a warning sign?

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Inconclusive knowledge persists regarding the course of chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase (CML-CP) patients with detectable abnormal blasts by flow-cytometry at diagnosis. The 2016 WHO classification is not specific regarding sub-classification of CML with <10% abnormal B-lymphoid blasts (ABLB), and suggests these patients often show rapid progression. We report the clinical course of pediatric CML-CP patients who had detectable abnormal blasts by flow-cytometry at baseline.

Methods: Retrospective audit of all pediatric CML patients between January 2013 and December 2017 were included. Their clinical presentation, demographic profile, and treatment outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Some of these patients got flow-cytometry done by default, though it was not a routine part of diagnostic CML marrow studies.

Results: Amongst 65 pediatric CML patients, flow-cytometry at initial diagnosis was available in 15 (CP-12; AP-3). Of the 12 CML-CP patients, 10 (83%) had abnormal flow-cytometric findings-5 (50%) with mixed lineage blasts (4-B/Myeloid, 1-B/T/Myeloid), and myeloid lineage blasts in the remaining 5 (50%). At a median follow-up of 26 months (range: 9-34 months), 3/5 patients with ABLB at diagnosis progressed to frank blast crisis (2 B-cell; 1 Mixed lineage). None among the five patients with diagnostic myeloid-alone aberrant blasts progressed to blast crisis. Imatinib resistant mutation was also found in 3/5 (60%) CML-CP patients with these ABLB at baseline.

Conclusions: Although a retrospective study with limited sample size, presence of ABLB detected on flow-cytometry in CML-CP patients, had a noticeable early conversion to CML-BC in our cohort. Incorporation of flow-cytometry in diagnostic work-up can provide useful insight regarding the behavior of pediatric CML-CP patients and guide therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21958DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinicoepidemiologic Profile and Outcome Predicted by Minimal Residual Disease in Children With Mixed-phenotype Acute Leukemia Treated on a Modified MCP-841 Protocol at a Tertiary Cancer Institute in India.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 10;42(7):415-419

Departments of Pediatric Oncology.

Introduction: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) accounts for 1.2% to 5% of acute leukemia across age groups with intermediate prognosis. We evaluated clinicoepidemiologic profiles and outcomes of MPAL.

Methods: Records of children younger than 15 years of age with acute leukemia from January 2010 to December 2016 were reviewed on the basis of the MPAL WHO 2008 criteria. Treatment was uniform with a modified MCP-841 protocol. Descriptive analysis tools were used. Outcomes were measured by the Kaplan-Meier method on MedCalc, version 14.8.1.

Results: Among 3830 children with acute leukemia in the study period, 2892 received treatment from our center, of whom 24 (0.83%) had MPAL, median age 9 years, with a male:female ratio of 3:1, and median white blood cell of 13.4×10/L. Common immunophenotypes were B/myeloid-12 (50%), T/myeloid-9 (37.5%), and B/T-lymphoid-3 (12.5%). Some B/myeloid cases had abnormal cytogenetics. Seventeen patients were evaluable for outcome. Sixteen patients underwent postinduction bone marrow and 13 (81%) achieved morphologic remission. Thirteen patients underwent flow cytometry-based minimal residual disease evaluation; 9 (69%) were <0.01% (4 postinduction, 5 postconsolidation), and 67% of these had sustained remission till the last follow-up. None underwent bone marrow transplant. The projected 3-year event-free and overall survival rates were 40% and 48%, respectively (median follow-up: 22 mo).

Conclusion: MPAL represented <1% of childhood acute leukemia. acute lymphoblastic leukemia-type chemotherapy that incorporated high-dose cytarabine was effective in achieving an minimal residual disease-negativity rate of 69% in evaluated patients, which was also predictive of better outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001880DOI Listing
October 2020

Immunophenotypic shift in the B-cell precursors from regenerating bone marrow samples: A critical consideration for measurable residual disease assessment in B-lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, HBNI University, Navi Mumbai, India.

Accurate knowledge of expression patterns/levels of commonly used MRD markers in regenerative normal-B-cell-precursors (BCP) is highly desirable to distinguish leukemic-blasts from regenerative-BCP for multicolor flow cytometry (MFC)-based measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment in B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, the data highlighting therapy-related immunophenotypic-shift in regenerative-BCPs is scarce and limited to small cohort. Herein, we report the in-depth evaluation of immunophenotypic shift in regenerative-BCPs from a large cohort of BALL-MRD samples. Ten-color MFC-MRD analysis was performed in pediatric-BALL at the end-of-induction (EOI), end-of-consolidation (EOC), and subsequent-follow-up (SFU) time-points. We studied normalized-mean fluorescent intensity (nMFI) and coefficient-of-variation of immunofluorescence (CVIF) of CD10, CD19, CD20, CD34, CD38, and CD45 expression in regenerative-BCP (early, BCP1 and late, BCP2) from 200 BALL-MRD samples, and compared them with BCP from 15 regenerating control (RC) TALL-MRD samples and 20 treatment-naïve bone-marrow control (TNSC) samples. Regenerative-BCP1 showed downregulation in CD10 and CD34 expression with increased CVIF and reduced nMFI (p < 0.001), upregulation of CD20 with increased nMFI (p = 0.014) and heterogeneous CD45 expression with increased CVIF (p < 0.001). Immunophenotypic shift was less pronounced in the BCP2 compared to BCP1 compartment with increased CVIF in all but CD45 (p < 0.05) and reduced nMFI only in CD45 expression (p = 0.005). Downregulation of CD10/CD34 and upregulation of CD20 was higher at EOI than EOC and SFU time-points (p < 0.001). Regenerative-BCPs are characterized by the significant immunophenotypic shift in commonly used B-ALL-MRD markers, especially CD10 and CD34 expression, as compared to treatment-naïve BCPs. Therefore, the templates/database for BMRD analysis must be developed using regenerative-BCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21951DOI Listing
September 2020

Over expression of brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic and ETS-related gene is associated with poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Dec 16;38(5):808-816. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, Adult Hematolymphoid Disease Management Group, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India.

The high expression of brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) and ETS-related gene (ERG) has been reported to influence the outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but due to limited prospective studies, their role as prognostic factors is unclear. At diagnosis, the prognostic value of BAALC and ERG expression with respect to other cytogenetic and molecular markers was analyzed in 149 AML patients. Patients were divided into quartiles which resulted in the formation of four groups (G1-G4) based on expression values of BAALC and ERG and clinical response defined across groups. Groups with similar survival probabilities were merged together and categorized subsequently as high versus low expressers. Patients with high BAALC and ERG expression had significantly lower overall survival (OS; BAALC: p = 0.001 at 5 years 29.4% vs. 69.8%; ERG: p < 0.0001 at 5 years 4% vs. 50.4%) and disease-free survival (BAALC: p = 0.001 at 5 years 19.5% vs. 69.8%; ERG: p < 0.0001 at 5 years 4.2% vs. 47%). Patients were further stratified combining BAALC and ERG expression in an integrative prognostic risk score (IPRS). After a median follow-up of 54 months (95% CI 45-63 months) among survivors, IPRS for high versus low expressers was a significant predictor for OS (BAALC + ERG: 4% vs. 71.6%, p < 0.0001) and DFS (BAALC + ERG: 4.5% vs. 74.1%, p < 0.0001). In a multivariate model, IPRS of BAALC + ERG expression retained prognostic significance for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.96, 95%CI 1.91-4.59, p < 0.001) and DFS (HR 3.61, 95%CI 2.26-5.76, p < 0.001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2800DOI Listing
December 2020

Bortezomib and cyclophosphamide based chemo-mobilization in multiple myeloma.

Int J Hematol 2020 Dec 2;112(6):835-840. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, CRC, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, 3rd floor, Paymaster Shodhika, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, 410210, India.

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization regimens in multiple myeloma typically use filgrastim (GCSF) alone or combination of GCSF with plerixafor or high-dose cyclophosphamide. Murine model and human studies have shown HSPC mobilization potential of bortezomib. A total of 37 patients underwent mobilization using bortezomib 1.3 mg/m on day 1, 4, 8 and 11, cyclophosphamide 1 g/m on day 8 and 9, and GCSF 10 μg/kg from day 10 (B-Cy-GCSF). This regimen was compared with our earlier cohort of patients where cyclophosphamide was given at dose of 1 g/m on day 1 and day 2 followed by GCSF 10 μg/kg from day 4 (Cy-GCSF). In B-Cy-GCSF group, median CD34 cells collected were 9.21 × 10/kg (range 4.95-17.1) while in the Cy-GCSF cohort, the median CD34 cell yield was 8.2 × 10/kg (0.4-24.2). Target CD34 cells yield of 5 × 10/kg was achieved with single apheresis in 58.6% of patients after B-Cy-GCSF mobilization as compared to 44.3% in Cy-GCSF group (p = 0.07). Three patients failed mobilization after Cy-GCSF, while no patients failed mobilization in bortezomib group. Addition of bortezomib to Cy-GCSF mobilization showed a trend towards increased CD34 collection and reduced need for apheresis sessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02973-zDOI Listing
December 2020

Utility of CD36 as a novel addition to the immunophenotypic signature of RAM-phenotype acute myeloid leukemia and study of its clinicopathological characteristics.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2021 Mar 31;100(2):206-217. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, HBNI University, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: In 2016, Children Oncology Group (COG) described a new high-risk subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a distinct immunophenotypic-signature, RAM-phenotype (RAM-AML). Data on clinical and laboratory features of RAM-AML are still limited to COG report only. Herein, we report the clinicopathological characteristics and detailed immunophenotypic features of RAM-AML patients. In COG report, 38% of RAM-AML belonged to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL)-subtype. Hence, we further compared the immunophenotypic features RAM-AML with non-RAM-AMKL diagnosed during the same study period.

Methods: We included RAM-AML and non-RAM AMKL patients diagnosed between January 2017 and December 2019. We studied their morphological, cytochemical, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics. Mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) and expression-pattern of immunophenotypic markers of RAM-AML were compared with non-RAM AMKLs patients.

Results: We identified 11 RAM-AML (1%) and 21 non-RAM AMKL (1.9%) patients in 1102 pediatric-AML patients. Seven of 11 (63.64%) patients belonged to FAB-M7-subtype. CD56, CD117, and CD33 demonstrated overexpression, whereas CD45 and CD38 showed under-expression in RAM-AML patients. CD36 was consistently negative in RAM-AML, whereas moderate-bright positive in non-RAM AMKLs patients (p < 0.0001). On principle component analysis, addition of CD36 enhanced the visual-separation between RAM-AML and non-RAM AMKL clusters. Cytogenetic and molecular studies did not show any recurrent abnormality; however, RNA-sequencing study revealed CBFA2T3-GLIS2-fusion in three of seven (42.8%) RAM-AML patients.

Conclusion: We report the clinicopathological characteristics and the detailed immunophenotypic profile in the world's second series of RAM-AML patients. We further report a novel finding of CD36-negative expression as an additional parameter to the multidimensional immunophenotypic signature of this entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21943DOI Listing
March 2021

Increased toxicities in children with Burkitt lymphoma treated with rituximab: Experience from a tertiary cancer center in India.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 11 31;67(11):e28682. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Even though rituximab has emerged as standard of care for the management of high-risk pediatric Burkitt lymphoma (BL), its safety in children from the low-middle-income countries (LMICs) remains to be proven. We herein report our experience of using rituximab in children with BL.

Methods: All patients diagnosed with BL between January 2015 and December 2017 were treated in a risk-stratified manner with either the modified MCP-842 or modified LMB protocol. Patients with poor response to MCP-842 were switched to the LMB-salvage regimen. In addition, rituximab was given to selected high-risk patients.

Result: Forty-two (49.4%) of 85 patients with BL received rituximab. The incidence of febrile neutropenia (90.5% vs 67.4%; P = 0.02), pneumonia (38.1% vs 11.6%; P = 0.005), intensive care unit admissions (54.5% vs 17.6%; P = 0.002), and toxic deaths (26.2% vs 9.3%; P = 0.04) was higher among BL patients who received rituximab. Pneumonia was fatal in 11 of 16 (69%) patients who received rituximab. On multivariate analysis, rituximab continued to be significantly associated with toxic deaths ( OR: 11.45 [95% CI: 1.87-70.07; P = 0.008]). The addition of rituximab to intensive chemotherapy resulted in an inferior one-year event-free survival (49.4% ± 8.1% vs 79.3% ± 6.5%; P = 0.025) and one-year overall survival (63.1% ± 8.5% vs 91.8% ± 4.5%; P = 0.007) with no improvement in one-year relapse-free survival (78.3% ± 7.3% vs 83.9% ± 6.0%; P = 0.817).

Conclusion: Rituximab was associated with increased toxicities and toxic deaths in our patients. The potential immunomodulatory effect of rituximab and increased susceptibility to infections in patients from LMICs have to be carefully considered while choosing this drug in the treatment of BL in resource-constrained settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28682DOI Listing
November 2020

Extramedullary Sarcoma of Brain With Extracranial Extension Mimicking a Primary Brain Tumor.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 01;43(1):e149-e151

Department of Paediatric, Oncology Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai Maharashtra, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001928DOI Listing
January 2021

Eleven-marker 10-color flow cytometric assessment of measurable residual disease for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia using an approach of exclusion.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 Aug 19. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, HBNI University, Navi Mumbai, India.

Measurable/minimal residual disease (MRD) status has been suggested as a powerful indicator of clinical-outcome in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). Multicolor flow cytometric (MFC)-based T-ALL MRD reports are limited and traditionally based on the utilization of markers-of-immaturity like TdT and CD99. Moreover, studies demonstrating the multicolor flow cytometric (MFC) approach for the assessment of T-ALL MRD are sparse. Herein, we describe an 11-marker, 10-color MFC-based T-ALL MRD method using an "approach of exclusion."

Methods: The study included 269 childhood T-ALL patients treated with a modified-MCP841 protocol. An 11-marker, 10-color MFC-based MRD was performed in bone marrow (BM) samples at the end-of-induction (EOI) and end-of-consolidation (EOC) time-points using Kaluza-version-1.3 software.

Results: We studied EOI-MRD in 269 and EOC-MRD in 105 childhood T-ALL patients. EOI-MRD was detectable in 125 (46.5%) samples (median, 0.3%; range, 0.0007-66.3%), and EOC-MRD was detectable in 34/105 (32.4%) samples (median, 0.055%; range, 0.0008-27.6%). Leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) found useful for MRD assessment were dual-negative CD4/CD8 (40.9%), dual-positive CD4/CD8 (23.3%) and only CD4 or CD8 expression (35.8%); dim/subset/dim-negative surface-CD3 (39%), dim/subset/dim-negative/negative CD5 (28.3%), dim/dim-negative/negative/heterogeneous CD45 (44.7%) and co-expression of CD5/CD56 (7.5%). EOI-MRD-positive status was found to be the most-relevant independent factor in the prediction of inferior relapse-free and overall survival.

Conclusion: We described an 11-marker 10-color MFC-based highly sensitive MRD assay in T-ALL using an approach of exclusion. The addition of CD4 and CD8 to the pan-T-cell markers in a 10-color assay is highly useful in T-ALL MRD assessment and extends its applicability to almost all T-ALL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21939DOI Listing
August 2020

High-grade transformation in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2020 Jul-Sep;63(3):503-505

Department of Pathology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_343_18DOI Listing
August 2020

Machine learning derived genomics driven prognostication for acute myeloid leukemia with .

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 5;61(13):3154-3160. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Haematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, India.

Panel based next generation sequencing was performed on a discovery cohort of AML with . Supervised machine learning identified mutation and absence of mutations in and genes as well as a low mutation to be associated with favorable outcome. Based on this data patients were classified into favorable and poor genetic risk classes. Patients classified as poor genetic risk had a significantly lower overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS). We could validate these findings independently on a validation cohort ( = 61). Patients in the poor genetic risk group were more likely to harbor measurable residual disease. Poor genetic risk emerged as an independent risk factor predictive of inferior outcome. Using an unbiased computational approach based we provide evidence for gene panel-based testing in AML with and a framework for integration of genomic markers toward clinical decision making in this heterogeneous disease entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1798951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116445PMC
December 2020

Mast cell differentiation of leukemic blasts in diverse myeloid neoplasms: A potential pre-myelomastocytic leukemia condition.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 Aug 1. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, HBNI University, Navi Mumbai, India.

Introduction: Myeloid neoplasm with blasts showing mast cell (MC)-differentiation and MC-component less than 10% of all nucleated cells but not fulfilling the criteria for systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm (SM-AHN) or myelomastocytic leukemia (MML) has not been described in the literature. Herein, we report a study of diverse myeloid malignancies with blasts showing MC-differentiation but not meeting the criteria for SM-AHN or MML. We also evaluated the utility of flow-cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) in the characterization of immature-MCs (iMCs).

Methods: We identified nine patients of myeloid neoplasms and studied their morphological, FCI, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetic and molecular characteristics. We also compared the immunophenotypic features of MCs from patient samples with control samples.

Results: The study included patients with newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1), and chronic myeloid leukemia on follow-up (n = 4) showing MC differentiation in leukemic-blasts. These patients had mildly increased MCs (range, 0.5%-3%) in bone-marrow morphology, including immature-forms and did not meet the criteria for either SM-AHN or MML. On FCI, iMCs were positive for bright-CD117, heterogeneous-CD34, dim-to-negative-HLADR, and moderate-CD203c expression. Expression-levels of CD123 and CD38 were higher (p < 0.001) but CD33 and CD45 were lower in iMCs compared to mature-MC from control samples (p = 0.019 and p = 0.0037).

Conclusion: We reported a rare finding of MC differentiation of leukemic blasts in diverse myeloid neoplasms and proposed it as a potential pre-myelomastocytic leukemia condition. We described the distinct immunophenotypic signature of immature-MCs using commonly used markers and highlighted the utility of FCI for the diagnosis of this entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21938DOI Listing
August 2020

Assessment of tumor Epstein-Barr Virus status and its impact on outcomes in intermediate and high-risk childhood classic Hodgkin Lymphoma treated at a tertiary cancer center in India.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 30;61(13):3217-3225. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India.

Indian studies on EBV in childhood classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) have mainly analyzed the epidemiology of EBV-positive [EBV(+)HL] or negative HL [EBV(-)HL], with limited data on outcomes. We studied a large cohort of children with intermediate and high-Risk cHL for tumor EBV status and its impact on outcomes retrospectively. Of evaluable 189 patients, 84.7% had EBV(+)HL. Positive status was significantly associated with age ≤ 10 years ( < .001), males ( = .015), non-Nodular Sclerosis (NS) histology ( = .004) and inversely with bulky-mediastinal disease ( < .001). At a median follow-up of 29-months (range1-75), 3-year Event-Free Survival (EFS) for EBV(+)HL and EBV(-)HL was 93.6%(95%CI:89.8%-97.5%), 81.1%(95%CI:67.2%-97.9%), ( = .048) and Overall Survival (OS) was 94.9%(95%CI:91.6%-98.4%), 84.6%(95%CI:71.5%-100%), ( = .075) respectively. Three-year EFS was better in males (HR-0.267,95%CI:0.078-0.916,  = .036) in EBV(+)HL and in patients with serum-albumin > 3g/dL (HR-0.117,95%CI:0.019-0.705,  = .019) in EBV(-)HL. EBV is associated with most of intermediate and high-risk childhood cHL, occurs in younger male patients with non-NS histology, with reduced incidence of bulky-mediastinal disease and favorable survival in childhood cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1800005DOI Listing
December 2020

Outcomes of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma treated with pediatric ALL-like protocol.

Indian J Cancer 2020 Jul-Sep;57(3):262-266

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: The management of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in adults poses uncertainties, including optimal chemotherapy regimen, need for radiotherapy, and the benefit of stem cell transplant. This retrospective case series investigated the efficacy of the pediatric BFM-90 regimen in adult patients and evaluated the role of early response assessment by positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) in predicting outcomes.

Methods: Patients aged 15 years or older with T-LBL diagnosed at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India were given chemotherapy according to the European BFM-90 protocol (n = 38). The patients were evaluated for early response by interim PET-CT, post-induction and monitored for toxicity and long-term outcomes.

Results: Thirty-eight consecutive patients (median age 23.5 years) were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 33.5 (1-77) months, following induction, 35 out of 38 patients (92.1%) had achieved complete response (CR) on PET-CT. Thirty (78.9%) patients treated according to BFM-90 were alive in first remission. Three-year event-free survival for those with CR on PET-CT was 78%, against no survivors for those who remained PET-positive.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of BFM-90 approach in adults with T-LBL. We found an early PET response to be highly predictive of outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijc.IJC_616_18DOI Listing
December 2020

Flow cytometric evaluation of CD38 expression levels in the newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the effect of chemotherapy on its expression in measurable residual disease, refractory disease and relapsed disease: an implication for anti-CD38 immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 05;8(1)

Hematopathology Laboratory, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Recently, anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (Mab) therapy has become a focus of attention as an additional/alternative option for many hematological neoplasms including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). It has been shown that antitumor efficacy of anti-CD38-Mab depends on the level of CD38 expression on tumor cells. Reports on CD38 expression in T-ALL are scarce, and data on the effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy on CD38 expression are limited to very few samples. Moreover, it lacks entirely in refractory disease and in adult T-ALL. We report the flow cytometric evaluation of CD38 expression in T-ALL blasts at diagnosis and the effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy on its expression in measurable residual disease (MRD), refractory disease (MRD≥5%), and relapsed disease in a large cohort of T-ALL.

Methods: The study included 347 samples (188 diagnostic, 100 MRD, 24 refractory and 35 relapse samples) from 196 (children: 85; adolescents/adults: 111) patients with T-ALL. CD38-positive blasts percentages (CD38-PBPs) and expression-intensity (mean fluorescent intensity, CD38-MFI) were studied using multicolor flow cytometry (MFC). MFC-based MRD was performed at the end-of-induction (EOI-MRD, day 30-35) and end-of-consolidation (EOC-MRD, day 78-85) subsequent follow-up (SFU-MRD) points.

Results: Patients were classified into early thymic precursor subtype of T-ALL (ETPALL, 54/188, 28.7%), and non-ETPALL (134/188, 71.3%). Of 188, EOI-MRD assessment was available in 152, EOC-MRD was available in 96 and SFU-MRD was available in 14 patients. CD38 was found positive in 97.9% (184/188) of diagnostic, 88.7% (110/124) MRD (including 24-refractory) and 82.9% (29/35) relapsed samples. Median (95% CI) of CD38-PBPs/MFI in diagnostic, MRD, refractory, and relapsed T-ALL samples were, respectively, 85.9% (82.10%-89.91%)/4.2 (3.88-4.47), 74.0% (58.87%-83.88%)/4.6 (3.67-6.81), 79.6% (65.25%-96.11%)/4.6 (3.33-8.47) and 85.2% (74.48%-93.01%)/5.6 (4.14-8.99). No significant difference was noted in CD38 expression between pediatric versus adult and patients with ETPALL versus non-ETPALL. No change was observed in CD38-MFI between diagnostic versus MRD and diagnostic versus relapsed paired samples. However, we noticed a mild drop in the CD38-PBPs in MRD samples compared with the diagnostic samples (p=0.016).

Conclusion: We report an in-depth analysis of CD38 expression in a large cohort of T-ALL at diagnosis, during chemotherapy, and at relapse. Our data demonstrated that CD38 is robustly expressed in T-ALL blasts with a little effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy making it a potentially effective target for antiCD38-Mab therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-000630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247386PMC
May 2020

Post-induction Measurable Residual Disease Using Multicolor Flow Cytometry Is Strongly Predictive of Inferior Clinical Outcome in the Real-Life Management of Childhood T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Study of 256 Patients.

Front Oncol 2020 24;10:577. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.

Measurable/minimal residual disease (MRD) status is suggested as a powerful indicator of clinical-outcome in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). Contrary to B-cell ALL, reports on T-ALL MRD are limited and mostly based on molecular methods, mainly from developed countries. Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC)-based T-ALL studies are very few. Clinically relevant cut-off levels and ideal time-point for MRD assessment are still inconclusive. In view of lack of T-ALL MRD data from the developing world, we evaluated the prognostic value of MFC-based post-induction (PI)-MRD assessment in T-ALL in the context of standard practice. We included 256 childhood-T-ALL patients (age < 15 years) treated with a modified-MCP841 protocol, which uses high-dose cytarabine during consolidation, as a part of standard hospital practice. MRD was studied using 10-color 11-antibody MFC with any level of detectable disease being considered positive. Post-induction (PI)-MRD was available in all patients, and post-consolidation (PC) MRD was available mostly in PI-MRD-positive patients ( = 88). Three years cumulative-incidence-of-relapse (3years-CIR) in PI-MRD-positive patients was inferior to negative patients (46.3% vs. 18.4%). The median relapse-free-survival (RFS), event-free-survival (EFS) and overall-survival (OS) with hazard ratio (HR) of PI-MRD-positive patients were 21.4 months vs not reached ( < 0.0001, HR-4.7), 21.6 months vs. not-reached ( = 0.0003, HR-2.01) and 37.3 months vs. not reached ( = 0.026, HR-1.64) respectively. RFS, EFS and OS of patients with PI-MRD<0.01% ( = 17) were as inferior as PI-MRD ≥ 0.01% in comparison with MRD-negative patients with HR of 4.7 ( < 0.0001), 2.45 ( = 0.0003), and 2.5 ( = 0.029), respectively. Three-years-CIR of patients with hyperleukocytosis (≥100 × 109/L) was also higher (50.5 vs. 27.6%) with inferior RFS, EFS, and OS. Among PI-MRD-positive patients, 3years-CIR, RFS, EFS, and OS of PC-MRD-positive were also inferior to that of negative patients. On multivariate analysis any-level detectable PI-MRD and hyperleukocytosis remained independently associated with inferior RFS, EFS, and OS. A combination of PI-MRD-positive status and hyperleukocytosis identified the patients with the worst clinical outcomes. Detectable PI-MRD using MFC was found to be the strong predictive factor of inferior clinical outcome in T-ALL patients. The combination of PI-MRD status and hyperleukocytosis provides the most influential tool for the management of T-ALL in resource constrained settings from developing world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193086PMC
April 2020

The Th9 Axis Reduces the Oxidative Stress and Promotes the Survival of Malignant T Cells in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Patients.

Mol Cancer Res 2020 04 29;18(4):657-668. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Biosciences & Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Immune dysfunction is critical in pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Few studies have reported abnormal cytokine profile and dysregulated T-cell functions during the onset and progression of certain types of lymphoma. However, the presence of IL9-producing Th9 cells and their role in tumor cell metabolism and survival remain unexplored. With this clinical study, we performed multidimensional blood endotyping of CTCL patients before and after standard photo/chemotherapy and revealed distinct immune hallmarks of the disease. Importantly, there was a higher frequency of "skin homing" Th9 cells in CTCL patients with early (T1 and T2) and advanced-stage disease (T3 and T4). However, advanced-stage CTCL patients had severely impaired frequency of skin-homing Th1 and Th17 cells, indicating attenuated immunity. Treatment of CTCL patients with standard photo/chemotherapy decreased the skin-homing Th9 cells and increased the Th1 and Th17 cells. Interestingly, T cells of CTCL patients express IL9 receptor (IL9R), and there was negligible IL9R expression on T cells of healthy donors. Mechanistically, IL9/IL9R interaction on CD3 T cells of CTCL patients and Jurkat cells reduced oxidative stress, lactic acidosis, and apoptosis and ultimately increased their survival. In conclusion, coexpression of IL9 and IL9R on T cells in CTCL patients indicates the autocrine-positive feedback loop of Th9 axis in promoting the survival of malignant T cells by reducing the oxidative stress. IMPLICATIONS: The critical role of Th9 axis in CTCL pathogenesis indicates that strategies targeting Th9 cells might harbor significant potential in developing robust CTCL therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-19-0894DOI Listing
April 2020

CD304/neuropilin-1 is a very useful and dependable marker for the measurable residual disease assessment of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 07 16;98(4):328-335. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Hematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Center, HBNI University, Navi Mumbai, India.

Background: Measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment using multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) has become the center point of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) risk stratification and therapeutic management. The addition of new markers can improve the accuracy and applicability of MFC-based MRD assay further. Herein, we evaluated the utility of a new marker, CD304/neuropilin-1, in the assessment of MFC-based MRD.

Methods: Expression patterns of CD304 were studied in leukemic blasts from BCP-ALL patients and in normal precursor B cells (NPBC) from uninvolved non-BCP-ALL bone marrow samples using 10-color MFC. MRD was monitored at end-of-induction (EOI; Days 35-40) and end-of-consolidation (Day 78-80) time points.

Results: We studied CD304 expression in 300 pediatric BCP-ALL patients and found it positive in BCP-ALL blasts in 41.7% of diagnostic samples. It was significantly associated with ETV6-RUNX1 (p < .001) as well as BCR-ABL1 (p = .019) and inversely associated with TCF3-PBX1 fusion gene (p = .0012). It was found clearly negative in NPBC. EOI-MRD was detectable in 152/300 (50.7%; ≥0.01% in 35.33% and <0.01% in 15.33%) samples, in which CD304 was positive in 72/152 (47.4%) diagnostic and 63/152 (41.4%) MRD samples. It was positive in 45.7% (21/46) of low-level (<0.01%) MRD samples. In comparison with diagnostic samples, its expression was retained in 68.06% (49/72), lost in 31.94% (23/72), and gained in 14/80 (17.5%) of EOI-MRD samples.

Conclusions: CD304 is commonly expressed in leukemic blasts of BCP-ALL. It is very useful in distinguishing residual disease from hematogones and is a fairly dependable marker. Hence, it is a valuable addition for enhancing the sensitivity and applicability of MFC-based MRD assay in BCP-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21866DOI Listing
July 2020

Favorable outcomes and reduced toxicity with a novel vinblastine-based non-high dose methotrexate (HDMTX) regimen (modified MCP-842) in pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL): experience from India.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 04 27;61(4):912-918. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Pediatric Hematolymphoid Disease Management Group, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, India.

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in children. Most treatment regimens include high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX), which is logistically difficult to administer in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the outcomes of pediatric ALCL patients treated on a uniform protocol (Modified Multicentric Protocol, MCP-842 regimen) at our hospital between January 2005 and December 2016. Of the 68 patients who received treatment on the Modified MCP842 protocol, 46 patients are alive in remission, 11(16%) had disease progression, 9(13%) relapsed after achieving remission, and 5(7%) had treatment-related mortality (TRM). Seventeen of 20 relapsed/progressed patients subsequently expired. With a median follow-up of 55 months (range 2-165 months), the 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) are 63% (95% CI of 50-73%) and 70%(95% CI of 57-79%), respectively. An indigenous protocol using vinblastine (without HDMTX and steroids) is feasible in a resource-limited setting and achieves outcomes comparable to regimens incorporating HDMTX, with lower toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1695054DOI Listing
April 2020

Clinical profile and outcome of classical Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a risk-adapted approach in a tertiary cancer center in India.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 02 13;67(2):e28058. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has excellent survival rates, but late effects are an issue and dictate modern approaches. We analyzed the clinical profile and outcome of cHL treated on a risk-adapted approach aimed at reducing late effects while improving historical outcomes at our center.

Procedure: Children (≤15 years) consecutively treated for cHL from January 2013 through December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. FDG-PET-CT-based staging and response assessment was done after two cycles for early response (ERA) and end of chemotherapy (late-response assessment [LRA]) if not in complete response (CR; Deauville < 4) at ERA. Stages IA/IB/IIA were low risk (LR) and received two cycles of ABVD (adriamycin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine). Stages IAX/IBX/IIAX/IIB/IIIA were intermediate risk (IR), and stages IIBE/IIBX/IIIAE/IIIAX/IIIB/IVA/IVB were high risk (HR). Both received two cycles of OEPA (oncocristine/etoposide/prednisolone/adriamycin). Those in ERA-CR received two cycles of ABVD if LR, and two and four cycles of COPDac (cyclophosphamide/oncocristine/prednisolone/dacarbazine), respectively, for IR and HR. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) was given to bulky sites and ERA < CR. Those at LRA < CR (Deauville < 3) or progression at any stage received salvage regimens.

Results: In the study period, 126 patients were identified who received the above protocol. There were 12 LR, and 114 advanced staged Hodgkin lymphoma (AHL) (18, IR; 96, HR) of which 91 (79.8%) had bulky sites. Eight (66.6%) LR and 93 (83%) AHL patients achieved ERA-CRs. IFRT was given to 4 (33.3%) LR patients with ERA < CR, and 92 (80.7%) of AHL (91 bulky sites; 1 ERA < CR). At a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 17-62), three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were both 100% for LR, and 94.4% (95% CI, 66.0%-99.2%) for IR, whereas for HR it was 90.3% (95% CI, 82.2%-94.8%) and 92.6% (95% CI, 85.2%-96.4%), respectively.

Conclusions: Children with HL have favorable outcomes with manageable toxicities when treated on a risk-stratified and adapted approach. A high proportion of AHL have bulky disease necessitating IFRT, a concern that will have to be factored in future strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28058DOI Listing
February 2020

Utility of Immunophenotypic Measurable Residual Disease in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Real-World Context.

Front Oncol 2019 13;9:450. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Haematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India.

One of the mainstays of chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induction with a goal to achieve morphological complete remission (CR). However, not all patients by this remission criterion achieve long-term remission and a subset relapse. This relapse is explained by the presence of measurable residual disease (MRD). We accrued 451 consecutive patients of adult AML (from March 2012 to December 2017) after informed consent. All patients received standard chemotherapy. MRD testing was done at post-induction and, if feasible, post-consolidation using 8- and later 10-color FCM. Analysis of MRD was done using a combination of difference from normal and leukemia-associated immunophenotype approaches. Conventional karyotyping and FISH were done as per standard recommendations, and patients were classified into favorable, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups. The presence of -ITD, , and mutations was detected by a fragment length analysis-based assay. As compared to Western data, our cohort of patients was younger with a median age of 35 years. There were 62 induction deaths in this cohort (13.7%), and 77 patients (17.1%) were not in morphological remission. The median follow-up was 26.0 months. Poor-risk cytogenetics and the presence of -ITD were significantly associated with inferior outcome. The presence of post-induction MRD assessment was significantly associated with adverse outcome with respect to OS ( = 0.01) as well as RFS ( = 0.004). Among established genetic subgroups, detection of MRD in intermediate cytogenetic and mutated groups was also highly predictive of inferior outcome. On multivariate analysis, immunophenotypic MRD at the end of induction and -ITD emerged as independent prognostic factors predictive for outcome. This is the first data from a resource-constrained real-world setting demonstrating the utility of AML MRD as well as long-term outcome of AML. Our data is in agreement with other studies that determination of MRD is extremely important in predicting outcome. AML MRD is a very useful guide for guiding post-remission strategies in AML and should be incorporated into routine treatment algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6584962PMC
June 2019

A High-Sensitivity 10-Color Flow Cytometric Minimal Residual Disease Assay in B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma Can Easily Achieve the Sensitivity of 2-in-10 and Is Superior to Standard Minimal Residual Disease Assay: A Study of 622 Patients.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 01 14;98(1):57-67. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Hematopathology Laboratory, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400012, India.

Background: Flow-cytometric minimal residual disease (FC-MRD) monitoring is a well-established risk-stratification factor in B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (-B-ALL) and is being considered as a basis for deintensification or escalation in treatment protocols. However, currently practiced standard FC-MRD has limited sensitivity (up to 0.01%) and higher false MRD-negative rate. Hence, a highly sensitive, widely applicable, and easily reproducible FC-MRD assay is needed, which can provide a reliable basis for therapeutic modifications.

Methods: A 10-color high-event analysis FC-MRD assay was studied for the evaluation of MRD status at postinduction, (PI; day-35), postconsolidation, (PC; day-78), and subsequent follow-up time-points (SFU) in bone marrow samples from pediatric B-ALL.

Results: One-thousand MRD samples (PI-62.2%; PC-26.5%; and SFU-11.3%) from 622 childhood B-ALL patients were studied. High-event analysis was performed with median 4,452,000 events (range, 839,000 to 8,866,000 events) and >4 million events in 71% samples. MRD was measurable in 43.2% of PI-samples, in 29.4% PC-samples, and in 32.7% SFU-samples. To simulate comparison with standard FC-MRD, we reanalyzed MRD results gating only first 500,000 and first 1000,000 events in 122 PI-MRD positive samples with MRD levels <0.02%. Of these samples gated for 500,000 events and 1000,000 events, 32% and 21.3% were found to be falsely MRD-negative, respectively.

Conclusions: We report an easily reproducible high-sensitivity 10-color FC-MRD assay with the sensitivity of 2-in-10 (0.0002%). It allowed the detection of low-level MRD in samples, which could have been reported negative using the standard FC-MRD with limited event analysis. Thus, this high-sensitivity MRD-methodology can provide a reliable basis for therapeutic modifications in B-ALL. © 2019 International Clinical Cytometry Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21831DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical impact of measurable residual disease monitoring by ultradeep next generation sequencing in mutated acute myeloid leukemia.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 27;9(93):36613-36624. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Haematopathology Laboratory, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, India.

Detection of measurable residual disease (MRD) by mutation specific techniques has prognostic relevance in mutated AML ( AML). However, the clinical utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) to detect MRD in AML remains unproven. We analysed the clinical significance of monitoring MRD using ultradeep NGS (NGS-MRD) and flow cytometry (FCM-MRD) in 137 samples obtained from 83 patients of AML at the end of induction (PI) and consolidation (PC). We could monitor 12 different types of mutations at a sensitivity of 0.001% using NGS-MRD. We demonstrated a significant correlation between NGS-MRD and real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). Based upon a one log reduction between PI and PC time points we could classify patients as NGS-MRD positive (<1log reduction) or negative (>1log reduction). NGS-MRD, FCM-MRD as well as mutations were predictive of inferior overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS). On a multivariate analysis NGS-MRD emerged as an independent, most important prognostic factor predictive of inferior OS (hazard ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58 to 8.37) and RFS (hazard ratio, 4.8; 95% CI:2.24 to 10.28). We establish that DNA based NGS MRD is a highly useful test for prediction of relapse and survival in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290958PMC
November 2018