Publications by authors named "Sujin Yun"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Putative role of GPR139 on sleep modulation using pharmacological and genetic rodent models.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Sep 9;882:173256. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Janssen Research & Development, L.L.C, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:

GPR139 is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in circumventricular regions of the habenula and septum. Amino acids L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine have been shown to activate GPR139 at physiologically relevant concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GPR139 on sleep modulation using pharmacological and genetic (GPR139 knockout mice, KO) rodent models. To evaluate the effects of GPR139 pharmacological activation on sleep, rats were orally dosed with the selective GPR139 agonist JNJ-63533054 (3-30 mg/kg). When acutely administered at the beginning of the light phase, the GPR139 agonist dose-dependently reduced non-rapid eye movement (NREM) latency and increased NREM sleep duration without altering rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This effect progressively dissipated upon 7-day repeated dosing, suggesting functional desensitization. Under baseline conditions, GPR139 KO mice spent less time in REM sleep compared to their wild type littermates during the dark phase, whereas NREM sleep was not altered. Under conditions of pharmacologically enhanced monoamine endogenous tone, GPR139 KO mice showed a blunted response to citalopram or fluoxetine induced REM sleep suppression and an attenuated response to the wake promoting effect of amphetamine. These findings indicate an emerging role of GPR139 in the modulation of sleep states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173256DOI Listing
September 2020

Pharmacologic Characterization of JNJ-42226314, [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone, a Reversible, Selective, and Potent Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 03 9;372(3):339-353. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California.

The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of 2-AG degradation leads to elevation of 2-AG, the most abundant endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors has demonstrated beneficial effects on mood, appetite, pain, and inflammation. Therefore, MAGL inhibitors have the potential to produce therapeutic effects in a vast array of complex human diseases. The present report describes the pharmacologic characterization of [1-(4-fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone (JNJ-42226314), a reversible and highly selective MAGL inhibitor. JNJ-42226314 inhibits MAGL in a competitive mode with respect to the 2-AG substrate. In rodent brain, the compound time- and dose-dependently bound to MAGL, indirectly led to CB1 occupancy by raising 2-AG levels, and raised norepinephrine levels in cortex. In vivo, the compound exhibited antinociceptive efficacy in both the rat complete Freund's adjuvant-induced radiant heat hypersensitivity and chronic constriction injury-induced cold hypersensitivity models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respectively. Though 30 mg/kg induced hippocampal synaptic depression, altered sleep onset, and decreased electroencephalogram gamma power, 3 mg/kg still provided approximately 80% enzyme occupancy, significantly increased 2-AG and norepinephrine levels, and produced neuropathic antinociception without synaptic depression or decreased gamma power. Thus, it is anticipated that the profile exhibited by this compound will allow for precise modulation of 2-AG levels in vivo, supporting potential therapeutic application in several central nervous system disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling activity via inhibition of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an appealing strategy in the development of treatments for several disorders, including ones related to mood, pain, and inflammation. [1-(4-Fluorophenyl)indol-5-yl]-[3-[4-(thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone is presented in this report to be a novel, potent, selective, and reversible noncovalent MAGL inhibitor that demonstrates dose-dependent enhancement of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol as well as efficacy in models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.119.262139DOI Listing
March 2020

Evaluation of JNJ-54717793 a Novel Brain Penetrant Selective Orexin 1 Receptor Antagonist in Two Rat Models of Panic Attack Provocation.

Front Pharmacol 2017 9;8:357. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, IndianapolisIN, United States.

Orexin neurons originating in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamic area are highly reactive to anxiogenic stimuli and have strong projections to anxiety and panic-associated circuitry. Recent studies support a role for the orexin system and in particular the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) in coordinating an integrative stress response. However, no selective OX1R antagonist has been systematically tested in two preclinical models of using panicogenic stimuli that induce panic attack in the majority of people with panic disorder, namely an acute hypercapnia-panic provocation model and a model involving chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis in the perifornical hypothalamic area followed by intravenous sodium lactate infusion. Here we report on a novel brain penetrant, selective and high affinity OX1R antagonist JNJ-54717793 (1S,2R,4R)-7-([(3-fluoro-2-pyrimidin-2-ylphenyl)carbonyl]--[5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-amine). JNJ-54717793 is a high affinity/potent OX1R antagonist and has an excellent selectivity profile including 50 fold versus the OX2R. receptor binding studies demonstrated that after oral administration JNJ-54717793 crossed the blood brain barrier and occupied OX1Rs in the rat brain. While JNJ-54717793 had minimal effect on spontaneous sleep in rats and in wild-type mice, its administration in OX2R knockout mice, selectively promoted rapid eye movement sleep, demonstrating target engagement and specific OX1R blockade. JNJ-54717793 attenuated CO and sodium lactate induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses without altering baseline locomotor or autonomic activity. These data confirm that selective OX1R antagonism may represent a novel approach of treating anxiety disorders, with no apparent sedative effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465257PMC
June 2017

Selective Inhibition of Orexin-2 Receptors Prevents Stress-Induced ACTH Release in Mice.

Front Behav Neurosci 2017 8;11:83. Epub 2017 May 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Janssen Research and Development, L.L.C.San Diego, CA, USA.

Orexins peptides exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes including stress responding, by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors located widely throughout the brain. Stress or orexin administration stimulates hyperarousal, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release, and selective OX1R blockade can attenuate several stress-induced behavioral and cardiovascular responses but not the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. As opposed to OX1R, OX2R are preferentially expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus which is involved in the HPA axis regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a psychological stress elicited by cage exchange (CE) on ACTH release in two murine models (genetic and pharmacological) of selective OX2R inhibition. CE-induced stress produced a significant increase in ACTH serum levels. Mice lacking the OX2R exhibited a blunted stress response. Stress-induced ACTH release was absent in mice pre-treated with the selective OX2R antagonist JNJ-42847922 (30 mg/kg po), whereas pre-treatment with the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 (30 mg/kg po) only partially attenuated the increase of ACTH. To assess whether the intrinsic and distinct sleep-promoting properties of each antagonist could account for the differential stress response, a separate group of mice implanted with electrodes for standard sleep recording were orally dosed with JNJ-42847922 or SB-649868 during the light phase. While both compounds reduced the latency to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep without affecting its duration, a prevalent REM-sleep promoting effect was observed only in mice treated with the dual OX1/2R antagonist. These data indicate that in a psychological stress model, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of OX2R markedly attenuated stress-induced ACTH secretion, as a separately mediated effect from the NREM sleep induction of OX2R antagonism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2017.00083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5420581PMC
May 2017

Discovery and Characterization of AMPA Receptor Modulators Selective for TARP-γ8.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2016 May 17;357(2):394-414. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, San Diego, California (M.P.M., N.W., S.R., M.K.A., B.M.S., C.L., B.L., R.M.W., J.A.M., C.D., S.Y., A.D.W., N.I.C., T.W.L.); and Janssen Research and Development, a Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Beerse, Belgium (L.V.D., T.S.).

Members of the α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of fast synaptic transmission within the mammalian brain and spinal cord, representing attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we describe novel AMPA receptor modulators that require the presence of the accessory protein CACNG8, also known as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein γ8 (TARP-γ8). Using calcium flux, radioligand binding, and electrophysiological assays of wild-type and mutant forms of TARP-γ8, we demonstrate that these compounds possess a novel mechanism of action consistent with a partial disruption of the interaction between the TARP and the pore-forming subunit of the channel. One of the molecules, 5-[2-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1,3-dihydrobenzimidazol-2-one (JNJ-55511118), had excellent pharmacokinetic properties and achieved high receptor occupancy following oral administration. This molecule showed strong, dose-dependent inhibition of neurotransmission within the hippocampus, and a strong anticonvulsant effect. At high levels of receptor occupancy in rodent in vivo models, JNJ-55511118 showed a strong reduction in certain bands on electroencephalogram, transient hyperlocomotion, no motor impairment on rotarod, and a mild impairment in learning and memory. JNJ-55511118 is a novel tool for reversible AMPA receptor inhibition, particularly within the hippocampus, with potential therapeutic utility as an anticonvulsant or neuroprotectant. The existence of a molecule with this mechanism of action demonstrates the possibility of pharmacological targeting of accessory proteins, increasing the potential number of druggable targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.115.231712DOI Listing
May 2016

GPR139, an Orphan Receptor Highly Enriched in the Habenula and Septum, Is Activated by the Essential Amino Acids L-Tryptophan and L-Phenylalanine.

Mol Pharmacol 2015 Nov 8;88(5):911-25. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Janssen Research & Development LLC, San Diego, California.

GPR139 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in the central nervous system. To identify its physiologic ligand, we measured GPR139 receptor activity from recombinant cells after treatment with amino acids, orphan ligands, serum, and tissue extracts. GPR139 activity was measured using guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate binding, calcium mobilization, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation assays. Amino acids L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) activated GPR139, with EC50 values in the 30- to 300-μM range, consistent with the physiologic concentrations of L-Trp and L-Phe in tissues. Chromatography of rat brain, rat serum, and human serum extracts revealed two peaks of GPR139 activity, which corresponded to the elution peaks of L-Trp and L-Phe. With the purpose of identifying novel tools to study GPR139 function, a high-throughput screening campaign led to the identification of a selective small-molecule agonist [JNJ-63533054, (S)-3-chloro-N-(2-oxo-2-((1-phenylethyl)amino)ethyl) benzamide]. The tritium-labeled JNJ-63533054 bound to cell membranes expressing GPR139 and could be specifically displaced by L-Trp and L-Phe. Sequence alignment revealed that GPR139 is highly conserved across species, and RNA sequencing studies of rat and human tissues indicated its exclusive expression in the brain and pituitary gland. Immunohistochemical analysis showed specific expression of the receptor in circumventricular regions of the habenula and septum in mice. Together, these findings suggest that L-Trp and L-Phe are candidate physiologic ligands for GPR139, and we hypothesize that this receptor may act as a sensor to detect dynamic changes of L-Trp and L-Phe in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.115.100412DOI Listing
November 2015

Characterization of JNJ-42847922, a Selective Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, as a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Insomnia.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015 Sep 15;354(3):471-82. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California

Dual orexin receptor antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in various species, including humans. Emerging research indicates that selective orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonists may offer specificity and a more adequate sleep profile by preserving normal sleep architecture. Here, we characterized JNJ-42847922 ([5-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-hexahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrol-2-yl]-(2-fluoro-6-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-phenyl)-methanone), a high-affinity/potent OX2R antagonist. JNJ-42847922 had an approximate 2-log selectivity ratio versus the human orexin-1 receptor. Ex vivo receptor binding studies demonstrated that JNJ-42847922 quickly occupied OX2R binding sites in the rat brain after oral administration and rapidly cleared from the brain. In rats, single oral administration of JNJ-42847922 (3-30 mg/kg) during the light phase dose dependently reduced the latency to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and prolonged NREM sleep time in the first 2 hours, whereas REM sleep was minimally affected. The reduced sleep onset and increased sleep duration were maintained upon 7-day repeated dosing (30 mg/kg) with JNJ-42847922, then all sleep parameters returned to baseline levels following discontinuation. Although the compound promoted sleep in wild-type mice, it had no effect in OX2R knockout mice, consistent with a specific OX2R-mediated sleep response. JNJ-42847922 did not increase dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens or produce place preference in mice after subchronic conditioning, indicating that the compound lacks intrinsic motivational properties in contrast to zolpidem. In a single ascending dose study conducted in healthy subjects, JNJ-42847922 increased somnolence and displayed a favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profile for a sedative/hypnotic, thus emerging as a promising candidate for further clinical development for the treatment of insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.115.225466DOI Listing
September 2015

Novel Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles Are Selective Orexin-2 Antagonists: SAR Leading to a Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2015 Jul 8;58(14):5620-36. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

The preclinical characterization of novel octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrroles that are potent and selective orexin-2 antagonists is described. Optimization of physicochemical and DMPK properties led to the discovery of compounds with tissue distribution and duration of action suitable for evaluation in the treatment of primary insomnia. These selective orexin-2 antagonists are proven to promote sleep in rats, and this work ultimately led to the identification of a compound that progressed into human clinical trials for the treatment of primary insomnia. The synthesis, SAR, and optimization of the pharmacokinetic properties of this series of compounds as well as the identification of the clinical candidate, JNJ-42847922 (34), are described herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00742DOI Listing
July 2015

Expression of tight junction molecule in the human serum-induced aggregation of human abdominal adipose-derived stem cells in vitro.

Dev Reprod 2014 Dec;18(4):213-24

Dept. of Biotechnology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 139-774, Korea.

Previously we have shown that human abdominal adipose derived-stem cells (ADSCs) could aggregate during the high-density culture in the presence of human serum (HS). In the present study, we observed that human cord blood serum (CBS) and follicular fluid (HFF) also induced aggregation. Similarly, porcine serum could induce aggregation whereas bovine and sheep sera induced little aggregation. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that, compared to FBS-cultured ADSCs, HScultured cells exhibited higher level of mRNA expression of CLDN3, -6, -7, -15, and -16 genes among the tight junction proteins. ADSCs examined at the time of aggregation by culture with HS, BSA, HFF, CBS, or porcine serum showed significantly higher level of mRNA expression of JAM2 among JAM family members. In contrast, cells cultured in FBS, bovine serum or sheep serum, showed lower level of JAM2 expression. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the aggregates of HS-cultured cells (HS-Agg) showed intense staining against the anti-JAM2 antibody whereas neither non-aggregated cells (HS-Ex) nor FBS-cultured cells exhibited weak staining. Western blot results showed that HS-Agg expressed JAM2 protein more prominently than HS-Ex and FBS-cultured cells, both of latter reveled weaker intensity. These results suggest that the aggregation property of ADSCs during high-density culture would be dependent on the specific components of serum, and that JAM2 molecule could play a role in the animal sera-induced aggregation in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12717/devrep.2014.18.4.213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415637PMC
December 2014

Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity.

Front Behav Neurosci 2014 15;8:453. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Neuroscience, Janssen Research and Development, LLC San Diego, CA, USA.

Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg) in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT) points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6) induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg). Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15) or advance (CT22) wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295543PMC
February 2015

A selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates stress-induced hyperarousal without hypnotic effects.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015 Mar 12;352(3):590-601. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California (P.B., S.Y., B.T.S., T.P.L., D.N., B.L., M.W., J.S., N.C., T.L., C.D.); and Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (P.L.J., A.S., S.D.F.).

Orexins (OXs) are peptides produced by perifornical (PeF) and lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes, including stress. A critical role for the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) in complex emotional behavior is emerging, such as overactivation of the OX1R pathway being associated with panic or anxiety states. Here we characterize a brain-penetrant, selective, and high-affinity OX1R antagonist, compound 56 [N-({3-[(3-ethoxy-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)carbonyl]-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-4-yl}methyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-amine]. Ex vivo receptor binding studies demonstrated that, after subcutaneous administration, compound 56 crossed the blood-brain barrier and occupied OX1Rs in the rat brain at lower doses than standard OX1R antagonists GSK-1059865 [5-bromo-N-({1-[(3-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)carbonyl]-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl}methyl)pyridin-2-amine], SB-334867 [1-(2-methyl-1,3-benzoxazol-6-yl)-3-(1,5-naphthyridin-4-yl)urea], and SB-408124 [1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea]. Although compound 56 did not alter spontaneous sleep in rats and in wild-type mice, its administration in orexin-2 receptor knockout mice selectively promoted rapid eye movement sleep, demonstrating target engagement and specific OX1R blockade. In a rat model of psychological stress induced by cage exchange, the OX1R antagonist prevented the prolongation of sleep onset without affecting sleep duration. In a rat model of panic vulnerability (involving disinhibition of the PeF OX region) to threatening internal state changes (i.e., intravenous sodium lactate infusion), compound 56 attenuated sodium lactate-induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses without altering baseline locomotor or autonomic activity. In conclusion, OX1R antagonism represents a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders associated with stress or hyperarousal states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.114.220392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4352589PMC
March 2015

Zolpidem reduces hippocampal neuronal activity in freely behaving mice: a large scale calcium imaging study with miniaturized fluorescence microscope.

PLoS One 2014 5;9(11):e112068. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California, United States of America.

Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal's state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (∼ 65%) significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3%) showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112068PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221229PMC
November 2015

Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism.

Front Neurosci 2014 14;8:28. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

Neuroscience, Janssen Research & Development, L.L.C. San Diego, CA, USA.

In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion). When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg) increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg) did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924048PMC
March 2014

A role of cell adhesion molecules and gelatinases in human serum-induced aggregation of human eyelid-derived stem cells in vitro.

Dev Reprod 2013 Dec;17(4):409-20

Department of Biotechnology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 139-774, Republic of Korea.

Human serum (HS) has been reported to induce aggregation of human eyelid adipose-derived stem cells (HEACs) during high-density culture in vitro. The present study focused on the role of cell adhesion molecules and gelatinases during HS-induced aggregation of HEACs. HS-induced aggregation occurred between 9-15 days of culture. Cells aggregated by HS medium (HS-agg) showed stronger expression of α2, α2B, αX, and CEACAM1 genes compared to non-aggregated cells in HS medium (HS-ex) or in control FBS-cultured cells. HS-agg were distinctly labeled with antibodies against α2, α2B, and αX proteins. Western blot results demonstrated that the two integrin proteins were greatly expressed in HS-agg compared to HS-ex and control FBS-cultured cells. Treatment of HEACs with anti-integrin α2 antibody during culture in HS medium delayed aggregation formation. HS-agg exhibited strong expression of MMP1 and MMP9 compared to HS-ex or FBS-cultured cells. Conditioned media from HS-culture showed remarkable increase of MMP9 gelatinolytic activity in comparison to those from FBS-culture. However, there was no change of TIMP mRNA expression in relation to the HS-induced aggregation. Based on these results, it is suggested that integrin α2, α2B, and αX, and MMP9 might play an important role in the HS-induced aggregation of HEACs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12717/DR.2013.17.4.409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382947PMC
December 2013

Aggregation of Human Eyelid Adipose-derived Stem Cells by Human Body Fluids.

Dev Reprod 2012 Dec;16(4):339-51

Dept. of Biotechnology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 139-774, Korea.

Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most frequently used serum for the cultivation of mammalian cells. However, since animal-derived materials might not be appropriate due to safety issues, allogeneic human serum (HS) has been used to replace FBS, particularly for the culture of human cells. While there has been a debate about the advantages of HS, its precise effect on human adult stem cells have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HS on the human eyelid adipose stem cells (HEACs) in vitro. When HEACs were cultivated in a medium containing 10% HS, many cells moved into several spots and aggregated there. The phenomenon was observed as early as 9 days following 10% HS treatment, and 12 days following 5% HS plus 5% FBS treatment. However, the aggregation was never observed when the same cells were cultivated with 10% FBS or bovine serum albumin. To examine whether cell density might affect the aggregation, cells were seeded with different densities on 12-well dish. Until the beginning of aggregation, cells seeded at low densities exhibited the longest culture period of 16 days whereas cells seeded at high densities showed the shortest period of 9 days to form aggregation. The number of cells was 15.1±0.2×10(4) as the least for the low density group, and 29.3±2.8×10(4) as the greatest for the high density group. When human cord blood serum or normal bovine serum was examined for the same effect on HEACs, interestingly, cord blood serum induced the aggregation of cells whereas bovine serum treatment has never induced. When cells were cultivated with 10% HS for 9 days, they were obtained and analyzed by RT-PCR. Compared to FBS-cultivated HEACs, HS-cultivated HEACs did not express VIM, and less expressed GATA4, PALLD. On the other hand, HS-cultivated HEACs expressed MAP2 more than FBS-cultivated HEACs. In conclusion, human adult stem cells could move and form aggregates by the treatment with human body fluids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12717/DR.2012.16.4.339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4282241PMC
December 2012

Tributyltin increases the expression of apoptosis- and adipogenesis-related genes in rat ovaries.

Clin Exp Reprod Med 2012 Mar 31;39(1):15-21. Epub 2012 Mar 31.

Department of Bioenvironmental Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine disrupting chemical, has been reported to decrease ovarian function by causing apoptosis in the ovary, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined whether TBT increases the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary and the increased expression of these genes is associated with apoptosis induction.

Methods: Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TBT (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight) or sesame oil as a control for 7 days. The ovaries were obtained and weighed on day 8, and then they were fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) or frozen for RNA extraction. Using the total RNA of the ovaries, adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: The ovarian weight was significantly decreased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT compared to that in control rats. As determined by the TUNEL assay, the number of apoptotic follicles in ovary was significantly increased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT. The real-time PCR results showed that the expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as PPARγ, aP2, CD36, and PEPCK was increased after TBT administration. In addition, apoptosis-related genes such as TNFα and TNFR1 were expressed more in the TBT-administered rats compared with the control rats.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that TBT induces the expression of adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the ovary leading to apoptosis in the ovarian follicles. These results suggest that the increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary by TBT exposure might induce apoptosis resulting in a loss of ovarian function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5653/cerm.2012.39.1.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341447PMC
March 2012

A dual-targeting antibody against EGFR-VEGF for lung and head and neck cancer treatment.

Int J Cancer 2012 Aug 19;131(4):956-69. Epub 2011 Nov 19.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

An antibody simultaneously targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two major tumor growth-driving machineries, may provide a novel effective strategy for optimizing tumor targeting and maximizing potential clinical benefits. Human domain antibodies selected against VEGF and EGFR were formatted into a fully human dual-targeting IgG (DT-IgG) to directly target both antigens in a single molecule. We evaluated the efficacy of DT-IgG in comparison with bevacizumab and cetuximab alone and in combination in the lung cancer cell line A549 (low EGFR expression and KRAS mutant) and the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line Tu212 (high EGFR expression and KRAS wild type) in vitro and in vivo. DT-IgG suppressed Tu212 and A549 cell growth, inhibited EGFR activation and induced apoptosis as effectively as cetuximab, and neutralized VEGF as effectively as bevacizumab. DT-IgG induced EGFR-dependent VEGF internalization, constituting a novel antiangiogenesis mechanism. In xenograft models with lung and head and neck cancer cell lines, DT-IgG displayed efficacy equivalent to bevacizumab in diminishing tumor growth despite its short serum half-life (36 hr in rats) and both agents may constitute preferable alternatives to cetuximab in KRAS-mutant tumors. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that localization of DT-IgG was similar to that of cetuximab, largely associated with EGFR+tumor cells. Our proof of principle study suggests a DT-IgG against EGFR and VEGF as an alternative therapeutic strategy with potentially enhanced clinical benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26427DOI Listing
August 2012

Pharmacodynamics of DT-IgG, a dual-targeting antibody against VEGF-EGFR, in tumor xenografted mice.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2012 Mar 13;69(3):577-90. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Center for AIDS Research, Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine/VA Medical Center, Medical Research # 151H, 1670 Clairmont Road, Decatur, GA, 30300, USA.

Purpose: DT-IgG is a fully humanized dual-target therapeutic antibody being developed to simultaneously target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), important signaling molecules for tumor growth. The antitumor pharmacodynamics (PD) of DT-IgG was studied in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts with different EGFR and VEGF expressions and K-ras oncogene status and compared with bevacizumab, cetuximab and bevacizumab + cetuximab.

Methods: Mice bearing human oral squamous cell carcinoma (Tu212), lung adenocarcinoma (A549), or colon cancer (GEO) subcutaneous xenografts were administered with the antibodies intraperitoneally (i.p.), and tumor volumes were measured versus time. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM) was used to study drug potencies (IC(50)) and variations in tumor growth.

Results: The PD models adequately described tumor responses for the antibody dose regimens. In vivo IC(50) values varied with EGFR and K-ras status. DT-IgG had a similar serum t (1/2) as cetuximab (~1.7 vs. 1.5 day), was more rapid than bevacizumab (~6 day), and had the largest apparent distribution volume (DT-IgG > cetuximab > bevacizumab). The efficacy of DT-IgG was comparable to bevacizumab despite lower serum concentrations, but was less than bevacizumab + cetuximab.

Conclusions: A lower IC(50) of DT-IgG partially compensated for lower serum concentrations than bevacizumab and cetuximab, but may require higher doses for comparable efficacy as the combination. The model adequately predicted variations of tumor response at the DT-IgG doses tested and could be used for targeting specific tumor efficacies for future testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-011-1713-xDOI Listing
March 2012

Metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to RXFP3 modulation in the central nervous system.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009 Apr;1160:242-9

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

Neuroanatomical studies have shown relaxin-3 neurons, primarily found in the rodent nucleus incertus (NI), project widely into a large number of areas expressing the relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3), and these data suggest relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling modulates sensory, emotional, and neuroendocrine processing. The similar distribution of this receptor-ligand pair in the rat, mouse, and monkey brain suggests that experimental findings obtained in lower species will translate to higher species. A role for relaxin-3 and RXFP3 in modulating stress responses is strongly suggested by the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor R1 (CRF-R1) by NI cells, increased relaxin-3 expression in the NI after stress or CRF injection, and hormonal responses to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) relaxin-3 injection. Recent data are consistent with a further role for this ligand-receptor pair in modulating memory. In addition, relaxin-3 has been reported to modulate feeding and body weight control. Acute or chronic central (i.c.v. or intraparaventricular) injections of relaxin-3 have shown a consistent stimulatory effect on food consumption while relaxin was inactive, suggesting the phagic effect of relaxin-3 is mediated by RXFP3. We have confirmed the role of RXFP3 in modulating feeding and body weight by using a selective RXFP3 agonist (R3/I5) and antagonist [R3(Delta23-27)R/I5], collecting feeding, body weight, hormone, and body composition data. In addition, we have preliminary body weight and magnetic resonance imaging data from relaxin-3 knockout mice, which on a 129S5:B6 background are smaller and leaner than congenic controls. These data suggest relaxin-3, acting through RXFP3, is involved in coordinating stress, learning and memory, and feeding responses as predicted on the basis of neuroanatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03812.xDOI Listing
April 2009

Blockade of orexin-1 receptors attenuates orexin-2 receptor antagonism-induced sleep promotion in the rat.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009 Jul 10;330(1):142-51. Epub 2009 Apr 10.

Neuroscience, Johnson & Johnson PRD, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Orexins are peptides produced by lateral hypothalamic neurons that exert a prominent role in the maintenance of wakefulness by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptor located in wake-active structures. Pharmacological blockade of both receptors by the dual OX1/2R antagonist (2R)-2-[(1S)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-{2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl]-N-methyl-2-phenylethanamide (almorexant) has been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans during their active period. However, the selective distribution of OX1R and OX2R in distinct neuronal circuits may result in a differential impact of these receptors in sleep-wake modulation. The respective role of OX1R and OX2R on sleep in correlation with monoamine release was evaluated in rats treated with selective antagonists alone or in combination. When administered in either phase of the light/dark cycle, the OX2R antagonist 1-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-3-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea (JNJ-10397049) decreased the latency for persistent sleep and increased nonrapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep time. Almorexant produced less hypnotic activity, whereas the OX1R antagonist 1-(6,8-difluoro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]urea (SB-408124) had no effect. Microdialysis studies showed that either OX2R or OX1/2R antagonism decreased extracellular histamine concentration in the lateral hypothalamus, whereas both OX1R and OX1/2R antagonists increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, coadministration of the OX1R with the OX2R antagonist greatly attenuated the sleep-promoting effects of the OX2R antagonist. These results indicate that blockade of OX2R is sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, consistent with the hypothesis of a deactivation of the histaminergic system. In addition, it is suggested that simultaneous inhibition of OX1R attenuates the sleep-promoting effects mediated by selective OX2R blockade, possibly correlated with dopaminergic neurotransmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.109.152009DOI Listing
July 2009

PECAM-1 is a critical mediator of atherosclerosis.

Dis Model Mech 2008 Sep-Oct;1(2-3):175-81; discussion 179. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, 505 Coast Boulevard South, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large arteries in which lesion development preferentially occurs at vessel sites exposed to rapid changes in flow. We have previously shown that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), a surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in mechanosensing of rapid changes in flow. We wondered whether apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice, predisposed to development of atheromas, would be protected from atherosclerosis by deficiency in PECAM-1. Using double knockout (DKO) mice for both PECAM-1 and ApoE (ApoE(-/-)/PECAM-1(-/-)) we found a significant reduction of sudanophilic lesions in their aortae compared to single knockout (SKO) (ApoE(-/-)/PECAM-1(+/+)) mice maintained on a high-fat Western diet. Immunostaining of aortic sinus cross sections demonstrated significantly lower ICAM-1 expression in DKO lesions compared with SKO lesions, and en face preparations of vessel regions subjected to disturbed and laminar flow showed less disruption of junctional connexin 43 in DKO than in SKO mice. Thus, PECAM-1 deficiency reduced the extent of lesions at the aortic arch and the aortic sinus, and lowered atherogenic indices. These results suggest that PECAM-1 is an important factor in the atherogenic changes seen in the ApoE-deficient mouse model and thus should be considered as a potential target for protection against atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.000547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562188PMC
April 2009

5-HT7 receptor deletion enhances REM sleep suppression induced by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but not by direct stimulation of 5-HT1A receptor.

Neuropharmacology 2009 Feb 7;56(2):448-54. Epub 2008 Oct 7.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., Neuroscience, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

5-HT(7) receptors are involved in REM sleep and possibly in mood disorders. REM sleep suppression and antidepressant-like behavior is observed in 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice and in rats treated with 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists. We recently demonstrated that pharmacological blockade of 5-HT(7) receptors enhances REM sleep suppression and antidepressant-like behavior induced by citalopram in rodents. It has been hypothesized that the effect of citalopram on sleep is essentially mediated by the activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors. The present study investigates the impact of 5-HT(7) receptor gene deletion on the effect of various reuptake inhibitors on REM sleep and probes the role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in this response. Three SSRIs (citalopram, fluoxetine and paroxetine) but not the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine had a significantly stronger REM sleep suppressive effect in 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice compared to 5-HT(7)(+/+) mice. In contrast, REM sleep was similarly reduced in 5-HT(7)(+/+) mice and 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice after treatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist ipsapirone. Furthermore, both 5-HT(7)(+/+) and 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice displayed the same increase in REM sleep duration produced by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635. These findings indicate that 5-HT(7) receptor deletion augments the effect of various SSRIs on REM sleep suppression and that this effect is distinct from those mediated via 5-HT(1A) receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.09.014DOI Listing
February 2009