Publications by authors named "Suliman Y Alomar"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interference of quorum sensing regulated bacterial virulence factors and biofilms by Plumbago zeylanica extract.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biology, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.

There has been tremendous spread of antimicrobial resistance globally, mainly due to the excessive and unnecessary use of antibiotics, making the situation alarming. This has created a need for the development of alternative strategies to selectively target the bacterial pathogenicity without exerting selection pressure for the development of antimicrobial resistance. Targeting quorum sensing (QS)-mediated virulence and biofilms by nontoxic natural products is gaining importance as new control strategy to combat the virulence and biofilms of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the crude extract of Plumbago zeylanica was fractioned in different solvents using liquid-liquid partitioning to obtain the most bioactive fraction. The inhibitory effect of the bioactive extract of P. zeylanica on QS at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was studied against Chromobacterium violaceum 12472, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Serratia marcescens MTCC 97. Biofilm inhibition was studied using microtiter plate assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Major phytocompounds detected were cinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal, plumbagin, asarone, 4-chromanol, phthalic acid, palmitic acid, ergost-5-en-3-ol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 was reduced by >80% in the presence of P. zeylanica hexane fraction (PZHF; 200 μg/ml). The most active PZHF inhibited QS-mediated virulence factors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 such as pyocyanin, pyoverdin, rhamnolipid production, motility, etc., significantly at sub-MICs. Similarly, PZHF showed 59 to 76% inhibition of biofilm formation of above test pathogens. The findings revealed that active fraction of P. zeylanica was effective against the QS-regulated functions and biofilms development of Gram -ve pathogenic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23872DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of a 2-Week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Recovery of Symptoms in Patients with Mild to Moderate Covid-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 24;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 severity. This multi-center randomized clinical trial aims to determine the effects of 5000 IU versus 1000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation in the recovery of symptoms and other clinical parameters among mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status.

Study Design And Setting: A total of 69 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 positive adults who were hospitalized for mild to moderate COVID-19 disease were allocated to receive once daily for 2 weeks either 5000 IU oral vitamin D3 ( = 36, 21 males; 15 females) or 1000 IU oral vitamin D3 (standard control) ( = 33, 13 males; 20 females). Anthropometrics were measured and blood samples were taken pre- and post-supplementation. Fasting blood glucose, lipids, serum 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers were measured. COVID-19 symptoms were noted on admission and monitored until full recovery.

Results: Vitamin D supplementation for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels in the 5000 IU group only (adjusted = 0.003). Within-group comparisons also showed a significant decrease in BMI and IL-6 levels overtime in both groups (-values < 0.05) but was not clinically significant in between-group comparisons. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the 5000 IU group had a significantly shorter time to recovery (days) than the 1000 IU group in resolving cough, even after adjusting for age, sex, baseline BMI, and D-dimer (6.2 ± 0.8 versus 9.1 ± 0.8; = 0.039), and ageusia (loss of taste) (11.4 ± 1.0 versus 16.9 ± 1.7; = 0.035).

Conclusion: A 5000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation for 2 weeks reduces the time to recovery for cough and gustatory sensory loss among patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status and mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms. The use of 5000 IU vitamin D3 as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients with suboptimal vitamin D status, even for a short duration, is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308273PMC
June 2021

Antitumor Activity of Nitazoxanide against Colon Cancers: Molecular Docking and Experimental Studies Based on Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Inhibition.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 14;22(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

In colon cancer, wingless (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling is frequently upregulated; however, the creation of a molecular therapeutic agent targeting this pathway is still under investigation. This research aimed to study how nitazoxanide can affect Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cells (HCT-116) and a mouse colon cancer model. Our study included 2 experiments; the first was to test the cytotoxic activity of nitazoxanide in an in vitro study on a colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) versus normal colon cells (FHC) and to highlight the proapoptotic effect by MTT assay, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The second experiment tested the in vivo cytotoxic effect of nitazoxanide against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) prompted cancer in mice. Mice were grouped as saline, DMH control and DMH + nitazoxanide [100 or 200 mg per kg]. Colon levels of Wnt and β-catenin proteins were assessed by Western blotting while proliferation was measured via immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Treating HCT-116 cells with nitazoxanide (inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) = 11.07 µM) revealed that it has a more cytotoxic effect when compared to 5-flurouracil (IC50 = 11.36 µM). Moreover, it showed relatively high IC50 value (non-cytotoxic) against the normal colon cells. Nitazoxanide induced apoptosis by 15.86-fold compared to control and arrested the cell cycle. Furthermore, nitazoxanide upregulated proapoptotic proteins (P53 and BAX) and caspases but downregulated BCL-2. Nitazoxanide downregulated Wnt/β-catenin/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling and PCNA staining in the current mouse model. Hence, our findings highlighted the cytotoxic effect of nitazoxanide and pointed out the effect on Wnt/β-catenin/GSK-3β signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156814PMC
May 2021

Leflunomide Induces Dose-Dependent Lung Injury in Mice via Stimulating Vimentin and NLRP3 Inflammasome Production.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:631216. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Recently, the therapeutic importance of the anti-rheumatic drug, leflunomide, has been increased after the involvement of leflunomide in treating other autoimmune diseases and its promising role in retarding human malignancies. Few studies have focused on the safety in human or animals without clear outlining of the pathologic features on target organs. One clinical study related leflunomide with significant pulmonary complications in predisposed individuals. The current study examined the dose-dependent lung injury produced by leflunomide in healthy mice. Albino mice were allocated into four different groups. Group (1): Vehicle control group, Group (2-4): mice received leflunomide (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg), respectively, for 8 weeks and then lungs were dissected from the mice for histopathological examination and fibrosis evaluation (Masson's trichrome staining and α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess the vimentin and other inflammatory factors in the lung homogenate whereas Western blot analysis was employed to assess α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and collagen 1. Results indicated that leflunomide induced dose-dependent pulmonary injury and the high dose and increased the vimentin, inflammatory markers (NLRP3 and interlukin-1β). Histologic examination showed distorted architecture, marked inflammatory cells infiltrate and increase collagen content. The findings were supported by Western blotting and the immunohistochemical study which showed greater pulmonary α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin content. In conclusion, the current results highlighted that leflunomide produced dose-dependent pulmonary toxicities that requires further investigation of the nature of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.631216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115235PMC
April 2021

Novel Mechanism for Memantine in Attenuating Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice via Downregulating the Spinal HMGB1/TRL4/NF-kB Inflammatory Axis.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sinai University, El-Arish, North Sinai 45511, Egypt.

Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is a common diabetic complication that currently lacks an efficient therapy. The aim of the current work was to uncover the anti-allodynic and neuroprotective effects of memantine in a model of mouse diabetic neuropathy and its ameliorative effect on the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-k B (NF-kB) inflammatory axis. Diabetes was prompted by an alloxan injection (180 mg/kg) to albino mice. On the ninth week after diabetes induction, DNP was confirmed. Diabetic mice were randomly allocated to two groups (six mice each); a diabetes mellitus (DM) group and DM+memantine group (10 mg/kg, daily) for five weeks. DNP-related behaviors were assessed in terms of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia by hot-plate and von Frey filaments. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to measure the spinal glutamate, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The spinal levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate type 1 receptor (NMDAR1), HMGB1, TLR4, and phosphorylated NF-kB were assessed using Western blotting. Histopathological investigation of the spinal cord and sciatic nerves, together with the spinal cord ultrastructure, was employed for assessment of the neuroprotective effect. Memantine alleviated pain indicators in diabetic mice and suppressed excessive NMDAR1 activation, glutamate, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in the spinal cord. The current study validated the ability of memantine to combat the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-kB axis and modulate overactive glutamate spinal transmission, corroborating memantine as an appealing therapeutic target in DNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14040307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065430PMC
April 2021

Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case-control study.

J Transl Med 2021 04 26;19(1):166. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Vitamin D status in patients with COVID-19 is an on-going controversial issue. This study aims to determine differences in the serum 25(OH)D concentrations of Arab Gulf adult residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with risk of COVID-19 infection together with other comorbidities.

Methods: In this multi-center, case-control study, a total of 220 male and female adults presenting with none to mild symptoms were screened for COVID-19 (n = 138 RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive and 82 negative controls). Medical history was noted. Anthropometrics were measured and non-fasting blood samples were collected for the assessment of glucose, lipids, inflammatory markers and serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group compared to the negative group after adjustment for age and BMI (52.8 nmol/l ± 11.0 versus 64.5 nmol/l ± 11.1; p = 0.009). Being elderly (> 60 years) [Odds ratio 6 (95% Confidence Interval, CI 2-18; p = 0.001) as well as having type 2 diabetes (T2D) [OR 6 (95% CI 3-14); p < 0.001)] and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) [OR 6 (95% CI 3-14); p < 0.001)] were significant risk factors for COVID-19 infection independent of age, sex and obesity.

Conclusions: Among Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2, serum 25(OH) D levels were observed to be lower in those who tested positive than negative individuals, but it was the presence of old age, diabetes mellitus and low-HDL-c that were significantly associated with risk of COVID-19 infection. Large population-based randomized controlled trials should be conducted to assess the protective effects of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02838-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072076PMC
April 2021

Effects of home quarantine during COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity and dietary habits of adults in Saudi Arabia.

Sci Rep 2021 03 15;11(1):5904. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Public health endorsements during the present COVID-19 pandemic has led the governments of largely affected countries to imply policies that restrict social mobility to slow COVID-19 spread. The study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 home quarantine on lifestyle and health behavior of Saudi residents. An online survey in Saudi Arabia was launched from May 11 to June 6, 2020. The survey was designed by multidisciplinary scientists and academics uploaded and shared through the Google platform in Arabic and English languages. Questions presented related to responses "before" and "during" COVID-19 home quarantine. A total of 1965 respondents participated and were included in the analysis [921 (47.0%) males and 1044 (53.0%) females]. Non-Saudis were more likely to increase their physical activity during quarantine [odds ratio (95% confidence interval 1.41 (1.11-1.79); p < 0.005]. Prevalence of participants walking daily for more than 4 times per week significantly decreased during pandemic (before vs during, 30.5% vs 29.1%) which was in parallel to the significant increase in the prevalence of participants who did not perform daily walking during the quarantine (21% vs 22.9%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of participants who often consume snacks between meals increased during quarantine (27.4% vs 29.4%, p < 0.001), while the prevalence of participants who never consumed fresh fruits and vegetables significantly increased during home quarantine (2.4% vs 3.7%; p = 0.019). The lockdown imposed in Saudi Arabia modestly but significantly impacted physical activity and dietary behaviors of several citizens and residents in an unhealthy way. Interventions to alleviate these acute adverse lifestyle behaviors during pandemic should be formulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85330-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961137PMC
March 2021

Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on cytochrome-c release and inflammation in colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in Wistar albino rats.

Biosci Rep 2021 Mar;41(3)

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia.

Colon cancer is one of the most common causes of deaths by cancer worldwide. Stem cells have immunosuppressive properties that promote tumor targeting and circumvent obstacles currently in gene therapy. Bone marrow stem cells are believed to have anticancer potential. The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a type of bone marrow stem cells, has been considered a potential therapy for patients with solid tumors due to their capability to enhance the immune response; MSC transplantation has received renewed interest in recent years. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiapoptotic effects of the MSCs on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced inflammation in the rat model of colorectal cancer. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups: control, treated with MSCs, induced by DMH, and induced by DMH and treated with MSCs. The MSCs were intra-rectally injected, and DMH was subcutaneously injected at 20 mg/kg body weight once a week for 15 weeks. The administration of MSCs into rats starting from day 0 of the DMH injection was found to enhance the histopathological picture. The MSC treatment resulted in fewer inflammatory cells than in the DMH group. Therefore, our findings suggest that BMCs have antitumor effects by modulating the cellular redox status and down-regulating the pro-inflammatory genes. Thus, BMCs may provide therapeutic value for colon cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20204356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926179PMC
March 2021

Chemopreventive Effect of 5-Flurouracil Polymeric Hybrid PLGA-Lecithin Nanoparticles against Colon Dysplasia Model in Mice and Impact on p53 Apoptosis.

Biomolecules 2021 01 15;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia.

The use of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is associated with multifaceted challenges and poor pharmacokinetics. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLNs)-based therapy has received attention as efficient carriers for a diversity of drugs. This study evaluated the in vivo chemotherapeutic and anti-proliferative efficacy of 5FU-loaded PLNs against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (Di-MH) prompted colon dysplasia in mice compared to free 5FU. 5FU PLNs were prepared. Male Swiss albino mice were distributed to six experimental groups. Group 1: Saline group. All the other groups were injected weekly with Di-MH [20 mg/kg, s.c.]. Group 2: Di-MH induced colon dysplasia control group. Groups 3 and 4: Di-MH + free 5FU treated group [2.5 and 5 mg/kg]. Groups 5 and 6: Di-MH + 5FU-PLNs treated group [2.5 and 5 mg/kg]. Free 5FU and 5FU-PLNs doses were administered orally, twice weekly. Treatment with 5FU-PLNs induced a higher cytoprotective effect compared to free 5FU as indicated by lower mucosal histopathologic score and reduction in number of Ki-67 immunpositive proliferating nuclei. Additionally, there was significant upregulation of p53 and caspase 3 genes in colon specimens. Our results support the validity of utilizing the PLNs technique to improve the chemopreventive action of 5FU in treating colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11010109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830948PMC
January 2021

ABBV-744 as a potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease enzyme against COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 01 8;11(1):234. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa.

A new pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and become pandemic with thousands new deaths and infected cases globally. To address coronavirus disease (COVID-19), currently no effective drug or vaccine is available. This necessity motivated us to explore potential lead compounds by considering drug repurposing approach targeting main protease (M) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2. This enzyme considered to be an attractive drug target as it contributes significantly in mediating viral replication and transcription. Herein, comprehensive computational investigations were performed to identify potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 M enzyme. The structure-based pharmacophore modeling was developed based on the co-crystallized structure of the enzyme with its biological active inhibitor. The generated hypotheses were applied for virtual screening based PhaseScore. Docking based virtual screening workflow was used to generate hit compounds using HTVS, SP and XP based Glide GScore. The pharmacological and physicochemical properties of the selected lead compounds were characterized using ADMET. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the binding affinities of the considered lead compounds. Binding energies revealed that compound ABBV-744 binds to the M with strong affinity (ΔG -45.43 kcal/mol), and the complex is more stable in comparison with other protein-ligand complexes. Our study classified three best compounds which could be considered as promising inhibitors against main protease SARS-CoV-2 virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79918-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794216PMC
January 2021

Thymol Nanoemulsion: A New Therapeutic Option for Extensively Drug Resistant Foodborne Pathogens.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Dec 30;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Foodborne pathogens have been associated with severe and complicated diseases. Therefore, these types of infections are a concern for public health officials and food and dairy industries. Regarding the wide-spread multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) foodborne pathogens such as Enteritidis ( Enteritidis), new and alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Therefore, we investigated the antimicrobial, anti-virulence, and immunostimulant activities of a stable formulation of thymol as thymol nanoemulsion in an in vivo approach. Notably, treatment with 2.25% thymol nanoemulsion led to a pronounced improvement in the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in addition to decreases in the severity of clinical findings and mortality percentages of challenged chickens with XDR Enteritidis confirming its pronounced antimicrobial activities. Moreover, thymol nanoemulsion, at this dose, had protective effects through up-regulation of the protective cytokines and down-regulation of XDR Enteritidis virulence gene and interleukins () and cytokines as those hinder the host defenses. Furthermore, it enhanced the growth of gut species, which increases the strength of the immune system. For that, we suggested the therapeutic use of thymol nanoemulsion against resistant foodborne pathogens. Finally, we recommended the use of 2.25% thymol nanoemulsion as a feed additive for immunocompromised individuals as well as in the veterinary fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10010025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823989PMC
December 2020

Protective effect of metformin on rat diabetic retinopathy involves suppression of toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-k B expression and glutamate excitotoxicity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 25;90:107193. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus are progressively significant reasons for mortality. Metformin (MET) is considered as the first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes patients, and may be especially beneficial in cases of diabetic retinopathy although the precise mechanisms of MET action are not fully elucidated. The current study was designed to inspect the antioxidant and modulatory actions of MET on DRET in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of MET on the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B (TLR4/NFkB), inflammatory burden and glutamate excitotoxicity was assessed. Twenty-four male rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (1) Vehicle group, (2) Diabetic control: developed diabetes by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.). (3&4) Diabetic + MET group: diabetic rats were left for 9 weeks without treatment and then received oral MET 100 and 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Retinal samples were utilized in biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies. MET administration significantly decreased retinal level of insulin growth factor and significantly suppressed the diabetic induced increase of malondialdehyde, glutamate, tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Further, MET decreased the retinal mRNA expression of NFkB, tumor necrosis factor-α and TLR4 in diabetic rats. The current findings shed the light on MET's efficacy as an adjuvant therapy to hinder the development of diabetic retinopathy, at least partly, via inhibition of oxidative stress-induced NFkB/TLR4 pathway and suppression of glutamate excitotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107193DOI Listing
January 2021

Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Doxycycline Polymeric Nanoparticles: Effect on Tumor Apoptosis in Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma.

Molecules 2020 Jul 15;25(14). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to prepare doxycycline polymeric nanoparticles (DOXY-PNPs) with hope to enhance its chemotherapeutic potential against solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC).

Methods: Three DOXY-PNPs were formulated by nanoprecipitation method using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as a polymer. The prepared DOXY-PNPs were evaluated for the encapsulation efficiency (EE%), the drug loading capacity, particle size, zeta potential (ZP) and the in-vitro release for selection of the best formulation. PNP number 3 was selected for further biological testing based on the best pharmaceutical characters. PNP3 (5 and 10 mg/kg) was evaluated for the antitumor potential against SEC grown in female mice by measuring the tumor mass as well as the expression and immunohistochemical staining for the apoptosis markers; caspase 3 and BAX.

Results: The biological study documented the greatest reduction in tumor mass in mice treated with PNP3. Importantly, treatment with 5 mg/kg of DOXY-PNPs produced a similar chemotherapeutic effect to that produced by 10 mg/kg of free DOXY. Further, a significant elevation in mRNA expression and immunostaining for caspase 3 and BAX was detected in mice group treated with DOXY-PNPs.

Conclusions: The DOXY-PNPs showed greater antitumor potential against SEC grown in mice and greater values for Spearman's correlation coefficients were detected when correlation with tumor mass or apoptosis markers was examined; this is in comparison to free DOXY. Hence, DOXY-PNPs should be tested in other tumor types to further determine the utility of the current technique in preparing chemotherapeutic agents and enhancing their properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396998PMC
July 2020

Metformin Protects From Rotenone-Induced Nigrostriatal Neuronal Death in Adult Mice by Activating AMPK-FOXO3 Signaling and Mitigation of Angiogenesis.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 18;13:84. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Many studies have documented the role of oxidative stress and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of PD. Metformin (MTF) is an antidiabetic medication and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulator that has shown antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties in many disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of MTF in a mouse model of rotenone-prompted PD with a highlight on its influence on the AMPK/forkhead box transcription factor O3 (FOXO3) pathway and striatal angiogenesis. In the running study, PD was induced in mice using repeated doses of rotenone and concomitantly treated with MTF 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 18 days. Rotarod and pole tests were used to examine the animals' motor functionality. After that, animals were sacrificed, and brains were isolated and processed for immunohistochemical investigations or biochemical analyses. Oxidant stress and angiogenic markers were measured, including reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hemoxygenase-1, thioredoxin, AMPK, FOXO3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Results indicated that MTF improved animals' motor function, improved striatal glutathione, Nrf2, hemoxygenase-1, and thioredoxin. Furthermore, MTF upregulated AMPK-FOXO3 proteins and reduced VEGF and cleaved caspase 3. MTF also increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-stained neurons in the substantia nigra neurons and in striatal neuronal terminals. This study is the first to highlight that the neuroprotective role of MTF is mediated through activation of AMPK-FOXO3 signaling and inhibition of the proangiogenic factor, VEGF. Further studies are warranted to confirm this mechanism in other models of PD and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314970PMC
June 2020

CD19 CD24 CD38 Regulatory B Cells and Memory B Cells in Periodontitis: Association with Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Clinical Pathology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are unique subpopulations of B cells with immune-regulating or immune-suppressing properties and play a role in peripheral tolerance. Due to the current limitations of human Breg studies among periodontal diseases, in the present study, we tried to analyze the change in circulating Bregs, pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with periodontitis. Peripheral blood from 55 patients with stage 2 periodontitis and 20 healthy controls was analyzed using flow cytometry to evaluate the frequency of CD19CD24CD38 Breg cells. ELISA was used to assess the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-β. Increased proportions of Breg cells were observed in patients with stage 2 periodontitis compared to controls. Serum levels of cytokines were significantly higher in patients with periodontitis compared to controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between the frequencies of Breg cells and IL35 levels, IL10 levels, and TGF-β. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase in peripheral Breg cells and serum cytokine levels among periodontitis patients seems to be closely associated with disease progression, a possible link between periodontitis, and systemic inflammatory process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350217PMC
June 2020

Chemotherapeutic Potential of Extract: The cGMP-Specific PDE5 Inhibitor as Anti-Infertility Agent Following Long-Term Administration of Tramadol in Male Rats.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jun 11;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

Maxim (EbM) is a well-known Chinese herb that has been widely used for the treatment of several diseases. The main purpose of this study is to examine the role of extract in certain andrological parameters in rats as a natural modulator for adverse viewpoints associated with chronic administration of tramadol (TAM). Fifty rats were categorized into five groups. Untreated rats were known as Group I, whereas rats in Groups II and III were administered 2.43 g/kg/day of extract and 50 mg/kg/day of TAM for 130 consecutive days, respectively. Both of Groups IV and V were administered TAM for 65 successive days, followed by concomitant use of both drugs for another 65 days, with the extract at doses of 0.81 and 2.43 g/kg/day, respectively. TAM showed an injurious effect on sperm attributes, serum hormones, tissue malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and nitric oxide. Elevation of the apoptotic marker Bax and a reduction of Bcl2 were recorded. Histopathological abnormalities have been reported in rat testicles. Rats treated with extract with TAM showed an improvement in all the parameters tested. It could be presumed that extract plus TAM exhibits a promising effect on the enhancement of male anti-infertility effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345865PMC
June 2020

IL-33 stimulates expression of the GPR84 (EX33) fatty acid receptor gene and of cytokine and chemokine genes in human adipocytes.

Cytokine 2018 10 16;110:189-193. Epub 2018 May 16.

Clore Laboratory, University of Buckingham, Hunter Street, Buckingham MK18 1EG, United Kingdom; Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Obesity Biology Unit, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13.7-fold greater than in controls. Stimulation of GPR84 expression was transitory; the mRNA level was not elevated at 24 h. In contrast to GPR84, IL-33 had no effect on GPR120 expression. IL-33 markedly stimulated expression of the IL1B, CCL2, IL6, CXCL2 and CSF3 genes, but there was no effect on ADIPOQ expression. The largest effect was on CSF3, the mRNA level of which increased 183-fold over controls at 3 h with the highest dose of IL-33; there was a parallel increase in the secretion of G-CSF protein into the medium. It is concluded that in human adipocytes IL-33, which is synthesised in adipose tissue, has a strong stimulatory effect on the expression of cytokine and chemokine genes, particularly CSF3, and on the expression of GPR84, a pro-inflammatory fatty acid receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2018.05.008DOI Listing
October 2018

Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Cypermethrin in Hepatocarcinoma Cells: A Dose- and Time-Dependent Study.

Dose Response 2018 Apr-Jun;16(2):1559325818760880. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

Department of Zoology, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Most of the agricultural workers are potentially exposed to pesticides through different routes. Inhalation exposures may result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic potential of cypermethrin pesticide on cultured human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. The HepG2 cells were exposed to cypermethrin (0, 5, 15, 40 ng/mL) for 24 and 48 hours. We observed that cypermethrin caused cell death of HepG2 cells using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiozolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase tests. Furthermore, cypermethrin reduced HepG2 cells viability in a time and dose dependent basis, that was probably mediated through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. An increase in ROS generation with a concomitant increase in expression of the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cytochrome c and decrease in the antiapoptosis protein Bax suggested that a mitochondria-mediated pathway was involved in cypermethrin-induced apoptosis. These findings provide insights into the underlying mechanisms involved in cytotoxicity of cypermethrin in HepG2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325818760880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904723PMC
April 2018

IL-1β and TNFα inhibit GPR120 (FFAR4) and stimulate GPR84 (EX33) and GPR41 (FFAR3) fatty acid receptor expression in human adipocytes: implications for the anti-inflammatory action of n-3 fatty acids.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2018 May 24;124(2):97-108. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

a Clore Laboratory , University of Buckingham , Buckingham , UK.

Regulation of the expression of GPCR fatty acid receptor genes has been examined in human adipocytes differentiated in culture. TNFα and IL-1β induced a marked reduction in GPR120 expression, mRNA level falling 17-fold at 24 h in adipocytes incubated with TNFα. In contrast, GPR84 mRNA was dramatically increased by these cytokines (>500-fold for IL-1β at 4 h); GPR41 expression was also stimulated. Rosiglitazone did not affect GPR84 expression, but GPR120 and GPR41 expression increased. Dexamethasone, insulin, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), and TUG891 (GPR120 agonist) had little effect on GPR120 and GPR84 expression. TUG891 did not attenuate the pro-inflammatory actions of TNFα and IL-1β. DHA slightly countered the actions of IL-1β on CCL2, IL6 and ADIPOQ expression, though not on secretion of these adipokines. GPR120 and GP84 gene expression in human adipocytes is highly sensitive to pro-inflammatory mediators; the inflammation-induced inhibition of GPR120 expression may compromise the anti-inflammatory action of GPR120 agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2017.1364774DOI Listing
May 2018

PCR arrays indicate that the expression of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion genes in human adipocytes is regulated by IL-1β (interleukin-1β).

Arch Physiol Biochem 2017 Feb 18;123(1):61-67. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

a Clore Laboratory, University of Buckingham , Buckingham , United Kingdom.

The role of IL-1β in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell adhesion genes in human adipocytes has been examined. Adipocytes differentiated in culture were incubated with IL-1β for 4 or 24 h and RNA probed with PCR arrays for 84 ECM and cell adhesion genes. Treatment with IL-1β resulted in changes in the expression at one or both time points of ∼50% of the genes probed by the arrays, the majority being down-regulated. Genes whose expression was down-regulated by IL-1β included those encoding several collagen chains and integrin subunits. In contrast, IL-1β induced substantial increases (>10-fold) in the expression of ICAM1, VCAM1, MMP1 and MMP3; the secretion of the encoded proteins was also markedly stimulated. IL-1β has a pervasive effect on the expression of ECM and cell adhesion genes in human adipocytes, consistent with the derangement of tissue structure during inflammation in white fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2016.1248979DOI Listing
February 2017

Association of the genetic diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes and HLA-C ligand in Saudi women with breast cancer.

Immunogenetics 2017 Feb 15;69(2):69-76. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Zoology Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Post Office Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Breast cancer (BC) progression and metastases have been linked to antitumor immunity inefficiency and particularly to natural killer (NK) cells. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the most polymorphic receptors of NK cells. Through their interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C ligands, they modulate NK and T cell actions against target cells. Therefore, we studied the combinatorial effect of KIR genes and their HLA-C ligands on the susceptibility to development of BC in Saudi women. The presence of KIR genes and HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 groups was typed in 50 Saudi patients living in Riyadh and 65 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. Our results indicated a protective effect by the KIR2DS2, 2DS3, and 2DL5A genes against BC (OR = 0.25, 0.21, and 0.27, respectively, and p < 0.01). The synergistic action of the three genes was observed when they occurred together, and the absence of the three genes increased BC occurrence by 6.5-fold. Distribution of the HLA-C1/C2 ligand between patients and controls showed an increase in the risk of BC occurrence for the heterozygote C1/C2 (OR = 2.33; 95 % CI = 1.08-5.02; p = 0.037) and a protective effect of the homozygote C2C2 (OR = 0.03; 95 % CI = 0.009-0.098; p < 0.001). Combinatory analyses of KIR genes and their HLA-C ligands showed protective effects of KIR2DL2 and 2DL3 in the absence of their HLA-C1 ligand. These results suggested that KIR-gene content combined with their ligand could influence the risk of BC development in women in Saudi Arabia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-016-0950-xDOI Listing
February 2017

IL-1β (interleukin-1β) stimulates the production and release of multiple cytokines and chemokines by human preadipocytes.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2016 Jul 16;122(3):117-22. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

a Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia .

The effect of IL-1β on cytokine and chemokine production by human preadipocytes has been examined. Preadipocytes were incubated with IL-1β, and cytokine and chemokine release was measured at 24 h by protein arrays, while the expression of cytokine/chemokine genes was assessed by qPCR at 4 and 24 h. IL-1β stimulated the secretion of multiple cytokines/chemokines, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, MCP-4, TNFα and IP-10. IL-10 was not released by un-stimulated preadipocytes, while IL-6 exhibited the greatest response to IL-1β (453-fold increase). IL-16 and IL-12p40 did not respond to IL-1β. qPCR demonstrated that IL-1β markedly stimulated CCL3, CSF3 and CXCL10 expression at 4 h (>900-fold mRNA increase). A time-course indicated that while CCL13 (encoding MCP-4) exhibited minimal basal expression in preadipocytes, expression increased progressively following differentiation. Human preadipocytes are highly sensitive to IL-1β, the cytokine stimulating a major inflammatory response in these cells similar to that in mature adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13813455.2016.1156706DOI Listing
July 2016

PCR array and protein array studies demonstrate that IL-1β (interleukin-1β) stimulates the expression and secretion of multiple cytokines and chemokines in human adipocytes.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2015 15;121(5):187-93. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

a Zoology Department , College of Science, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia .

The role of IL-1β in regulating the expression and secretion of cytokines and chemokines by human adipocytes was examined. Adipocytes were incubated with human IL-1β for 4 or 24 h. The expression of a panel of 84 cytokine/chemokine genes was probed using PCR arrays. IL-1β stimulated the expression of >30 cytokine/chemokine genes on the arrays; 15 showed >100-fold increases in mRNA at 4 or 24 h including CSF3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL12 and IL8. CSF3 exhibited a 10,000-fold increase in mRNA at 4 h. ADIPOQ was among the genes whose expression was inhibited. Protein arrays were used to examine the secretion of cytokines/chemokines from adipocytes. IL-1β stimulated the secretion of multiple cytokines/chemokines including MCP-1, IL-8, IP-10, MIP-1α and MCP-4. The most responsive was IP-10, which exhibited a 5000-fold increase in secretion with IL-1β. IL-1β is likely to play a substantial role in stimulating the inflammatory response in human adipocytes in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13813455.2015.1087034DOI Listing
October 2016
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