Publications by authors named "Sulaiman Ali Alharbi"

141 Publications

Development of 1-(4-(Substituted)piperazin-1-yl)-2-((2-((4-methoxybenzyl)thio)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy)ethanones That Target Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2022 Apr 29;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Studies in Organic Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006, India.

A number of uracil amides cleave poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and therefore novel thiouracil amide compounds were synthesized and screened for the loss of cell viability in a human-estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cell line. The synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to significant efficacy against human breast cancer cells, where the compound IC value was found to be 18 μM. Thouracil amide compounds and inhibited the catalytical activity of PARP1, enhanced cleavage of PARP1, enhanced phosphorylation of H2AX, and increased CASPASE 3/7 activity. Finally, in silico analysis demonstrated that compound interacted with PARP1. Hence, specific thiouracil amides may serve as new drug-seeds for the development of PARP inhibitors for use in oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9100275PMC
April 2022

Biological Activities of Some Natural Compounds and Their Cytotoxicity Studies against Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines and Anti-COVID19 Studies.

J Oleo Sci 2022 ;71(4):587-597

Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University.

In this study, we investigated the inhibition effects of matairesinol, pregnanolone, hamamelitannin, secoisolariciresinol, and secoisolariciresinol diglicoside compounds on HMG-CoA reductase and urease enzymes. We have obtained results for the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme at the millimolar level, and for the urease enzyme at the micromolar level. Molecular docking calculations were made for their biological activities were compared. In docking calculations, proteins of experimentally used enzymes, activities of SARS-CoV-2 virus against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein, and anti-oxidant protein were compared. Then, ADME/T calculations were made to use the molecules as drugs. Cytotoxicity potential of these complexes against human breast and prostate cancers demonstrated that these compounds had good cytotoxic effects. There is growing attention to phenolic molecules and their presumed role in avoiding diverse degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular and cancer diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess21275DOI Listing
April 2022

Development of a Model System to Study Expression Profile of RAC2 Gene in Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cell Line.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 24;2022:2077850. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box-2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The RAC2 gene encoding GTPases involve cellular signaling of actin polymerization, cell migration, and formation of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase complex. Oncogenic mutations in the RAC2 gene have been identified in various cancers, and extensive research is in progress to delineate its signaling pathways and identify potential therapeutic targets in breast cancers. This paper explored developing a bioinformatics model system to understand the RAC2 gene expression pattern concerning estrogenic receptor status in breast cancers. We have used the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to identify RAC2 gene expression. To simplify the development of model system with one dataset, we retrieved the microarray dataset GSE27515 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for the differential gene expression analysis. Then, network analysis, pathway enrichment analysis, volcano plot, ORA, and the up/downregulated genes were used to highlight genes involved in signaling network pathways. We observed that the RAC2 gene is upregulated in the GSM679722, GSM676923, and GSM679724 downregulated in the samples GSM676925, GSM676926, and GSM676927 from the GEO dataset. Our observation found that the RAC2 gene is upregulated in the estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers and downregulated in ER-positive breast cancer, involving pathways such as focal adhesion, MAPK signaling, axon guidance, and VEGF signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2077850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8970810PMC
March 2022

Isolation, Identification, Characterization, and Plasmid Profile of Urinary Tract Infectious from Clinical Samples.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 20;2022:7234586. Epub 2022 Mar 20.

Department of Plant Protection, Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 44600, Kalanki, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Objective: In recent times, urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most widely recognized bacterial diseases all over the planet. UTI influences individuals of any age and gender. The target of this study is to concentrate on the recurrence of uropathogens, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates, and the plasmid profile of people from the government clinics of Karaikudi.

Methods: From July 2017 to December 2017, 100 urine tests were gathered and handled for the isolation of pathogenic microbes. In total, 89 isolates were found from the samples collected.

Results: was discovered as the most common bacterial isolate screened from the UTI-infected people, accounting for 28.09 percent of all isolates. was seen to be the highest prevalent bacterium for UTI in all age groups and demonstrated resistance to routinely used medications, especially cefpodoxime and novobiocin, which have been 100 percent resistant. The isolates screened were positive for beta-lactamase and film generation, and they have strong antimicrobial resistance. As a result, the strains with the highest prevalence of virulence determinants have become more resistant to many medications because they support the microorganism in overcoming the host's defense and colonizing or entering the urinary system. The amplified 16S rRNA product was analyzed, and phylogenetic relationships were determined. The presence of TEM (56 percent), CTX-M (64 percent), SHV (40 percent), and OXA (60 percent) was discovered. Among isolates, CTX-M was the most common extended spectrum-beta lactamase (ESBL). Multiplex PCR was also used to identify the existence of CTX-M subgroups in isolates.

Conclusion: Finally, we urge that antibiotic selection should be predicated on the awareness of the specific prevalence and that novel antimicrobial medicines for urinary infections be developed to combat the overuse of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7234586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8958076PMC
March 2022

Complete and Draft Genome Sequences of 48 Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Obtained from Atopic Dermatitis Patients and Healthy Controls.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2022 Apr 8;11(4):e0007222. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Research Unit for Comparative Microbiome Analysis, Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

Staphylococcus aureus is a widely distributed, opportunistic pathogen and has been linked to the human skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD). Here, we present 44 complete and 4 draft genome sequences of S. aureus strains isolated from the nose and skin of AD patients and healthy controls from a German study cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mra.00072-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9022587PMC
April 2022

Assessment of wheat productivity responses and soil health dynamics under brackish ground water.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Feb 19;29(2):793-803. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Botany, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The continuous use of brackish groundwater for irrigation is detrimental for soil and crop attributes. A three-year research study was designed for the wheat crop to assess the effects of brackish groundwater on crop yield and soil health under a surface irrigation system. Three sites were selected in different cropping zones of Pakistan. The treatments comprised of irrigation with moderately brackish water having 0.8, 1.3 & 2.7 dSm of salinity and canal water. The results indicated that EC, SAR, bicarbonates, Ca and Mg levels increased in the soil for consecutive years and this increase was more at site S3 followed by S2 and S1. As soil depth is concerned, the increase was more pronounced in upper layers of soil (0-15 cm) as compared to 15-30 cm depth. Growth and yield were also affected by the consecutive use of this water, the number of plants, plant height, the number of spikes per plant, and yield was reduced at all the three sites. However, the impact was less pronounced at the site S1 whereas S3 was the most affected one. Grain weight and dry matter weight were observed to be maximum at S1. Water productivity was also calculated for all the three sites. Maximum water productivity was observed at S1 followed by S2 & S3. It was concluded that the continuous use of brackish water would have an adverse effect on crop yield and subsequently, soil health is also affected by it significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.11.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8848132PMC
February 2022

Assessment of the bioaccumulation pattern of Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg in edible fishes of East kolkata Wetlands, India.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Feb 17;29(2):758-766. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Geology and Soil Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Waste water fed pisciculture is nowadays a common feature in aquaculture belts across the globe. East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW) a nature's wonder where waste water fed natural aquaculture beltis is active for more than 70 years now and is efficiently operating as a natural waste management system. The peri urban wetland is also a site of international importance and is listed in Ramsar. Field and lab-based investigations were carried out using three commonly edible carp variety of fishes such as Rohu Catla and Nile Tilapia collected from ponds (bheries) of the wetland located on the eastern fringes of Kolkata, India. The lab-based analysis revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, Pb, Cd and Hg in the samples with the seasonal order of accumulation being monsoon > post-monsoon > winter > pre-monsoon in the successive years of 2016, 2017 and 2018. Bio-accumulation of toxic heavy metals in fishes follows the order Tilapia > Rohu > Catla where as the bioaccumulation pattern of toxic metals shows the trend Pb > Cd > Cr > Hg across all the seasons and years. The ambient media was also investigated to understand in detail the bioaccumulation pattern at different trophic levels of the ecosystem. Water and sediments were analyzed to evaluate the contamination of toxic heavy metals from point and non-point sources. Current study shows the observed bioaccumulation pattern of the toxic heavy metals in one of the fragile ecosystems that raises an important question of environmental safety in the food we intake on daily basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.09.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8847937PMC
February 2022

Toxicity of Cadmium and nickel in the context of applied activated carbon biochar for improvement in soil fertility.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Feb 17;29(2):743-750. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic.

Toxicity induced by heavy metals deteriorates soil fertility status. It also adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. These heavy metals become part of the food chain when crops are cultivated in areas where heavy metals are beyond threshold limits. Cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) are considered the most notorious ones among different heavy metals. The high water solubility of Cd made it a potential toxin for plants and their consumers. Accumulation of Ni in plants, leaves, and fruits also deteriorates their quality and causes cancer in humans when such a Ni-contaminated diet is used regularly. Both Cd and Ni also compete with essential nutrients of plants, making the fertility status of soil poor. To overcome this problem, the use of activated carbon biochar can play a milestone role. In the recent past application of activated carbon biochar is gaining more and more attention. Biochar sorb the Cd and Ni and releases essential micronutrients that are part of its structure. Many micropores and high cation exchange capacity make it the most acceptable organic amendment to improve soil fertility and immobilize Cd and Ni. In addition to improving water and nutrients, soil better microbial proliferation enhances the soil rhizosphere ecosystem and nutrient cycling. This review has covered Cd and Ni harmful effects on crop yield and their immobilization by activated carbon biochar. The focus was made to elaborate on the positive effects of biochar on crop yield and soil health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.09.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8847926PMC
February 2022

Antibacterial properties of honey against some bacterial pathogens.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Feb 27;29(2):730-734. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Now-a-days, different bioproducts are being used extensively for the welfare of mankind. However, for proper utility of any bioproduct, the exact biotechnological potential of that product should be explored. Honey is produced in almost every country on the planet. It has long been used as a medicinal agent in addition to its broader use as a popular food throughout the human history. It can be used to treat various diseases without causing any negative side effects. In the present study, the antibacterial potential of honey produced by was investigated at its variable concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) against four pathogenic bacterial species. The highest antimicrobial action was seen against at 100 % concentration of the honey while showing zone of inhibition of 37.5 ± 3.5 mm. However, the lowest antibacterial action was observed against . The overall order of growth inhibition by the honey at its 100 % concentration for the implicated bacterial species appeared as: ˃ ˃ ˃ . The honey couldn't show antibacterial action at its 25 % concentration. Our findings of the present study will be helpful for utility of the honey as an alternative medicine for curing different complications caused by microbial pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.09.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8847928PMC
February 2022

STAT3/HIF1A and EMT specific transcription factors regulated genes: Novel predictors of breast cancer metastasis.

Gene 2022 Apr 22;818:146245. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam, India; DBT-AIST International Center for Translational and Environmental Research, Indian Institute of Technology-Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam, India. Electronic address:

Metastasis, the fatal hallmark of breast cancer (BC), is a serious hurdle for therapy. Current prognostic approaches are not sufficient to predict the metastasis risk for BC patients. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed gene expression data from GSE139038 and TCGA database to develop predictive markers for BC metastasis. Initially, the data from GSE139038 which contained 65 samples consisting of 41 breast tumor tissues, 18 paired morphologically normal tissues and 6 from non-malignant breast tissues were analyzed for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs were obtained from three different comparisons: paired morphologically normal (MN) versus tumor samples (C), apparently normal (AN) versus tumor samples (C), and paired morphologically normal (MN) versus apparently normal samples (AN). Multiple bioinformatic methods were employed to evaluate metastasis, EMT and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) specific genes. Further, regulation of gene expression, clinicopathological factors and DNA methylation patterns of DEGs in BC were validated with TCGA datasets. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that 40 genes were upregulated and 294 were found to be downregulated between AN vs C; 124 were upregulated and 760 genes were downregulated between MN vs C; 4 were upregulated and 13 were downregulated between MN vs AN. Analysis using TCGA dataset revealed 18 genes were significantly altered in nodal positive BC patients compared to nodal negative BC patients. Our study showed novel candidate genes as predictive markers for BC metastasis which can also be used for therapeutic targets for BC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146245DOI Listing
April 2022

Green synthesis of Zirconium nanoparticles using Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract and their antimicrobial and antioxidant potency.

Environ Res 2022 06 19;209:112771. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Research Center of Producing and Development of Products and Innovations for Animal Health and Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand; Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

The biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles provides an excellent alternative to the chemical synthesis approach. The aim of the current study was a green and eco-friendly synthesis of zirconium nanoparticles (ZrNPs) from fruit peels of Punica granatum (Pomegranate). The synthesis of ZrNPs was confirmed using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The functional groups present on surface of ZrNPs were analyzed using FTIR. The average size of obtained ZrNPs was analyzed using SEM and DLS and it was around 20-60 nm. The antimicrobial activity of obtained ZrNPs was tested against Gram-positive strains (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Fungi (Aspergillus niger) by agar well diffusion method. ZrNPs showed maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus (19 mm) and A. niger (18 mm) at the maximum concentration of 200 μg/mL. The antioxidant scavenging activity of obtained ZrNPs was analyzed using the following methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. This the first and foremost study on ZrNPs synthesized using P. granatum fruit peel extract reporting their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against Bacteria and Fungi. Considering the tolerance of zirconium towards human body, it can also be used as antimicrobial coating material on human implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.112771DOI Listing
June 2022

3-Formylchromone Counteracts STAT3 Signaling Pathway by Elevating SHP-2 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Dec 26;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 26.

KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading cancers that contribute to a large number of deaths throughout the globe. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a tumorigenic protein that is overactivated in several human malignancies including HCC. In the present report, the effect of 3-formylchromone (3FC) on the STAT3 signaling pathway in the HCC model was investigated. 3FC downregulated the constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 and non-receptor tyrosine kinases such as JAK1 and JAK2. It also suppressed the transportation of STAT3 to the nucleus and reduced its DNA-binding ability. Pervanadate treatment overrode the 3FC-triggered STAT3 inhibition, and the profiling of cellular phosphatase expression revealed an increase in SHP-2 levels upon 3FC treatment. The siRNA-driven deletion of SHP-2 led to reinstate STAT3 activation. 3FC downmodulated the levels of various oncogenic proteins and decreased CXCL12-driven cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, 3FC did not exhibit any substantial toxicity, whereas it significantly regressed tumor growth in an orthotopic HCC mouse model and abrogated lung metastasis. Overall, 3FC can function as a potent agent that can display antitumor activity by targeting STAT3 signaling in HCC models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11010029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8773260PMC
December 2021

Loss of TIPE3 reduced the proliferation, survival and migration of lung cancer cells through inactivation of Akt/mTOR, NF-κB, and STAT-3 signaling cascades.

Life Sci 2022 Mar 15;293:120332. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Center for Translational and Environmental Research (DAICENTER), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039, India. Electronic address:

Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer related mortality among men and one of the most fatal cancers among women. Notably, the 5-year survival rate of lung cancer is very low; 5% in developing countries. This low survival rate can be attributed to factors like late stage diagnosis, rapid postoperative recurrences in the patients undergoing treatment and development of chemoresistance against different agents used for treating lung cancer. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the potential of a recently identified protein namely TIPE3 which is known as a transfer protein of lipid second messengers as a lung cancer biomarker. TIPE3 was found to be significantly upregulated in lung cancer tissues indicating its role in the positive regulation of lung cancer. Supporting this finding, knockout of TIPE3 was also found to reduce the proliferation, survival and migration of lung cancer cells and arrested the G2 phase of cell cycle through inactivation of Akt/mTOR, NF-κB, STAT-3 signaling. It is well evinced that tobacco is the major risk factor of lung cancer which affects both males and females. Therefore, this study also evaluated the involvement of TIPE3 in tobacco mediated lung carcinogenesis. Notably, this study shows for the first time that TIPE3 positively regulates tobacco induced proliferation, survival and migration of lung cancer through modulation of Akt/mTOR signaling. Thus, TIPE3 plays critical role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and hence it can be specifically targeted to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2022.120332DOI Listing
March 2022

Fungi fabrication, characterization, and anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles using metals resistant Aspergillus niger.

Environ Res 2022 05 11;208:112721. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, 50290, Thailand; College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to assess the bio-fabrication possibilities of pre-isolated (from bauxite mine tailings) metal-tolerant Aspergillus niger biomass filtrate and the anticancer potential of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) tested with a Human Cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells: Henrietta Lacks cells). The nitrate reduction test demonstrated that A. niger has the ability to reduce nitrate, and filtrate derived from A. niger biomass efficiently fabricated AgNPs from AgNO, as demonstrated by a visible color change from pale greenish to brownish. The UV-visible spectroscopy analysis revealed an absorbance peak at 435 nm, which corresponded to the AgNPs. These AgNPs have been capped and stabilized with several functional groups related to various bioactive molecules such as aldehyde, benzene rings, aldehydic, amines, alcohols, and carbonyl stretch protein molecules. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the capping and stabilizing chemical bonding pattern. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical, with an average size of 21.38 nm. This bio-fabricated AgNPs has in-vitro anticancer potential when tested against the HeLa cell line due to its potential size and shape. At 100 g mL concentrations of this bio-fabricated AgNPs, the anticancer activity percentage was found to be 70.2%, and the IC value was found to be 66.32 g m. These findings demonstrated that the metal-tolerant A. niger cell filtrate could produce AgNPs with anticancer potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.112721DOI Listing
May 2022

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) fabricating potential of aqueous shoot extract of Aristolochia bracteolata and assessed their antioxidant efficiency.

Environ Res 2022 05 10;208:112683. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Research Center of Producing and Development of Products and Innovations for Animal Health and Production, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand. Electronic address:

This research was performed to evaluate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) fabricating potential of aqueous shoot extract of Aristolochia bracteolata and also assess the free radicals scavenging potential of synthesized AgNPs. The results obtained from this study showed that the aqueous shoot extract of A. bracteolata has the potential to synthesize the AgNPs and it was initially confirmed by color change in the reaction blend as yellow to dark brownish. Subsequently, a clear absorbance peak was found at 425 nm in UV-visible spectrum analysis. The functional groups involved in the capping and stabilization of AgNPs were confirmed by Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and recorded about 10 sharp peaks 3688, 3401, 2980, 2370, 1948, 1642, 1480, 1280, 782, and 628 cm. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations revealed that the predominant shape of the AgNPs was spherical and size ranged from 41.43 to 60.51 nm. Interestingly, the green fabricated AgNPs showed significant free radicals scavenging activity and were confirmed with ferric reducing assay, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), HO radicals, and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging activity. Thus, after a few in-vivo antioxidant studies, Aristolochia bracteolata-mediated AgNPs can be considered as an antioxidant agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.112683DOI Listing
May 2022

Marine Macroalgae Display Bioreductant Efficacy for Fabricating Metallic Nanoparticles: Intra/Extracellular Mechanism and Potential Biomedical Applications.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021 27;2021:5985377. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The application of hazardous chemicals during nanoparticle (NP) synthesis has raised alarming concerns pertaining to their biocompatibility and equally to the environmental harmlessness. In the recent decade, nanotechnological research has made a gigantic shift in order to include the natural resources to produce biogenic NPs. Within this approach, researchers have utilized marine resources such as macroalgae and microalgae, land plants, bacteria, fungi, yeast, actinomycetes, and viruses to synthesize NPs. Marine macroalgae (brown, red, and green) are rich in polysaccharides including alginates, fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs), galactans, agars or carrageenans, semicrystalline cellulose, ulvans, and hemicelluloses. Phytochemicals are abundant in phenols, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, and vitamins. However, microorganisms have an abundance of active compounds ranging from sugar molecules, enzymes, canonical membrane proteins, reductase enzymes (NADH and NADPH), membrane proteins to many more. The prime reason for using the aforesaid entities in the metallic NPs synthesis is based on their intrinsic properties to act as bioreductants, having the capability to reduce and cap the metal ions into stabilized NPs. Several green NPs have been verified for their biocompatibility in human cells. Bioactive constituents from the above resources have been found on the green metallic NPs, which has demonstrated their efficacies as prospective antibiotics and anti-cancer agents against a range of human pathogens and cancer cells. Moreover, these NPs can be characterized for the size, shapes, functional groups, surface properties, porosity, hydrodynamic stability, and surface charge using different characterization techniques. The novelty and originality of this review is that we provide recent research compilations on green synthesis of NPs by marine macroalgae and other biological sources (plant, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, yeast, and virus). Besides, we elaborated on the detailed intra- and extracellular mechanisms of NPs synthesis by marine macroalgae. The application of green NPs as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, and popular methods of NPs characterization techniques has also been critically reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5985377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8643268PMC
November 2021

Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) (Tris DBA) Abrogates Tumor Progression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Multiple Myeloma Preclinical Models by Regulating the STAT3 Signaling Pathway.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 31;13(21). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology and Department of Science in Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 24 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea.

STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor that controls the expression of genes associated with oncogenesis and malignant progression. Persistent activation of STAT3 is observed in human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we have investigated the action of Tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium 0 (Tris DBA) on STAT3 signaling in HCC and MM cells. Tris DBA decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, and inhibited IL-6 induced/constitutive activation of STAT3, JAK1, JAK2, and Src in HCC and MM cells. Tris DBA downmodulated the nuclear translocation of STAT3 and reduced its DNA binding ability. It upregulated the expression of SHP2 (protein and mRNA) to induce STAT3 dephosphorylation, and the inhibition of SHP2 reversed this effect. Tris DBA downregulated the expression of STAT3-driven genes, suppressed cell migration/invasion. Tris DBA significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft MM and orthotopic HCC preclinical mice models with a reduction in the expression of various prosurvival biomarkers in MM tumor tissues without displaying significant toxicity. Overall, Tris DBA functions as a good inhibitor of STAT3 signaling in preclinical HCC and MM models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582575PMC
October 2021

Kaolin and Jasmonic acid improved cotton productivity under water stress conditions.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Nov 16;28(11):6606-6614. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Geology and Pedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic.

Drought is one of the most emerging threat that causes a severe reduction in cotton plant growth and development. Being cotton is a major cash crop has great threat to prevailing drought events in Pakistan. A field experiment was conducted in Kharif season 2018 at Research Area of MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan to assess the role of foliar applied kaolin and jasmonic acid on vegetative growth, gas exchange and reproductive traits of cotton under normal irrigated and artificial water deficit conditions. The experiment was laid -out in a factorial randomized complete block design with split - split plot arrangement. Main plots were allocated for irrigation levels, sub-plots for two -cotton genotypes viz. NIAB - 878 and SLH - 19 while sub - sub plots for treatments of kaolin and Jasmonic acid. Water deficit stress was created by skipping irrigation at flowering for 21 days. Foliar sprays of Kaolin (5%, w/v) and Jasmonic acid (100 μM) were applied alone or in combination at 60 days after planntinon both to normal irrigated and water-stresse skip irrigation while irrigation water alone was sprayed in control plots. Both cotton genotypes responded variably to normal irrigated and skip conditions. Skipping irrigation for up to 21 days at flowering caused a significant decrease in leaf relative water content, SPAD values, net photosynthetic rate and seed cotton yield in both the genotypes. Seed cotton yield showed an overall decline of 24.7% in skip over Normal irrigated crop. The genotype NIAB - 878 produced maximum seed cotton yield of 3.304 Mg ha in normal that dropped to 2.579 Mg ha in skip, thus showing an average decline of 21.9 %. Similarly, SLH - 19 produced 2.537 Mg ha seed cotton under normal that dropped to 1.822 Mg ha in skip, showing an average decline of 28.2%. The Application of Kaolin and JA Jasmonic acid, either applied individually or in combination, improved vegetative and reproductive development of both cotton varieties in normal and skip regimes. However, combined kaolin and Jasmonic Acid application proved to be more beneficial in terms of seed cotton production and other parameters studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.07.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8568989PMC
November 2021

Prevalence and management of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in different wheat genotypes and their impact on yield and related traits.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(10):e0257952. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad (Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Bareilly), Bareilly, India.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production is significantly altered by the infestation of sucking insects, particularly aphids. Chemical sprays are not recommended for the management of aphids as wheat grains are consumed soon after crop harvests. Therefore, determining the susceptibility of different wheat genotypes and selecting the most tolerant genotype could significantly lower aphid infestation. This study evaluated the susceptibility of six different wheat genotypes ('Sehar-2006', 'Shafaq-2006', 'Faisalabad-2008', 'Lasani-2008', 'Millat-2011' and 'Punjab-2011') to three aphid species (Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus, Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Sitobion avenae Fabricius) at various growth stages. Seed dressing with insecticides and plant extracts were also evaluated for their efficacy to reduce the incidence of these aphid species. Afterwards, an economic analysis was performed to compute cost-benefit ratio and assess the economic feasibility for the use of insecticides and plant extracts. Aphids' infestation was recorded from the seedling stage and their population gradually increased as growth progressed towards tillering, stem elongation, heading, dough and ripening stages. The most susceptible growth stage was heading with 21.89 aphids/tiller followed by stem elongation (14.89 aphids/tiller) and dough stage (13.56 aphids/tiller). The genotype 'Punjab-2011' recorded the lower aphid infestation than 'Faisalabad-2008', 'Sehar-2006', 'Lasani-2008' and 'Shafaq-2006'. Rhopalosiphum padi appeared during mid-February, whereas S. graminum and S. avenae appeared during first week of March. Significant differences were recorded for losses in number of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight among tested wheat genotypes. The aphid population had non-significant correlation with yield-related traits. Hicap proved the most effective for the management of aphid species followed by Hombre and Husk among tested seed dressers, while Citrullus colocynthis L. and Moringa oleifera Lam. plant extracts exhibited the highest efficacy among different plant extracts used in the study. Economic analysis depicted that use of Hombre and Hicap resulted in the highest income and benefit cost ratio. Therefore, use of genotype Punjab-2011' and seed dressing with Hombre and Hicap can be successfully used to lower aphid infestation and get higher economic returns for wheat crop.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257952PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513891PMC
November 2021

Combined application of zinc and silicon alleviates terminal drought stress in wheat by triggering morpho-physiological and antioxidants defense mechanisms.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(10):e0256984. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Land Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Wheat is an important global staple food crop; however, its productivity is severely hampered by changing climate. Erratic rain patterns cause terminal drought stress, which affect reproductive development and crop yield. This study investigates the potential and zinc (Zn) and silicon (Si) to ameliorate terminal drought stress in wheat and associated mechanisms. Two different drought stress levels, i.e., control [80% water holding capacity (WHC) was maintained] and terminal drought stress (40% WHC maintained from BBCH growth stage 49 to 83) combined with five foliar-applied Zn-Si combinations (i.e., control, water spray, 4 mM Zn, 40 mM Si, 4 mM Zn + 40 mM Si applied 7 days after the initiation of drought stress). Results revealed that application of Zn and Si improved chlorophyll and relative water contents under well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress. Foliar application of Si and Zn had significant effect on antioxidant defense mechanism, proline and soluble protein, which showed that application of Si and Zn ameliorated the effects of terminal drought stress mainly by regulating antioxidant defense mechanism, and production of proline and soluble proteins. Combined application of Zn and Si resulted in the highest improvement in growth and antioxidant defense. The application of Zn and Si improved yield and related traits, both under well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress. The highest yield and related traits were recorded for combined application of Zn and Si. For grain and biological yield differences among sole and combined Zn-Si application were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, combined application of Zn-Si ameliorated the adverse effects of terminal drought stress by improving yield through regulating antioxidant mechanism and production of proline and soluble proteins. Results provide valuable insights for further cross talk between Zn-Si regulatory pathways to enhance grain biofortification.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256984PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496791PMC
November 2021

Biochar and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediated enhanced drought tolerance in Okra () plant growth, root morphological traits and physiological properties.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Oct 11;28(10):5490-5499. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop production. There is limited information on effect of interaction between biochar and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on okra growth, root morphological traits and soil enzyme activities under drought stress. We studied the influence of biochar and AMF on the growth of Okra () in pot experiments in a net house under drought condition. The results showed that the biochar treatment significantly increased plant growth (the plant height by 14.2%, root dry weight by 30.0%) and root morphological traits (projected area by 22.3% and root diameter by 22.7%) under drought stress. In drought stress, biochar treatment significantly enhanced the chlorophyll 'a' content by 32.7%, the AMF spore number by 22.8% and the microbial biomass as compared to the control. Plant growth parameters such as plant height, shoot and root dry weights significantly increased by AMF alone, by 16.6%, 21.0% and 40.0% respectively under drought condition. Other plant biometrics viz: the total root length, the root volume, the projected area and root diameter improved significantly with the application of AMF alone by 38.3%, 60.0%,16.8% and 15.9% respectively as compared with control. Compared to the control, AMF treatment alone significantly enhanced the total chlorophyll content by 36.6%, the AMF spore number by 39.0% and the microbial biomass by 29.0% under drought condition. However, the highest values of plant growth parameters (plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) and root morphological traits (the total root length, root volume, projected area, root surface area) were observed in the combined treatment of biochar and AMF treatment viz: 31.9%, 34.2%, 60.0% and 68.6%, 66.6%, 45.5%, 41.8%, respectively compared to the control under drought stress. The nitrogen content, total chlorophyll content and microbial biomass increased over un-inoculated control. The soil enzymes; alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate enzyme activities significantly increased in the combined treatment by 55.8%, 68.7% and 69.5%, respectively as compared to the control under drought stress. We conclude that biochar and AMF together is potentially beneficial for cultivation of okra in drought stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.08.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459127PMC
October 2021

Anticancer Effect of Troxerutin in Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell A549 and Inhibition of Tumor Formation in BALB/c Nude Mice.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2021 ;40(3):25-35

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Gaoling Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710200, China.

This study is intended to explore the anticancer, antiproliferative, and chemopreventive action of troxerutin (TX) in human non-small-cell lung cancer cell (A549) using BALB/c nude mice. 2 × 106 A549 cells were subcutaneously injected into mice, along with 10 μM and 20 μM/kg body weight of TX orally for 19 days. On the last day, tumor weight and volume were assessed. Stress marker enzymes such as Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'Nucleotidase (5'ND), and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) were estimated in the lung tissues. Cytotoxicity of TX was assessed using MTT assay. Expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed. Histopathological examination of tissue sections and immunohistochemical examination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were also performed. mRNA expression of p53, p21, cyclin D1, P13k, Akt, and mTOR were analyzed using RT-PCR. TX administered orally in a dose-dependent manner markedly reverted the level of stress marker enzymes to a significant extent. TX also exhibited significant protection against lung cancer cells, as evidenced by cytotoxicity assay and histopathological studies. It was also found to reduce the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1, P13k, Akt, and mTOR, but increase the expression of p53 and p21. TX has also been shown to reduce cancer cell inflammation, as was evidenced by reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines. Thus TX could be used as an effective chemopreventive and anticancer agent in treating cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2021037951DOI Listing
October 2021

Awareness of Rheumatic Heart Disease in Egypt: A National Multicenter Study.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Sep 4;8(9). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Background: While the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Egypt is relatively high, data on the awareness of Egyptians about the cause of RHD are lacking.

Methods: Using a pre-tested questionnaire, we performed a multicenter survey of outpatients attending 15 university hospitals across Egypt.

Results: A total of 6958 participants were interviewed. Most subjects (81.7%) reported a previous experience of sore throat. Seeking treatment, most patients (69.3%) consulted a medical professional, while the others relied on self/peer medication. Individuals consulting a physician received antibiotics more frequently than those who did not (89.1 vs. 38.7%; OR: 12.4, 95% CI 10.8-14.1). The median RHD knowledge score in our sample was 4 (IQR = 6). While most subjects (56.3%) claimed knowledge of the complications of an untreated sore throat, only a third (34%) were aware of the association between sore throat and RHD. In a multivariate analysis, older age (Mean Difference [MD]: 1.58, 95% CI 1.37-1.79), female gender (MD: 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.04), higher education (MD: 1.10, 95% CI 0.90-1.30), and being interviewed outside Cairo (MD: 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.82) were significant predictors of knowledge about RHD.

Conclusion: The current study showed low levels of awareness on the cause of RHD among Egyptians and highlights a pressing need for interventions to address this public knowledge gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8090108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466231PMC
September 2021

Crocetin imparts antiproliferative activity via inhibiting STAT3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

IUBMB Life 2021 11 23;73(11):1348-1362. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

STAT3 is a key oncogenic transcription factor, often overactivated in several human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). STAT3 modulates the expression of genes that are connected with cell proliferation, antiapoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis, and immune evasion in tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of crocetin on the growth of HCC cells and dissected its underlying molecular mechanism in imparting a cytotoxic effect. Crocetin suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and counteracted the invasive capacity of HCC cells. Besides, crocetin downregulated the constitutive/inducible STAT3 activation (STAT3 ), nuclear accumulation of STAT3 along with suppression of its DNA binding activity in HCC cells with no effect on STAT5 activation. Crocetin suppressed the activity of upstream kinases such as Src, JAK1, and JAK2. Sodium pervanadate treatment terminated the crocetin-propelled STAT3 inhibition suggesting the involvement of tyrosine phosphatases. Crocetin increased the expression of SHP-1 and siRNA-mediated SHP-1 silencing resulted in the negation of crocetin-driven STAT3 inhibition. Further investigation revealed that crocetin treatment inhibited the expression of STAT3 regulated genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cyclin D1, survivin, VEGF, COX-2, and MMP-9). Taken together, this report presents crocetin as a novel abrogator of the STAT3 pathway in HCC cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2555DOI Listing
November 2021

Pyrimidine-2,4-dione targets STAT3 signaling pathway to induce cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 10 19;50:128332. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Institution of Excellence, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006, India. Electronic address:

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a tumorigenic transcription factor that is persistently activated in various human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, STAT3 is considered as a prominent target to counteract the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. In the present report, pyrimidine-2,4-diones (N-methyluracil derivatives) (MNK1-MNK14) were synthesized in an ionic liquid (BMIm PF) medium employing a ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling process. Among the 14 derivatives, compound MNK8 showed good cytotoxicity towards both the tested cell lines and did not display a toxic effect against normal hepatocytes (LO2). MNK8 significantly increased the Sub-G1 cell count in both cell lines and the cytotoxic effect of MNK8 was found to be mediated through the suppression of constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3. It also decreased the DNA interaction ability of nuclear STAT3 in HCC cells. MNK8 downregulated the levels of apoptosis-related proteins (such as Bcl-2, cyclin D1, survivin) and increased cleaved caspase-3 inferring the apoptogenic effect of MNK8. It also reduced the CXCL12-triggered cell migration and invasion in in vitro assay systems. Overall, MNK8 has been demonstrated as a new inhibitor of STAT3 signaling cascade in HCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128332DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification for surrogate drought tolerance in maize inbred lines utilizing high-throughput phenomics approach.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0254318. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad (Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Bareilly), Moradabad, India.

Screening for drought tolerance requires precise techniques like phonemics, which is an emerging science aimed at non-destructive methods allowing large-scale screening of genotypes. Large-scale screening complements genomic efforts to identify genes relevant for crop improvement. Thirty maize inbred lines from various sources (exotic and indigenous) maintained at Dryland Agriculture Research Station were used in the current study. In the automated plant transport and imaging systems (LemnaTec Scanalyzer system for large plants), top and side view images were taken of the VIS (visible) and NIR (near infrared) range of the light spectrum to capture phenes. All images were obtained with a thermal imager. All sensors were used to collect images one day after shifting the pots from the greenhouse for 11 days. Image processing was done using pre-processing, segmentation and flowered by features' extraction. Different surrogate traits such as pixel area, plant aspect ratio, convex hull ratio and calliper length were estimated. A strong association was found between canopy temperature and above ground biomass under stress conditions. Promising lines in different surrogates will be utilized in breeding programmes to develop mapping populations for traits of interest related to drought resilience, in terms of improved tissue water status and mapping of genes/QTLs for drought traits.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254318PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315520PMC
November 2021

Fortification of -- (ABT) Fermented Milk with Heat-Treated Industrial Yeast Enhances Its Selected Properties.

Molecules 2021 Jun 25;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

The improvement of milk dairy products' quality and nutritional value during shelf-life storage is the ultimate goal of many studies worldwide. Therefore, in the present study, prospective beneficial effects of adding two different industrial yeasts, and pretreated by heating at 85 °C for 10 min to be inactivated, before fermentation on some properties of ABT fermented milk were evaluated. The results of this study showed that the addition of 3% and 5% (/) heat-treated yeasts to the milk enhanced the growth of starter culture, , and , during the fermentation period as well as its viability after 20 days of cold storage at 5 ± 1 °C. Furthermore, levels of lactic and acetic acids were significantly increased from 120.45 ± 0.65 and 457.80 ± 0.70 µg/mL in the control without heat-treated yeast to 145.67 ± 0.77 and 488.32 ± 0.33 µg/mL with 5% supplementation of respectively. Moreover, the addition of heat-treated yeasts to ABT fermented milk enhanced the antioxidant capacity by increasing the efficiency of free radical scavenging as well as the proteolytic activity. Taken together, these results suggest promising application of non-viable industrial yeasts as nutrients in the fermentation process of ABT milk to enhance the growth and viability of ABT starter cultures before and after a 20-day cold storage period by improving the fermented milk level of organic acids, antioxidant capacity, and proteolytic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26133876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271856PMC
June 2021

Kinetin mitigates Cd-induced damagesto growth, photosynthesis and PS II photochemistry of Trigonella seedlings by up-regulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(6):e0249230. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia.

Cytokinins (CKs) plays a key role in plant adaptation over a range of different stress conditions. Here, we analyze the effects of a cytokinin (i.e., kinetin, KN) on the growth, photosynthesis (rate of O2 evolution), PS II photochemistry and AsA-GSH cycle in Trigonella seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) stress. Trigonella seeds were sown in soil amended with 0, 3 and 9 mg Cd kg-1 soil, and after 15 days resultant seedlings were sprayed with three doses of KN, i.e.,10 μM (low, KNL), 50 μM (medium, KNM) and 100 μM (high, KNH); subsequent experiments were performed after 15 days of KN application, i.e., 30 days after sowing. Cadmium toxicity induced oxidative damage as shown by decreased seedling growth and photosynthetic pigment production (Chl a, Chl b and Car), rates of O2-evolution, and photochemistry of PS II of Trigonella seedlings, all accompanied by an increase in H2O2 accumulation. Supplementation with doses of KN at KNL and KNM significantly improved the growth and photosynthetic activity by reducing H2O2 accumulation through the up-regulation AsA-GSH cycle. Notably, KNL and KNM doses stimulated the rate of enzyme activities of APX, GR and DHAR, involved in the AsA-GSH cycle thereby efficiently regulates the level of AsA and GSH in Trigonella grown under Cd stress. The study concludes that KN can mitigate the damaging effects of Cd stress on plant growth by maintaining the redox status (>ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells through the regulation of AsA-GSH cycle at 10 and 50 μM KN under Cd stress conditions. At 100 μM KN, the down-regulation of AsA-GSH cycle did not support the growth and PS II activity of the test seedlings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249230PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219128PMC
November 2021

Host-pathogen interaction between Asian citrus psyllid and entomopathogenic fungus (Cordyceps fumosorosea) is regulated by modulations in gene expression, enzymatic activity and HLB-bacterial population of the host.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Oct 18;248:109112. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

The host-pathogen interaction has been explored by several investigations, but the impact of fungal pathogens against insect resistance is still ambiguous. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity and defense-related gene expression of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) nymphal and adult populations on Huanglongbing-diseased citrus plants under the attack of Cordyceps fumosorosea. Overall, five enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), and four genes, namely SOD, 16S, CYP4C68, CYP4BD1, were selected for respective observations from ACP populations. Enzymatic activity of four enzymes (SOD, POD, GST, CarE) was significantly decreased after 5-days post-treatment (dpt) and 3-dpt fungal exposure in fungal treated ACP adult and nymphal populations, respectively, whereas the activity of CAT was boosted substantially post-treatment time schedule. Besides, we recorded drastic fluctuations in the expression of CYP4 genes among fungal treated ACP populations. After 24 hours post-treatment (hpt), expression of both CYP4 genes was boosted in fungal treated populations than controlled populations (adult and nymph). After 3-dpt, however, the expression of CYP4 genes was declined in the given populations. Likewise, fungal attack deteriorated the resistance of adult and nymphal of ACP population, as SOD expression was down-regulated in fungal-treated adult and nymphs after 5-dpt and 3-dpt exposure, respectively. Moreover, bacterial expression via the 16S gene was significantly increased in fungal-treated adult and nymphal ACP populations with increasing post-treatment time. Overall, our data illustrate that the fungal application disrupted the insect defense system. The expression of these genes and enzymes suppress the immune function of adult and nymphal ACP populations. As it is reported first time that the applications of C. fumosorosea against ACP reduce insect resistance by interfering with the CYP4 and SOD system. Therefore, we propose new strategies to discover the role of certain toxic compounds from fungus, which can reduce insect resistance, focusing on resistance-related genes and enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109112DOI Listing
October 2021

Biogenesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) using leaf extract of , antioxidant and cytotoxicity.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2021 Dec;49(1):500-510

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

In this research, we formulated new chemotherapeutic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) containing Reut. ex Regel leaf for treating human endometrial cancer. For investigating the antioxidant activitiy, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test was used. MTT test was used on normal (Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)) and human endometrial cancer (Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, HEC-1-B, and KLE) cell lines for comparing the anti-human endometrial cancer properties of Cu(NO), leaf aqueous extract, and copper nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles had high cell death and anti-human endometrial cancer effects against Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, HEC-1-B, and KLE cell lines. The IC50 of leaf aqueous extract and copper nanoparticles against HEC-1-B cell line were 548 and 331 µg/mL, respectively; against HEC-1-A cell line were 583 and 356 µg/mL, respectively; against KLE cell line were 609 and 411 µg/mL, respectively; and against Ishikawa cell line were 560 and 357 µg/mL, respectively. Among the above cell lines, the best result of anti-human endometrial cancer properties of copper nanoparticles was gained in the cell line of HEC-1-B. This study indicated excellent anti-human endometrial cancer potentials of copper nanoparticles containing in the condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2021.1926275DOI Listing
December 2021
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