Publications by authors named "Suman K Dhar"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular characterization and expression profile of an alternate proliferating cell nuclear antigen homolog PbPCNA2 in Plasmodium berghei.

IUBMB Life 2019 09 13;71(9):1293-1301. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the processivity factor for various DNA polymerases and it functions in response to DNA damage in eukaryotic system. Plasmodium falciparum contains two PCNAs, while PCNA1 has been attributed to DNA replication, the role of PCNA2 has been assigned to DNA damage response in erythrocytic developmental stages. Although a recent transposon mediated knockout strategy qualified pcna2 as a nonessential gene in Plasmodium berghei, a conventional homologous recombination-based knockout strategy has not been employed for this gene yet. Moreover, the cellular dynamics of PCNA2 in extraerythrocytic stages still remain elusive in Plasmodium. We attempted multiple times to knock out PbPCNA2 from the parasite genome using homologous recombination strategy without much success. However, we were able to generate PbPCNA2-GFP tagged transgenic parasites confirming that the pcna2 locus is amenable to genetic manipulation. The GFP-tagged parasites showed similar growth phenotype, compared to wild-type parasites, in both erythrocytic and sporogonic cycle, suggesting that tagging had no effect on parasite physiology. PbPCNA2 expression was also observed during the sporogonic cycle in midgut oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites. The PbPCNA2 expression was upregulated in the presence of DNA damaging agents like hydroxyurea and methyl methanesulphonate. Our inability to knock out PCNA2 suggested its essentiality in the parasite development and elevated expression during DNA damaging condition hint at a critical role of the protein in parasite physiology. © 2019 IUBMB Life, 71(9):1293-1301, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2036DOI Listing
September 2019

Helicobacter pylori shows asymmetric and polar cell divisome assembly associated with DNA replisome.

FEBS J 2018 07 1;285(13):2531-2547. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

DNA replication and cell division are two fundamental processes in the life cycle of a cell. The majority of prokaryotic cells undergo division by means of binary fission in coordination with replication of the genome. Both processes, but especially their coordination, are poorly understood in Helicobacter pylori. Here, we studied the cell divisome assembly and the subsequent processes of membrane and peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterium. To our surprise, we found the cell divisome assembly to be polar, which was well-corroborated by the asymmetric membrane and peptidoglycan synthesis at the poles. The divisome components showed its assembly to be synchronous with that of the replisome and the two remained associated throughout the cell cycle, demonstrating a tight coordination among chromosome replication, segregation and cell division in H. pylori. To our knowledge, this is the first report where both DNA replication and cell division along with their possible association have been demonstrated for this pathogenic bacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.14499DOI Listing
July 2018

Identification of putative Z-ring-associated proteins, involved in cell division in human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

FEBS Lett 2016 07 29;590(14):2158-71. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Cell division in bacteria is initiated by FtsZ, which forms a Z ring at the middle of the cell, between the nucleoids. The Z ring is stabilized by Z ring-associated proteins (Zaps), which crosslink the FtsZ filaments and provide strength. The deletion of Zaps leads to the elongation phenotype with an abnormal Z ring. The components of cell division in Helicobacter pylori are similar to other gram negative bacteria except for the absence of few components including Zaps. Here, we used HHsearch to identify homologs of the missing cell division proteins and got potential hits for ZapA and ZapB, as well as for few other cell division proteins. We further validated the function of the putative ZapA homolog by genetic complementation, immuno-colocalization and biochemical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.12230DOI Listing
July 2016

Sequence-specific recognition of DNA minor groove by an NIR-fluorescence switch-on probe and its potential applications.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Oct 8;43(18):8651-63. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bengaluru 560064, India

In molecular biology, understanding the functional and structural aspects of DNA requires sequence-specific DNA binding probes. Especially, sequence-specific fluorescence probes offer the advantage of real-time monitoring of the conformational and structural reorganization of DNA in living cells. Herein, we designed a new class of D2A (one-donor-two-acceptor) near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence switch-on probe named quinone cyanine-dithiazole ( QCY-DT: ) based on the distinctive internal charge transfer (ICT) process for minor groove recognition of AT-rich DNA. Interestingly, QCY-DT: exhibited strong NIR-fluorescence enhancement in the presence of AT-rich DNA compared to GC-rich and single-stranded DNAs. We show sequence-specific minor groove recognition of QCY-DT: for DNA containing 5'-AATT-3' sequence over other variable (A/T)4 sequences and local nucleobase variation study around the 5'-X(AATT)Y-3' recognition sequence revealed that X = A and Y = T are the most preferable nucleobases. The live cell imaging studies confirmed mammalian cell permeability, low-toxicity and selective staining capacity of nuclear DNA without requiring RNase treatment. Further, Plasmodium falciparum with an AT-rich genome showed specific uptake with a reasonably low IC50 value (<4 µM). The ease of synthesis, large Stokes shift, sequence-specific DNA minor groove recognition with switch-on NIR-fluorescence, photostability and parasite staining with low IC50 make QCY-DT: a potential and commercially viable DNA probe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4605319PMC
October 2015

A thiazole coumarin (TC) turn-on fluorescence probe for AT-base pair detection and multipurpose applications in different biological systems.

Sci Rep 2014 Sep 25;4:6476. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, Karnataka, India.

Sequence-specific recognition of DNA by small turn-on fluorescence probes is a promising tool for bioimaging, bioanalytical and biomedical applications. Here, the authors report a novel cell-permeable and red fluorescent hemicyanine-based thiazole coumarin (TC) probe for DNA recognition, nuclear staining and cell cycle analysis. TC exhibited strong fluorescence enhancement in the presence of DNA containing AT-base pairs, but did not fluoresce with GC sequences, single-stranded DNA, RNA and proteins. The fluorescence staining of HeLa S3 and HEK 293 cells by TC followed by DNase and RNase digestion studies depicted the selective staining of DNA in the nucleus over the cytoplasmic region. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis by flow cytometry demonstrated the potential application of TC in cell cycle analysis in HEK 293 cells. Metaphase chromosome and malaria parasite DNA imaging studies further confirmed the in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic applications of probe TC. Probe TC may find multiple applications in fluorescence spectroscopy, diagnostics, bioimaging and molecular and cell biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep06476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174567PMC
September 2014

Histone H3K9 acetylation level modulates gene expression and may affect parasite growth in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

FEBS J 2014 Dec 13;281(23):5265-78. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Three-dimensional positioning of the nuclear genome plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of genes. Although nucleographic domain compartmentalization in the regulation of epigenetic state and gene expression is well established in higher organisms, it remains poorly understood in the pathogenic parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, we report that two histone tail modifications, H3K9Ac and H3K14Ac, are differentially distributed in the parasite nucleus. We find colocalization of active gene promoters such as Tu1 (tubulin-1 expressed in the asexual stages) with H3K9Ac marks at the nuclear periphery. By contrast, asexual stage inactive gene promoters such as Pfg27 (gametocyte marker) and Pfs28 (ookinete marker) occupy H3K9Ac devoid zones at the nuclear periphery. The histone H3K9 is predominantly acetylated by the PCAF/GCN5 class of lysine acetyltransferases, which is well characterized in the parasite. Interestingly, embelin, a specific inhibitor of PCAF/GCN5 family histone acetyltransferase, selectively decreases total H3K9Ac acetylation levels (but not H3K14Ac levels) around the var gene promoters, leading to the downregulation of var gene expression, suggesting interplay among histone acetylation status, as well as subnuclear compartmentalization of different genes and their activation in the parasites. Finally, we found that embelin inhibited parasitic growth at the low micromolar range, raising the possibility of using histone acetyltransferases as a target for antimalarial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13067DOI Listing
December 2014

Plasmodium falciparum single-stranded DNA-binding protein (PfSSB) interacts with PfPrex helicase and modulates its activity.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2014 Feb 11;351(1):78-87. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) apicoplast is an essential organelle harbouring a ~35-kb circular genome. Prokaryotic nature of this organelle and its components makes it an attractive therapeutic target. The single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) and multidomain protein PfPrex are important apicoplast replication proteins. However, regulation of these proteins through protein-protein interaction remains largely unknown. Here, we report that P. falciparum single-stranded DNA-binding protein (PfSSB) interacts with PfPrex helicase and modulates its activity. N-terminal domain of PfSSB is involved in this interaction, whereas C-terminal domain plays a pivotal role in the modulation of helicase activity. These results further, to our knowledge, understand apicoplast DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1574-6968.12343DOI Listing
February 2014

Crystal structure and mode of helicase binding of the C-terminal domain of primase from Helicobacter pylori.

J Bacteriol 2013 Jun 12;195(12):2826-38. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

To better understand the poor conservation of the helicase binding domain of primases (DnaGs) among the eubacteria, we determined the crystal structure of the Helicobacter pylori DnaG C-terminal domain (HpDnaG-CTD) at 1.78 Å. The structure has a globular subdomain connected to a helical hairpin. Structural comparison has revealed that globular subdomains, despite the variation in number of helices, have broadly similar arrangements across the species, whereas helical hairpins show different orientations. Further, to study the helicase-primase interaction in H. pylori, a complex was modeled using the HpDnaG-CTD and HpDnaB-NTD (helicase) crystal structures using the Bacillus stearothermophilus BstDnaB-BstDnaG-CTD (helicase-primase) complex structure as a template. By using this model, a nonconserved critical residue Phe534 on helicase binding interface of DnaG-CTD was identified. Mutation guided by molecular dynamics, biophysical, and biochemical studies validated our model. We further concluded that species-specific helicase-primase interactions are influenced by electrostatic surface potentials apart from the critical hydrophobic surface residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00091-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697261PMC
June 2013

DNA binding activity of Helicobacter pylori DnaB helicase: the role of the N-terminal domain in modulating DNA binding activities.

FEBS J 2012 Jan 9;279(2):234-50. Epub 2011 Dec 9.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Replicative helicases are major motor proteins essential for chromosomal DNA replication in prokaryotes. Usually hexameric in solution, their DNA binding property must have different roles at stages ranging from the loading onto a branched structure at initiation from the origin to the highly processive translocation during elongation. Here, we have analysed the DNA binding activity of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) replicative helicase, DnaB. The results indicate that while the C-terminal region is important for its DNA binding activity, the N-terminus appears to dampen the protein's affinity for DNA. The masking activity of the N-terminus does not require ATP or hexamerization of HpDnaB and can be overcome by deleting the N-terminus. It can also be neutralized by engaging the N-terminus in an interaction with a partner like the C-terminus of DnaG primase. The inhibitory effect of the N-terminus on DNA binding activity is consistent with the 3D homology model of HpDnaB. Electron microscopy of the HpDnaB-ssDNA complex showed that HpDnaB preferentially bound at the ends of linear ssDNA and translocated along the DNA in the presence of ATP. These results provide an insight into the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of different regions of HpDnaB on DNA binding activities that may be central to the loading and translocation functions of DnaB helicases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08418.xDOI Listing
January 2012

A unique 45-amino-acid region in the toprim domain of Plasmodium falciparum gyrase B is essential for its activity.

Eukaryot Cell 2009 Nov 21;8(11):1759-69. Epub 2009 Aug 21.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.

DNA gyrase is the only topoisomerase that can introduce negative supercoils into the DNA at the cost of ATP hydrolysis. Some but not all the steps of the topoisomerization reaction are understood clearly for both eukaryotic topoII and DNA gyrase. This study is an attempt to understand whether the B subunit of DNA gyrase binds to DNA directly, which may be central to the stimulation of its ATPase activity essential for gyrase function. We have dissected the Plasmodium falciparum gyrase B (PfGyrB) subunit to identify a 45-amino-acid region in the toprim domain that is responsible for its intrinsic DNA binding activity, DNA-stimulated ATPase activity, and DNA cleavage. We find that DNA has to enter through the ATP-operated clamp of PfGyrB to gain access to the DNA binding region. Furthermore, the rate of ATP hydrolysis of PfGyrB increases significantly with increasing DNA length, suggesting a possible communication between the ATPase domain and the DNA binding region that can account for its optimal ATPase activity. These results not only highlight the mechanism of GyrB action in the deadly human parasite P. falciparum but also provide meaningful insights into the current mechanistic model of DNA transport by gyrase during the topoisomerization reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.00149-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2772398PMC
November 2009

Helicobacter pylori single-stranded DNA binding protein--functional characterization and modulation of H. pylori DnaB helicase activity.

FEBS J 2009 Jan 11;276(2):519-31. Epub 2008 Dec 11.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Helicobacter pylori, an important bacterial pathogen, causes gastric ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. The fundamentals of basic biology such as DNA replication are poorly understood in this pathogen. In the present study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein from H. pylori. The N-terminal DNA binding domain shows significant homology with E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), whereas the C-terminal domain shows less homology. The overall DNA-binding activity and tetramerization properties, however, remain unaffected. In in vitro experiments with purified proteins, H. pylori (Hp) SSB bound specifically to ssDNA and modulated the enzymatic ATPase and helicase activity of HpDnaB helicase. HpSSB and HpDnaB proteins were co-localized in sharp, distinct foci in exponentially growing H. pylori cells, whereas both were spread over large areas in its dormant coccoid form, suggesting the absence of active replication forks in the latter. These results confirm the multiple roles of SSB during DNA replication and provide evidence for altered replicative metabolism in the spiral and coccoid forms that may be central to the bacterial physiology and pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06799.xDOI Listing
January 2009

Mcm10 and And-1/CTF4 recruit DNA polymerase alpha to chromatin for initiation of DNA replication.

Genes Dev 2007 Sep 30;21(18):2288-99. Epub 2007 Aug 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

The MCM2-7 helicase complex is loaded on DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle to license the origins for replication in S phase. How the initiator primase-polymerase complex, DNA polymerase alpha (pol alpha), is brought to the origins is still unclear. We show that And-1/Ctf4 (Chromosome transmission fidelity 4) interacts with Mcm10, which associates with MCM2-7, and with the p180 subunit of DNA pol alpha. And-1 is essential for DNA synthesis and the stability of p180 in mammalian cells. In Xenopus egg extracts And-1 is loaded on the chromatin after Mcm10, concurrently with DNA pol alpha, and is required for efficient DNA synthesis. Mcm10 is required for chromatin loading of And-1 and an antibody that disrupts the Mcm10-And-1 interaction interferes with the loading of And-1 and of pol alpha, inhibiting DNA synthesis. And-1/Ctf4 is therefore a new replication initiation factor that brings together the MCM2-7 helicase and the DNA pol alpha-primase complex, analogous to the linker between helicase and primase or helicase and polymerase that is seen in the bacterial replication machinery. The discovery also adds to the connection between replication initiation and sister chromatid cohesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.1585607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1973143PMC
September 2007

Expression and characterization of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum origin recognition complex subunit 1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005 Nov 30;337(3):955-66. Epub 2005 Sep 30.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 67, India.

In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for the initiation of DNA replication. The largest subunit of this complex (ORC1) has a regulatory role in origin activation. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of Plasmodium falciparum ORC1 homolog. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, we show here that PfORC1 is expressed in the nucleus during the late trophozoite and schizont stages where maximum amount of DNA replication takes place. Homology modelling of the carboxy terminal region of PfORC1 (781-1033) using Saccharomyces pombe Cdc6/Cdc18 homolog as a template reveals the presence of a similar AAA+ type nucleotide-binding fold. This region shows ATPase activity in vitro that is important for the origin activity. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of an individual ORC subunit that shows ATPase activity. These observations strongly suggest that PfORC1 might be involved in DNA replication initiation during the blood stage of the parasitic life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.131DOI Listing
November 2005

Purification and characterization of the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain of an ABC drug transporter of Candida albicans: uncommon cysteine 193 of Walker A is critical for ATP hydrolysis.

Biochemistry 2003 Sep;42(36):10822-32

Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India 110067.

The Candida drug resistance protein Cdr1p (approximately 170 kDa) is a member of ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of drug transporters, characterized by the presence of 2 nucleotide binding domains (NBD) and 12 transmembrane segments (TMS). NBDs of these transporters are the hub of ATP hydrolysis activity, and their sequence contains a conserved Walker A motif (GxxGxGKS/T). Mutations of the lysine residue within this motif abrogate the ability of NBDs to hydrolyze ATP. Interestingly, the sequence alignments of Cdr1p NBDs with other bacterial and eukaryotic transporters reveal that its N-terminal NBD contains an unusual Walker A sequence (GRPGAGCST), as the invariant lysine is replaced by a cysteine. In an attempt to understand the significance of this uncommon positioning of cysteine within the Walker A motif, we for the first time have purified and characterized the N-terminal NBD (encompassing first N-terminal 512 amino acids) of Cdr1p as well as its C193A mutant protein. The purified NBD-512 protein could exist as an independent functional general ribonucleoside triphosphatase with strong divalent cation dependence. It exhibited ATPase activity with an apparent K(m) in the 0.8-1.0 mM range and V(max) in the range of 147-160 nmol min(-)(1) (mg of protein)(-)(1). NBD-512-associated ATPase activity was also sensitive to inhibitors such as vanadate, azide, and NEM. The Mut-NBD-512 protein (C193A) showed a severe impairment in its ability to hydrolyze ATP (95%); however, no significant effect on ATP (TNP-ATP) binding was observed. Our results show that C193 is critical for N-terminal NBD-mediated ATP hydrolysis and represents a unique feature distinguishing the ATP-dependent functionality of the ABC transporters of fungi from those found in bacteria and other eukaryotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0345900DOI Listing
September 2003

A approximately 35 kDa polypeptide from insect cells binds to yeast ACS like elements in the presence of ATP.

BMC Biochem 2002 Aug 19;3:23. Epub 2002 Aug 19.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India.

Background: The S. cerevisiae origin recognition complex binds to the ARS consensus sequence in an ATP dependent fashion. Recently, the yeast Cdc6 has been reported to have DNA binding activity. Conservation of replication proteins among different species strongly supports their functional similarity. Here we report the results of an investigation into the DNA binding activity of human Cdc6 protein. Cdc6 was expressed and purified from baculovirus infected Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) insect cells as GST fusion protein (GST-Cdc6) and its DNA binding activity was tested.

Results: Partially purified fractions containing GSTCdc6 or GST showed an ACS binding activity in an ATP dependent manner. However, further purification revealed the presence of a putative 35 kDa insect cell protein (p35) which was found responsible for the DNA binding activity. A close match to the 9/11 bases of the ARS consensus sequence was sufficient for p35 binding activity. A DNA fragment from the human c-myc origin region containing yeast ACS like elements also showed p35 binding activity.

Conclusions: We have identified a Spodoptera frugiperda protein with ATP dependent DNA binding activity to ACS like elements. ACS like elements have been reported to be essential for ORC binding and replication initiation in yeast but their role in higher eukaryotes still remains elusive. Like the ARS consensus sequence elements of yeast, ACS like elements found in c-myc and lamin beta 2 origin regions may play similar roles in replication and indicate a conserved role for this DNA motif among eukaryotes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC122095PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2091-3-23DOI Listing
August 2002

Xenopus Mcm10 binds to origins of DNA replication after Mcm2-7 and stimulates origin binding of Cdc45.

Mol Cell 2002 Feb;9(2):233-40

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Current models suggest that the replication initiation factor Mcm10 is required for association of Mcm2-7 with origins of replication to generate the prereplicative complex (pre-RC). Here we report that Xenopus Mcm10 (XMcm10) is not required for origin binding of XMcm2-7. Instead, the chromatin binding of XMcm10 at the onset of DNA replication requires chromatin-bound XMcm2-7, and it is independent of Cdk2 and Cdc7. In the absence of XMcm10, XCdc45 binding, XRPA binding, and initiation-dependent plasmid supercoiling are blocked. Therefore, XMcm10 performs its function after pre-RC assembly and before origin unwinding. As one of the earliest known pre-RC activation steps, chromatin binding of XMcm10 is an attractive target for regulation by cell cycle checkpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1097-2765(02)00456-2DOI Listing
February 2002
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