Publications by authors named "Suk Kim"

622 Publications

Validation of functional liver imaging scores (FLIS) derived from gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis: the relationship between Child-Pugh score and FLIS.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, South Korea.

Objectives: To validate the functional liver imaging score (FLIS) for prediction of hepatic function in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 134 patients (88 men, 46 women; mean age, 58.8 years) between January 2015 and December 2018 with the following inclusion criteria: patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis or chronic liver disease (CLD) who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Three parameters on hepatobiliary phase images were evaluated for FLIS: liver parenchymal enhancement, biliary excretion, and signal intensity of the portal vein. Patients were classified as CLD (n = 11), Child-Pugh (CP) class A (n = 87), CP B (n = 22), or CP C (n = 14). We assessed the correlation between CP score and both FLIS and its components using Spearman rank correlation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to demonstrate the cutoff value of FLIS for differentiating between CP classes. The associations between patient characteristics, serum markers, FLIS, and hepatic decompensation were evaluated with Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: FLIS and three FLIS parameters showed strong to very strong correlation with CP score (r = -0.60 to 0.82). ROC curve analysis showed that FLIS ≥ 5 was the optimal cutoff for prediction of CP class A or CLD (sensitivity, 83.7%; specificity, 94.4%; area under the curve [AUC], 0.93). FLIS < 5 was independently associated with the development of first hepatic decompensation in patients with CP A (HR, 50.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.2, 400.4).

Conclusion: FLIS showed a strong correlation with hepatic function and can stratify the CP class. In addition, FLIS can help prediction for the development of first decompensation.

Key Points: • Functional liver imaging scores (FLIS) and its three parameters, derived from hepatobiliary phase image, have strong to very strong correlations with Child-Pugh (CP) scores. • FLIS can stratify patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis according to CP classification. • Low FLIS is an independent predictor for first hepatic decompensation in patients with CP class A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07955-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Multilocular cystic hemangioma of the liver mimicking mucinous cystic neoplasm.

Yeungnam Univ J Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Surgery, Biomedical Research Institute and Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Hepatic hemangiomas infrequently exhibit atypical imaging features, which may cause diagnostic confusion with hepatic malignancies and lead to unnecessary surgery. We report a rare case of multilocular cystic hemangioma of the liver mimicking a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver in a 48-year-old female, focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features and their differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.00969DOI Listing
April 2021

Enhancement in Performance of Septic Shock Prediction Using National Early Warning Score, Initial Triage Information, and Machine Learning Analysis.

J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Medical & Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Plastic Surgery, Bundang Cha Medical Center, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

Background: Several studies reported that the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) has shown superiority over other screening tools in discriminating emergency department (ED) patients who are likely to progress to septic shock.

Objectives: To improve the performance of the NEWS for septic shock prediction by adding variables collected during ED triage, and to implement a machine-learning algorithm.

Methods: The study population comprised adult ED patients with suspected infection. To detect septic shock within 24 h after ED arrival, the Sepsis-3 clinical criteria and nine variables were used: NEWS, age, gender, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, and oxygen saturation. The model was developed using logistic regression (LR), extreme gradient boosting (XGB), and artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms. The evaluations were performed using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and net reclassification index (NRI).

Results: Overall, 41,687 patients were enrolled. The AUROC of the model with NEWS, age, gender, and the six vital signs (0.835-0.845) was better than that of the baseline model (0.804). The XGB model (AUROC 0.845) was the most accurate, compared with LR (0.844) and ANN (0.835). The LR and XGB models were well calibrated; however, the ANN showed poor calibration power. The LR and XGB models showed better reclassification than the baseline model with positive NRI.

Conclusion: The discrimination power of the model for screening septic shock using NEWS, age, gender, and the six vital signs collected at ED triage outperformed the baseline NEWS model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.01.038DOI Listing
April 2021

Protection of palmitic acid treatment in RAW264.7 cells and BALB/c mice during 544 infection.

J Vet Sci 2021 Mar;22(2):e18

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Background: We previously elucidated the protective mechanism of Korean red ginseng oil (RGO) against infection, and our phytochemical analysis revealed that palmitic acid (PA) was an abundant component of RGO. Consequently, we investigated the contribution of PA against .

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of PA against infection using a murine cell line and a murine model.

Methods: Cell viability, bactericidal, internalization, and intracellular replication, western blot, nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O₂⁻) analyses and flow cytometry were performed to determine the effects of PA on the progression of infection in macrophages. Flow cytometry for cytokine analysis of serum samples and bacterial counts from the spleens were performed to determine the effect of PA in a mouse model.

Results: PA did not affect the growth of . PA treatment in macrophages did not change uptake but it did attenuate the intracellular survivability of . Incubation of cells with PA resulted in a modest increase in sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression. Compared to control cells, reduced nitrite accumulation, augmented O₂⁻, and enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production were observed in PA-treated -infected cells. Mice orally treated with PA displayed a decreased serum interleukin-10 level and enhanced bacterial resistance.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that PA participates in the control of within murine macrophages, and the study results confirm its efficacy against the infection. However, further investigations are encouraged to completely characterize the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of infection by fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2021.22.e18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007444PMC
March 2021

Allergic rhinitis is associated with atmospheric SO2: Follow-up study of children from elementary schools in Ulsan, Korea.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(3):e0248624. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of allergic rhinitis with air pollutant concentrations using the follow-up data of elementary school children in Ulsan, Korea.

Methods: All students of four elementary schools in Ulsan, South Korea were surveyed at two-year intervals. The survey used data collected five times, over a nine-year period from June 2009 to April 2018. The questionnaire used in the survey was a modified version of the ISAAC (International society of asthma and allergy of children) questionnaire. A skin prick test (SPT) was performed with 24 standard antigens. To estimate the levels of exposure to outdoor air pollution, the concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM10) were used. As a dependent variable, a history of allergic rhinitis diagnosed by a doctor during the last 1-year was considered. Logistic regression analysis was used to select variables suitable for the statistical model. The selected variables were then used to assess their association with the dependent variable using the generalized estimation equation.

Results: Among environmental factors, SO2 was associated with a high risk and PM10 was associated with a low risk of allergic rhinitis. The risk of allergic rhinitis from living in a house built within the last year was high, and the risk from living in a multi-family house or apartment was higher than that from living in a segregated house. History of allergic diseases in the family was a high-risk factor for allergic rhinitis. There was a relationship between a history of bronchiolitis at less than 2 years of age and a high risk of allergic rhinitis. Boys were at a higher risk than girls.

Conclusion: From the follow-up data of elementary school students in Ulsan, Korea, the concentration of SO2, which is an indicator of the degree of industrialization, was related to the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. Among all the risk factors, history of allergic disease in the parents was the most important factor, and the study reconfirmed the results of the previous studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248624PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971526PMC
March 2021

The C-terminus of Brucella abortus MviN induces humoral and cell mediated immune responses in BALB/c mice that protects against the virulent Brucella 544 challenge.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Mar 2;493:113005. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, 54596 Iksan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study investigates the C-terminus portion of the Brucella MviN protein for its protective immune responses. The C-terminus, Brucella mivN was amplified from the Brucella abortus genome and cloned into asd complemented constitutive expression vector pJHL65. The resultant recombinant plasmid was transformed into asd auxotrophic Salmonella Typhimurium JOL1800 and the novel strain was designated as JOL2213. The MviN induced humoral, cell-mediated, and protective immune responses were assessed in the BALB/c mice model. We demonstrated that single immunization of mice with JOL2213 via intramuscular route elicit significantly high (p < 0.05) MviN-c specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity compared to mice immunized with JOL1818 strain containing pJHL65 vector alone. Further to determine the MviN-c induced type of immune response, Th1 and Th2 cytokine markers, IFN-γ and IL-4, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell differentiation were quantified. Results demonstrated, MviN-c could significantly induce IFN- γ response in immunized mice, however, showed higher proficiency towards Th2 immune induction marked by IL-4 induction and significant CD4+ T-cell differentiation compared to the vector control group. On challenge with the virulent Brucella strain, B. abortus 544 on 14th-day post-immunization, mice immunized with JOL2213 resulted in a significantly low number of challenged Brucella colonization in spleen and liver tissues than the vector alone group. Further investigation can be conducted to investigate cross-protection that can deliver against main Brucella species pathogenic to humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2021.113005DOI Listing
March 2021

Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antagonism is a potential target for the prevention of Brucella abortus 544 infection.

Immunobiology 2021 Feb 23;226(3):152073. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Here, we explore the potential role of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) during Brucella abortus infection. FPR2 manipulation affected B. abortus internalization but not its growth within macrophages. During the activation of FPR2 induced by its agonist AGP-8694, a high level of Brucella uptake was accompanied by an increase in ERK phosphorylation, while intracellular survival at 24 h postincubation was observed to be associated with slightly reduced nitrite accumulation but augmented superoxide anion production. Attenuated secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed 48 h postincubation in the bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated with the FPR2 antagonist WRW4. An opposite pattern of bacterial uptake was observed upon treatment with the FPR2 antagonist, but no significant changes in the activation of MAPKs or the production of nitrite or superoxide anion were observed. Interestingly, AGP-8694 treatment of mice did not lead to differences in spleen or liver weight but slightly enhanced bacterial proliferation was observed in the spleen. Although the weights of the spleen or liver did not differ, WRW4 treatment led to reduced bacterial proliferation in the spleen. Furthermore, FPR2 antagonist treatment was associated with high serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MCP-1, while the production of TNF-α was inhibited in AGP-8694-treated mice. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were slightly increased in AGP-8694-treated mice at 24 h postinfection. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of FPR2 via manipulating this receptor using its reported agonist AGP-8694 and antagonist WRW4 in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Although activation of the receptor did not consistently induced Brucella infection, FPR2 inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat brucellosis in animals which encourages further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2021.152073DOI Listing
February 2021

Surveillance failure in ultrasound for hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Gut 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Radiology, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323615DOI Listing
March 2021

Optimization of protoplast regeneration in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Methods 2021 Feb 23;17(1):21. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

Background: Plants have a remarkable reprogramming potential, which facilitates plant regeneration, especially from a single cell. Protoplasts have the ability to form a cell wall and undergo cell division, allowing whole plant regeneration. With the growing need for protoplast regeneration in genetic engineering and genome editing, fundamental studies that enhance our understanding of cell cycle re-entry, pluripotency acquisition, and de novo tissue regeneration are essential. To conduct these studies, a reproducible and efficient protoplast regeneration method using model plants is necessary.

Results: Here, we optimized cell and tissue culture methods for improving protoplast regeneration efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. Protoplasts were isolated from whole seedlings of four different Arabidopsis ecotypes including Columbia (Col-0), Wassilewskija (Ws-2), Nossen (No-0), and HR (HR-10). Among these ecotypes, Ws-2 showed the highest potential for protoplast regeneration. A modified thin alginate layer was applied to the protoplast culture at an optimal density of 1 × 10 protoplasts/mL. Following callus formation and de novo shoot regeneration, the regenerated inflorescence stems were used for de novo root organogenesis. The entire protoplast regeneration process was completed within 15 weeks. The in vitro regenerated plants were fertile and produced morphologically normal progenies.

Conclusion: The cell and tissue culture system optimized in this study for protoplast regeneration is efficient and reproducible. This method of Arabidopsis protoplast regeneration can be used for fundamental studies on pluripotency establishment and de novo tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13007-021-00720-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901198PMC
February 2021

sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019 Jun 23;71(3). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, oxidase-positive, and catalase-negative strain designated as BRMEA1 was isolated from the surface-sterilized roots. Growth of strain BRMEA1 was found to occur at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0), 15-50 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BRMEA1 formed a lineage within the genus (family ) and showed the highest sequence similarity to DSM 15600 (98.3 %) and KCTC 13885 (98.2 %), and less than 98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the other members of the genus . Whole-genome analysis of strain BRMEA1 comprised a circular chromosome (5 632 809 bp in size) with 38.5 mol% G+C content. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization analyses revealed that strain BRMEA1 showed 20.5 and 22.0% genomic DNA relatedness with the closest species DSM 15600 and KCTC 13885, respectively. The whole-genome sequence of strain BRMEA1 showed the presence of 11 specific conserved signature indels for the genus . The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) of strain BRMEA1 were found to be iso-C and anteiso-C, while the major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Polyphasic analysis results revealed that BRMEA1 represents a novel species of the genus , with the proposed name sp. nov. The type strain is BRMEA1 (=KCTC 43208=CCTCC AB 2020071).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004581DOI Listing
June 2019

Brain morphological and connectivity changes on MRI after stem cell therapy in a rat stroke model.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0246817. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.

In animal models of stroke, behavioral assessments could be complemented by a variety of neuroimaging studies to correlate them with recovery and better understand mechanisms of improvement after stem cell therapy. We evaluated morphological and connectivity changes after treatment with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a rat stroke model, through quantitative measurement of T2-weighted images and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion rats randomly received PBS (PBS-only), FBS cultured hMSCs (FBS-hMSCs), or stroke patients' serum cultured hMSCs (SS-hMSCs). Functional improvement was assessed using a modified neurological severity score (mNSS). Quantitative analyses of T2-weighted ischemic lesion and ventricular volume changes were performed. Brain microstructure/connectivity changes were evaluated in the ischemic recovery area by DTI-derived microstructural indices such as relative fractional anisotropy (rFA), relative axial diffusivity (rAD), and relative radial diffusivity (rRD), and relative fiber density (rFD) analyses. According to mNSS results, the SS-hMSCs group showed the most prominent functional improvement. Infarct lesion volume of the SS-hMSCs group was significantly decreased at 2 weeks when compared to the PBS-only groups, but there were no differences between the FBS-hMSCs and SS-hMSCs groups. Brain atrophy was significantly decreased in the SS-hMSCs group compared to the other groups. In DTI, rFA and rFD values were significantly higher and rRD value was significant lower in the SS-hMSCs group and these microstructure/connectivity changes were correlated with T2-weighted morphological changes. T2-weighted volume alterations (ischemic lesion and brain atrophy), and DTI microstructural indices and rFD changes, were well matched with the results of behavioral assessment. These quantitative MRI measurements could be potential outcome predictors of functional recovery after treatment with stem cells for stroke.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246817PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886198PMC
February 2021

Immunization With a Combination of Four Recombinant Proteins Omp16, Omp19, Omp28, and L7/L12 Induces T Helper 1 Immune Response Against Virulent 544 Infection in BALB/c Mice.

Front Vet Sci 2020 20;7:577026. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea.

Protective efficiency of a combination of four recombinant () proteins, namely outer membrane protein (Omp) 16, Omp19, Omp28, and 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12 was evaluated as a combined subunit vaccine (CSV) against infection in RAW 264.7 cell line and murine model. The immunoreactivity of these four recombinant proteins as well as pCold-TF vector reacted with -positive serum individually, but not with -negative serum by immunoblotting assay. CSV-treated RAW 264.7 cells significantly induced production of IFN-γ and IL-12 while decreased IL-10 production at the late stage of infection compared to PBS-treated control cells. In addition, the enhancement of nitric oxide production together with cytokines secretion profile in CSV-treated cells proved that CSV notably activated bactericidal mechanisms in macrophages. Consistently, mice immunized with CSV strongly elicited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 compared to PBS control group. Moreover, the concentration of IFN-γ was >IL-10 and titers of IgG2a were also heightened compared to IgG1 in CSV-immunized mice which suggest that CSV induced predominantly T helper 1 T cell. These results suggest that the CSV used in the present study is a potential candidate as a preventive therapy against brucellosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.577026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854899PMC
January 2021

Global metabolomic analysis of blood from mice infected with Brucella abortus.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Apr 19;83(3):482-486. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea.

To better understanding Brucella abortus infection, serum metabolites of B. abortus-infected and -uninfected mice were analyzed and twenty-one metabolites were tentatively identified at 3 and 14 days post-infection (d.p.i.). Level of most lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) was found to increase in infected mice at 3 d.p.i., while it was decreased at 14 d.p.i. as compared to uninfected mice. In contrast, acylcarnitines were initially reduced at 3 d.p.i then elevated after two-weeks of infection, while hydroxysanthine was increased at 14 d.p.i. in infected mice. Our findings suggest that the significant changes in LPCs and other identified metabolites may serve as potential biomarkers in acute phase of B. abortus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025415PMC
April 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Ischemic Stroke.

Neurology 2021 02 20;96(7):e1012-e1023. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

From the Department of Neurology (J.-W.C., O.Y.B., S.J.K.), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University; Translational and Stem Cell Research Laboratory on Stroke (J.-W.C., O.Y.B., G.J.M.) and Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Institute (G.J.M.), Samsung Medical Center; Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (W.H.C., Y.-H.K.), Center for Prevention and Rehabilitation, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; School of Life Sciences (G.J.M.), BK21 plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu; Department of Neurology (S.-K.K.), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju; Department of Neurology (J.S.L.), Ajou University Hospital, School of Medicine, Suwon; and Department of Neurology (S.-I.S.), Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea. Dr. Moon is currently affiliated with the Stem Cell Center, Asan Institute for Life Science and the Department of Convergence Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objective: To test whether autologous modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improve recovery in patients with chronic major stroke.

Methods: In this prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome evaluation, patients with severe middle cerebral artery territory infarct within 90 days of symptom onset were assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive preconditioned autologous MSC injections (MSC group) or standard treatment alone (control group). The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. The secondary outcome was to further demonstrate motor recovery.

Results: A total of 39 and 15 patients were included in the MSC and control groups, respectively, for the final intention-to-treat analysis. Mean age of patients was 68 (range 28-83) years, and mean interval between stroke onset to randomization was 20.2 (range 5-89) days. Baseline characteristics were not different between groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the mRS score shift at 3 months ( = 0.732). However, secondary analyses showed significant improvements in lower extremity motor function in the MSC group compared to the control group (change in the leg score of the Motricity Index, = 0.023), which was notable among patients with low predicted recovery potential. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events.

Conclusions: IV application of preconditioned, autologous MSCs with autologous serum was feasible and safe in patients with chronic major stroke. MSC treatment was not associated with improvements in the 3-month mRS score, but we did observe leg motor improvement in detailed functional analyses.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that autologous MSCs do not improve 90-day outcomes in patients with chronic stroke.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifier: NCT01716481.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011440DOI Listing
February 2021

Jacq. Exhibits Antiobesity Properties and Potentially Induces Browning of White Adipose Tissue.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 23;2020:9358563. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Physiology and Cell Signaling, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.

The bark of Jacq. (UP) was traditionally used as a diuretic and to treat intestinal inflammation. With modern evidence of the correlation of diuretics, gut inflammation, and obesity, our study has shown the antiobesity effects of the bark of UP. UP treatment reduced lipid production and adipogenic genes . studies revealed that UP 100 mg/kg and UP 300 mg/kg treatment significantly reduced mouse weight without reducing food intake, indicating increased energy expenditure. UP significantly reduced the weight of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue and decreased liver weight. Histological analysis revealed improvement in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and epididymal white adipose tissue hypertrophy induced by a HFD. Real-Time PCR of epididymal adipose tissue revealed significant increases of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1) expression after UP 300 mg/kg treatments. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein (AMPK) was increased, while phosphorylation of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) was reduced. Our findings reveal the ability of UP to reduce the occurrence of obesity through increased browning of white adipose tissue via increased AMPK, PPAR, PGC-1, and UCP-1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9358563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773463PMC
December 2020

Development of a Rapid Selection System for Salt-Resistant Mutants of through Protoplast Culture after Gamma Irradiation.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Dec 7;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 181 Ipsingil, Jeongeup-si 580-185, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.

We aimed to develop a novel technology capable of rapidly selecting mutant plant cell lines. Salt resistance was chosen as a rapid selection trait that is easily applicable to protoplast-derived cell colonies. Mesophyll protoplasts were cultured in a medium supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mM NaCl. At NaCl concentrations ≥ 100 mM, cell colony formation was strongly inhibited after 4 weeks of culture. Tobacco protoplasts irradiated with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 Gy were then cultured to investigate the effects of radiation intensity on cell division. The optimal radiation intensity was 50 Gy. To develop salt-resistant tobacco mutant plants, protoplasts irradiated with 50 Gy were cultured in a medium containing 100 mM NaCl. The efficiency of cell colony formation from these protoplasts was approximately 0.002%. A salt-resistant mutant callus was selected and proliferated in the same medium and then transferred to a shoot inducing medium for adventitious shoot formation. The obtained shoots were then cultured in a medium supplemented with 200 mM NaCl and developed into normal plantlets. This rapid selection technology for generating salt-resistant tobacco mutants will be useful for the development of crop varieties resistant to environmental stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9121720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762216PMC
December 2020

Anti-Inflammatory Activities of an Extract of In Vitro Grown Adventitious Shoots of in LPS-Treated RAW264.7 and -Treated HaCaT Cells.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Dec 3;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Jeonju AgroBio-Materials Institute, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54810, Korea.

has been traditionally used to treat dysentery, enteritis, flatulence, and itchiness. However, the existence of anti-inflammatory effects of on -induced skin disease is unknown. In vitro cultures of plant cells and tissues produced under controlled conditions offer a continuous production platform for plant natural products including pigments and anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we determine the anti-inflammatory activities of an extract of in vitro grown adventitious shoots of on , the etiologic agent of skin inflammation. The extract of showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also had antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects on -treated HaCaT cells. In addition, these effects were regulated by suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. These results suggesting the potential application of adventitious shoots of grown with an in vitro proliferation system as a medicine for treating -induced inflammatory skin disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9121701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761664PMC
December 2020

Transcriptomic profiling of phospholipase A2 and the role of arachidonic acid during Brucella abortus 544 infection in both in vitro and in vivo systems.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 29;152:104655. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To date, the antimicrobial activity of arachidonic acid (AA) with regard to pathogenesis of Brucella in macrophages is unknown. We found that AA is highly toxic to B. abortus in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Transcription profiling of different groups of phospholipases A2 (PLA) was examined, ten PLA were detected including cPLA-IV-A, cPLA-IV-B, iPLA-VI, sPLA-I-B, sPLA-II-C, sPLA-II-D, sPLA-II-E, sPLA-V, sPLA-X, sPLA-XII-A. Phagocytic signaling investigation indicated that AA treatment attenuated p38α activity in infected culture macrophages possibly leading to inhibition of Brucella internalization. Post-treatment with the fatty acid did not influence bacterial intracellular multiplication or alter production of antimicrobial effectors like ROS and NO in RAW 264.7 cells. On the other hand, AA administration significantly reduced bacterial load and modestly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion including TNF, IFN-γ and IL-6 in mice plasma. To our knowledge, we are the first to suggest that B. abortus invasion to RAW 264.7 macrophages is impaired by AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104655DOI Listing
March 2021

Lenzimycins A and B, Metabolites With Antibacterial Properties From sp. Associated With the Dung Beetle .

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:599911. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Symbiotic microorganisms associated with insects can produce a wide array of metabolic products, which provide an opportunity for the discovery of useful natural products. Selective isolation of bacterial strains associated with the dung beetle, , identified two strains, of which the antibiotic-producing sp. PTH23 inhibited the growth of sp. CCARM 9248, which is most closely related to the well-known entomopathogen, . A comprehensive chemical investigation based on antibiotic activity discovered two new antibiotics, named lenzimycins A and B (-), which inhibited growth of sp. CCARM 9248. The H and C NMR, MS, MS/MS, and IR analyses elucidated the structures of and , which comprised a novel combination of fatty acid (12-methyltetradecanoic acid), glycerol, sulfate, and -methyl ethanolamine. Furthermore, the acid hydrolysis of revealed the absolute configuration of 12-methyltetradecanoic acid as 12 by comparing its optical rotation value with authentic ()- and ()-12-methyltetradecanoic acid. In addition to inhibition of sp. CCARM 9248, lenzimycins A and B were found to inhibit the growth of some human pathogenic bacteria, including and certain strains of Furthermore, the present study elucidated that lenzimycins A and B activated a reporter system designed to detect the bacterial cell envelope stress, thereby indicating an activity against the integrity of the bacterial cell wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.599911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661691PMC
October 2020

The Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Adventitious Shoot Formation Varies among the Plant Species and the Explant Types.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 10;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Jeongeup 56212, Korea.

Histone acetylation plays an important role in plant growth and development. Here, we investigated the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on adventitious shoot formation from protoplast-derived calli and cotyledon explants of tobacco () and tomato (). The frequency of adventitious shoot formation from protoplast-derived calli was higher in shoot induction medium (SIM) containing NaB than in the control. However, the frequency of adventitious shoot formation from cotyledon explants of tobacco under the 0.1 mM NaB treatment was similar to that in the control, but it decreased with increasing NaB concentration. Unlike in tobacco, NaB decreased adventitious shoot formation in tomato explants in a concentration-dependent manner, but it did not have any effect on adventitious shoot formation in calli. NaB inhibited or delayed the expression of D-type cyclin () and shoot-regeneration regulatory gene () in cotyledon explants of tobacco and tomato. However, compared to that in control SIM, the expression of was promoted more rapidly in tobacco calli cultured in NaB-containing SIM, but the expression of was inhibited. In conclusion, the effect of NaB on adventitious shoot formation and expression of and genes depended on the plant species and whether the effects were tested on explants or protoplast-derived calli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696800PMC
November 2020

Anti-inflammatory activity of diindolylmethane alleviates Riemerella anatipestifer infection in ducks.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(11):e0242198. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine & Institute of Animal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is found in cruciferous vegetables and is used to treat various inflammatory diseases because of its potential anti-inflammatory effects. To investigate effects of DIM in Riemerella anatipestifer-infected ducks which induce upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, ducks were treated orally with DIM at dose of 200 mg/kg/day and infected the following day with R. anatipestifer. Infected and DIM-treated ducks exhibited 14% increased survival rate and significantly decreased bacterial burden compared to infected untreated ducks. Next, the effect on the expression level of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-17A, IL-17F, IL-6, IL-1β) of both in vitro and in vivo DIM-treated groups was monitored by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Generally, the expression levels of the cytokines were significantly reduced in DIM-treated splenic lymphocytes stimulated with killed R. anatipestifer compared to stimulated untreated splenic lymphocytes. Similarly, the expression levels of the cytokines were significantly reduced in the spleens and livers of DIM-treated R. anatipestifer-infected ducks compared to infected untreated ducks. This study demonstrated the ameliorative effects of DIM in ducks infected with R. anatipestifer. Thus, DIM can potentially be used to prevent and/or treat R. anatipestifer infection via inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242198PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657562PMC
January 2021

Structured reporting of CT or MRI for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: usefulness for clinical planning and interdisciplinary communication.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Apr 11;39(4):349-356. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Radiology, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yansan Hospital, and Pusan National University school of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea.

Purpose: To compare the content and communication between the radiologist and the clinicians for treatment planning of structured reports (SRs) and narrative reports (NRs) for reporting CT/MRI findings in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.

Materials And Method: This retrospective study included 54 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent CT/MRI before ERCP or surgery. For all patients, we generated both NRs and SRs for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and compared the number of key features between NRs and SRs. In addition, three clinicians performed a questionnaire evaluation that included three questions regarding assessment of the sufficiency of information for surgical or procedural planning, the effort required for information extraction, and the report quality rated on a Likert scale.

Results: SRs included significantly more predefined key features (6.89 ± 0.31) than NRs (5.87 ± 0.70) (p < 0.001). SRs provided greater sufficiency of information for clinical planning than NRs (89.9% vs. 18.5% of the cases, respectively; p < 0.001). Extraction of information was easier from SRs than NRs (94.4% vs. 9.3%, respectively) (p < 0.001). SRs received a higher overall report quality rating (5.96 ± 0.19) than NRs (4.31 ± 0.77) (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: SRs of CT/MRI findings for hilar cholangiocarcinoma can reveal more predefined key features, provide more sufficiency of information, and yield higher satisfaction levels, in comparison with NRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-01068-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Changes in Beneficial -glycosylflavones and Policosanol Content in Wheat and Barley Sprouts Subjected to Differential LED Light Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 6;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (NAS), RDA, Jeonju 54874, Korea.

The spectral quality and intensity of light, photoperiodism, and other environmental factors have profound impacts on the metabolic composition of light-dependent higher plants. Hence, we investigate the effects of fluorescent light (96 μmol ms) and white (100 μmol ms), blue (100 μmol ms), and red (93 μmol ms) light-emitting diode (LED) light irradiation on the -glycosylflavone and policosanol contents in young seedlings of wheat and barley. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analyses of -glycosylflavone contents in barley reveal that the saponarin content is significantly enhanced under blue LED light irradiation. Under similar conditions, isoorientin and isoschaftoside contents are improved in wheat seedlings. The contents of these -glycosylflavones differed along with the light quality and growth period. The highest accumulation was observed in sprouts after three days under blue LED light irradiation. GC/MS analyses of policosanol contents showed that 1-hexacosanol (C26:o-OH) in barley and 1-octacosanol (C28:o-OH) in wheat seedlings were reduced under LED light irradiation, compared to seedlings under fluorescent light conditions. Nonetheless, the policosanol contents gradually improved with the extension of growth times and treatments, irrespective of the light quality. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between the expression pattern of biosynthesis-related genes and the respective metabolite content in barley. This study demonstrates that blue LED light irradiation is useful in maximizing the -glycosylflavone content in barley and wheat sprouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694615PMC
November 2020

Prostaglandin I2 (PGI) inhibits Brucella abortus internalization in macrophages via PGI receptor signaling, and its analogue affects immune response and disease outcome in mice.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Feb 19;115:103902. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To date, the implications of prostaglandin I2 (PGI), a prominent lipid mediator for modulation of immune responses, has not been clearly understood in Brucella infection. In this study, we found that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was significantly expressed in both infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and RAW 264.7 cells. Prostaglandin I2 synthase (PTGIS) expression was not significantly changed, and PGIreceptor (PTGIR) expression was downregulated in BMMs but upregulated in RAW 264.7 macrophages at late infection. Here, we presented that PGI, a COX-derived metabolite, was produced by macrophages during Brucella infection and its production was regulated by COX-2 and IL-10. We suggested that PGI and selexipag, a potent PGI analogue, inhibited Brucella internalization through IP signaling which led to down-regulation of F-actin polymerization and p38α MAPK activity. Administration with selexipag suppressed immune responses and resulted in a notable reduction in bacterial burden in spleen of Brucella-challenged mice. Taken together, our study is the first to characterize PGI synthesis and its effect in evasion strategy of macrophages against Brucella infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103902DOI Listing
February 2021

First-line chemotherapy in very elderly patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: Gemcitabine monotherapy combination chemotherapy.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Sep;8(18):4022-4033

Department of Surgery, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, South Korea.

Background: Combination chemotherapy (gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX) is widely used as the standard first-line treatment for pancreatic cancer. Considering the severe toxicities of combination chemotherapy, gemcitabine monotherapy (G mono) could be used as a first-line treatment in very elderly patients or those with a low Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status. However, reports on the efficacy of G mono in patients older than 75 years are limited.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of G mono and combination chemotherapy by comparing their clinical outcomes in very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 104 older patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent chemotherapy with G mono ( = 45) or combination therapy ( = 59) as a first-line treatment between 2011 and 2019. All patients were histologically diagnosed with ductal adenocarcinoma. Primary outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. We also analyzed subgroups according to age [65-74 years (elderly) and ≥ 75 years (very elderly)]. Propensity score matching was performed to compare the outcomes between the two chemotherapy groups.

Results: The baseline characteristics were significantly different between the two chemotherapy groups, especially regarding age, ratio of multiple metastases, tumor burden, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. After propensity score matching, the baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the chemotherapy groups in elderly and very elderly patients. In the elderly patients, the median progression-free survival (62 d 206 d, = 0.000) and overall survival (102 d 302 d, = 0.000) were longer in the combination chemotherapy group. However, in the very elderly patients, the median progression-free survival (147 d and 174 d, respectively, = 0.796) and overall survival (227 d and 211 d, respectively, = 0.739) were comparable between the G mono and combination chemotherapy groups. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the combination chemotherapy group than in the G mono group, especially thromboembolism (G mono nab-paclitaxel FOLFIRINOX; 8.9% 5.9% 28%, = 0.041), neutropenia (40.0% 76.5% 84.0%, = 0.000), and neuropathy (0% 61.8% 28.0%, = 0.006).

Conclusion: In elderly patients, combination therapy is more effective than G mono. However, G mono is superior for the management of metastatic pancreatic cancer in very elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i18.4022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520790PMC
September 2020

Comparison of gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX in metastatic pancreatic cancer.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Sep;8(17):3718-3729

Department of Surgery, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, South Korea.

Background: Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (GA) and modified FOLFIRINOX (FFX) have been widely used as standard first-line treatment in pancreatic cancer. However, it is unclear which regimen is more efficacious.

Aim: To evaluate a retrospective analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of FFX and GA as first-line chemotherapeutic regimens in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed and compared outcomes in 101 patients who presented with pancreatic cancer and were treated with either GA ( = 54) or FFX ( = 47). Moreover, we performed subgroup analysis based on the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status.

Results: There were no significant differences between two groups in baseline characteristics, except for the ECOG performance status. The median progression-free survival (PFS) (6.43 mo 4.90 mo, = 0.058) was comparable between two groups; however, median overall survival (OS) (10.17 mo 6.93 mo, = 0.008) was longer in patients who received GA regimen. In patients with ECOG 0 (PFS: 8.93 mo 5.43 mo, = 0.002; OS: 16.10 mo 6.97 mo, = 0.000) and those with NLR < 3 (PFS: 8.10 mo 6.57 mo, = 0.008; OS: 12.87 mo 9.93 mo, = 0.002), GA regimen showed higher efficacy.

Conclusion: GA regimen may be recommended to the patients with NLR < 3 or ECOG 0 status although GA and FFX showed comparable efficacy outcomes in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i17.3718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479547PMC
September 2020

Large-area liquid crystal beam deflector with wide steering angle.

Appl Opt 2020 Aug;59(24):7462-7468

A slim beam deflector that satisfies both a large steering angle and a large area can be very useful in various applications. However, a smaller electrode pitch for a large steering angle and enlargement of its area are trade-off relations due to the limited number of control channels in an electrically tunable beam deflector system. For a large steering angle in the active area where actual diffraction occurs, an indium tin oxide electrode of 2 µm pitch was implemented through a stepper lithography. The via-hole process was developed to expand the reduced active area due to the small electrode pitch. We developed a beam deflector with 7200 controllable channels in an active area of 14.4×14.4. The maximum steering angle is 7.643° at a wavelength of 532 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.398863DOI Listing
August 2020

The Impact of Obesity on the Severity of Clinicopathologic Parameters in Patients with IgA Nephropathy.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 31;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon 22711, Korea.

Several studies reported the effect of obesity on the progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the impact of obesity on the clinicopathologic presentation of IgAN remains uncertain. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study from eight university hospitals in South Korea. Patients were categorized into three groups using the Asia-Pacific obesity classification based on body mass index (BMI). Clinical and histopathologic data at the time of renal biopsy were analyzed. Among 537 patients with IgAN, the obese group was more hypertensive and had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and more proteinuria than other groups. The histologic scores for mesangial matrix expansion (MME), interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and mesangial C3 deposition differed significantly between the three groups. Among these histopathologic parameters, BMI was independently positively associated with MME score on multivariable linear regression analysis ( = 0.028). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the obese group was independently associated with higher MME scores compared to the normal weight/overweight group ( = 0.020). However, BMI was not independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate or proteinuria on multivariable analysis. Obesity was independently associated with severe MME in patients with IgAN. Obesity may play an important pathogenetic role in mesangial lesions seen in IgAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564413PMC
August 2020

Temporal and Spatial Expression Analysis of Shoot-Regeneration Regulatory Genes during the Adventitious Shoot Formation in Hypocotyl and Cotyledon Explants of Tomato (CV. Micro-Tom).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 26;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Jeongeup 56212, Korea.

Enhancing the competence for plant regeneration in tissue culture studies is an important issue not only for efficient genetic transformation of commercial crops but also for the reproducibility of scientific reports. In this study, we investigated optimization of several tissue culture conditions including plant growth regulators, types and ages of explants, culture densities, and plant position in order to improve the competence of adventitious shoot formation of the tomato ( cv. Micro-Tom). In addition, we examined the differential expression of D-type cyclin ( and several shoot regeneration regulatory genes from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of tomato during shoot organogenesis. A treatment of 1 mg L Zeatin and 0.1 mg L Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 3% sucrose was optimal for adventitious shoot formation from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants. The younger explants exhibited more shoot formation regardless of explant types. Additionally, those closest to the shoot apical meristem produced more shoots compared to the other regions in the hypocotyl and the cotyledon explants. Gene expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (), and cytokinin dependent WUSCHEL () was significantly higher in younger explants than in older ones. Furthermore, an increase in , , and expression was evident at the distal part of hypocotyls and the proximal part of cotyledons compared to other regions. These differential gene expression profiles exhibited good agreement with the results of shoot formation obtained from diverse explants of tomato. These results suggest that temporal and spatial gene expression of shoot regeneration regulatory genes plays an important role in enhancing the competence and the reproducibility of adventitious shoot formation from tomato explants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432687PMC
July 2020

Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity Consortium (MoTrPAC): Mapping the Dynamic Responses to Exercise.

Cell 2020 06;181(7):1464-1474

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:

Exercise provides a robust physiological stimulus that evokes cross-talk among multiple tissues that when repeated regularly (i.e., training) improves physiological capacity, benefits numerous organ systems, and decreases the risk for premature mortality. However, a gap remains in identifying the detailed molecular signals induced by exercise that benefits health and prevents disease. The Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity Consortium (MoTrPAC) was established to address this gap and generate a molecular map of exercise. Preclinical and clinical studies will examine the systemic effects of endurance and resistance exercise across a range of ages and fitness levels by molecular probing of multiple tissues before and after acute and chronic exercise. From this multi-omic and bioinformatic analysis, a molecular map of exercise will be established. Altogether, MoTrPAC will provide a public database that is expected to enhance our understanding of the health benefits of exercise and to provide insight into how physical activity mitigates disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.004DOI Listing
June 2020