Publications by authors named "Sukrut H Karandikar"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Raman and quantitative phase imaging allow morpho-molecular recognition of malignancy and stages of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 12;190:113403. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA; The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA; Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies that account for nearly one-third of all pediatric cancers. The current diagnostic assays are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and require expensive reagents. Here, we report a label-free approach featuring diffraction phase imaging and Raman microscopy that can retrieve both morphological and molecular attributes for label-free optical phenotyping of individual B cells. By investigating leukemia cell lines of early and late stages along with the healthy B cells, we show that phase images can capture subtle morphological differences among the healthy, early, and late stages of leukemic cells. By exploiting its biomolecular specificity, we demonstrate that Raman microscopy is capable of accurately identifying not only different stages of leukemia cells but also individual cell lines at each stage. Overall, our study provides a rationale for employing this hybrid modality to screen leukemia cells using the widefield QPI and using Raman microscopy for accurate differentiation of early and late-stage phenotypes. This contrast-free and rapid diagnostic tool exhibits great promise for clinical diagnosis and staging of leukemia in the near future.
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October 2021

Prediction of cancer neoepitopes needs new rules.

Semin Immunol 2020 02 14;47:101387. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Immunology, Carole and Ray Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA. Electronic address:

Tumors are immunogenic and the non-synonymous point mutations harbored by tumors are a source of their immunogenicity. Immunologists have long been enamored by the idea of synthetic peptides corresponding to mutated epitopes (neoepitopes) as specific "vaccines" against tumors presenting those neoepitopes in context of MHC I. Tumors may harbor hundreds of point mutations and it would require effective prediction algorithms to identify candidate neoepitopes capable of eliciting potent tumor-specific CD8 T cell responses. Our current understanding of MHC I-restricted epitopes come from the observance of CD8 T cell responses against viral (vaccinia, lymphocytic choriomeningitis etc.) and model (chicken ovalbumin, hen egg lysozyme etc.) antigens. Measurable CD8 T cell responses elicited by model or viral antigens are always directed against epitopes possessing strong binding affinity for the restricting MHC I alleles. Immense collective effort to develop methodologies combining genomic sequencing, bioinformatics and traditional immunological techniques to identify neoepitopes with strong binding affinity to MHC I has only yielded inaccurate prediction algorithms. Additionally, new evidence has emerged suggesting that neoepitopes, which unlike the epitopes of viral or model antigens have closely resembling wild-type counterparts, may not necessarily demonstrate strong affinity to MHC I. Our bearing need recalibration.
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February 2020