Publications by authors named "Sujatha Reddy"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomographic sialography in the diagnosis and management of primary Sjögren syndrome: Report of 3 cases.

Imaging Sci Dent 2021 Jun 11;51(2):209-216. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Public Health, Texila American University, Georgetown, Guyana.

Sjögren syndrome is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands, predominantly the parotid and lacrimal glands, thereby resulting in oral and ocular dryness. It has been reported to occur most frequently in women between 40 and 50 years of age. Sjögren syndrome has an insidious onset, is slowly progressive, and presents a wide range of clinical manifestations, leading to delays or challenges in the diagnosis. Early diagnosis of this condition is essential to prevent the associated complications that affect patients' quality of life. This report presents 3 cases of Sjögren syndrome in female patients aged between 40 and 75 years who presented with complaints of persistent dry mouth and burning sensation. The cases highlight the diagnostic value of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomographic sialography in the detection of salivary gland pathologies at an early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5624/isd.20200313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219457PMC
June 2021

Histone Lysine Demethylase JMJD2D/KDM4D and Family Members Mediate Effects of Chronic Social Defeat Stress on Mouse Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Mood Disorders.

Brain Sci 2020 Nov 9;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Epigenetics & Neuropsychiatric Disorders Laboratory, CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Uppal Road, Habsiguda, Hyderabad, Telangana 500007, India.

Depression, anxiety and related mood disorders are major psychiatric illnesses worldwide, and chronic stress appears to be one of the primary underlying causes. Therapeutics to treat these debilitating disorders without a relapse are limited due to the incomplete molecular understanding of their etiopathology. In addition to the well-studied genetic component, research in the past two decades has implicated diverse epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the negative effects of chronic stressful events on neural circuits. This includes the cognitive circuitry, where the dynamic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis gets affected in depression and related affective disorders. Most of these epigenetic studies have focused on the impact of acetylation/deacetylation and methylation of several histone lysine residues on neural gene expression. However, there is a dearth of investigation into the role of demethylation of these lysine residues in chronic stress-induced changes in neurogenesis that results in altered behaviour. Here, using the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm to induce depression and anxiety in C57BL/6 mice and DG neural stem/progenitor cell (NSCs/NPCs) culture we show the role of the members of the JMJD2/KDM4 family of histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) in mediating stress-induced changes in DG neurogenesis and mood disorders. The study suggests a critical role of JMJD2D in DG neurogenesis. Altered enrichment of JMJD2D on the promoters of (inhibitor of differentiation 2) and (SRY-Box Transcription Factor 2) was observed during proliferation and differentiation of NSCs/NPCs obtained from the DG. This would affect the demethylation of repressive epigenetic mark H3K9, thus activating or repressing these and possibly other genes involved in regulating proliferation and differentiation of DG NSCs/NPCs. Treatment of the NSCs/NPCs culture with Dimethyloxallyl Glycine (DMOG), an inhibitor of JMJDs, led to attenuation in their proliferation capacity. Additionally, systemic administration of DMOG in mice for 10 days induced depression-like and anxiety-like phenotype without any stress exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695311PMC
November 2020

Clinical evaluation of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of refractory oral Lichen planus - A case series.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2018 Dec 24;24:280-285. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Chief Consulting Surgeon, Sree NRJV Specialists Dental Clinic, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory, immune mediated mucocutaneous disorder of uncertain etiology. Psychologic stress has been found to be a main contributing factor in onset and progression of lesions. Most erosive OLP patients are refractory to available therapies, even corticosteroids, and report remarkable side effects. As photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proved it to be an effective and safe alternative treatment of abnormal or neoplastic cells we employed PDT for this diagnosis. Due to limited literature on application of this method for treatment of refractory erosive OLP, we present a series of 10 cases of bilateral erosive LP treated by 5 -Aminolevulinic acid mediated PDT. Outcome of our clinical cases showed remarkable improvement in lesions with reduction in Reticulation, Erythema, Ulceration (REU) score (from 5 to 3) and burning sensation as recorded by Visual Analogue Scale (Pretreatment VAS ranged from 5 to 8, posttreatment VAS was 0-1). PDT could be used as a complementary treatment method for symptomatic resistant OLP lesions, although our findings necessitate further research to validate the efficacy of this method for control of resistant oral lichen planus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2018.09.011DOI Listing
December 2018

Oral Spindle Cell Sarcoma: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Apr 1;11(4):ZD23-ZD25. Epub 2017 Apr 1.

Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Spindle cell lesions of the head and neck region are diverse in nature by means of clinical and biological heterogeneity. Though few lesions are found to be malignant, several others are benign or merely reactive in nature. Although these lesions are fairly common occurring in other parts of the body, they are very rare in the oral cavity, accounting for less than 1% of all tumours in the oral region. Herein, a case of 48-year-old man who presented with a polypoid lesion of the maxilla has been reported. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry revealed spindle cell sarcoma of the left maxillary sinus. We present this rare tumour to contribute to the better understanding and awareness of this rare malignancy where diagnosis can be very challenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/24592.9699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5449938PMC
April 2017

Expression of Epstein-Barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population.

J Oral Pathol Med 2017 Jul 1;46(6):454-459. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology, M. S. Ramaiah Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Viruses are the causative agents of approximately 10-15% of all cancers worldwide (Cancers, 6, 2014 and 2155). The tumorigenic roles of Epstein-Barr virus in oral cancer are unclear. Literature search results are conflicting and dependent on various factors such as geographical/regional variations, sociocultural lifestyles, dietary habits, chewing/smoking tobacco habit. This study is the first original observation about frequency of Epstein-Barr virus among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients to elucidate its involvement in oral carcinogenesis and to know whether this can be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator.

Materials And Methods: A total number of 75 tobacco chewer subjects aged between 23 and 76 years with histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (25), oral squamous cell carcinoma (25), and age-matched healthy controls (25) formed the study group. Immunohistochemical expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 was assessed among cases and healthy controls.

Results: Out of the total 75 subjects, six subjects (8%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus antigen and 69 subjects (92%) negative. The antigen positivity was observed among two cases of moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma, two cases of leukoplakia, and two healthy controls.

Conclusion: No significant association between Epstein-Barr virus positivity was observed among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients. This can be partially explained by the methodology employed, by the patient population analyzed and different habits in various geographical regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12508DOI Listing
July 2017

Sialocele of Parotid Duct: Report of Case with Review of Literature.

J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Feb 1;10(2):ZD04-5. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Professor and Head, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, MS Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences , Bangalore, Karnataka, India .

Parotid duct sialocele is a salivary cavity arising at the expense of parotid duct. Facial trauma is the most common cause of this rare condition. If left untreated, a sialocele may develop into a significantly large facial swelling. Fistula formation may occur, often draining extraorally. We report a case of Parotid duct sialocele that was assessed by sialography and ultrasonogarphy and was managed by placement of intraductal cannula for fifteen days till duct was found patent. We also discuss various treatment options of this condition in this case report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/16650.7224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800659PMC
February 2016

Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among chewing tobacco users: A cross-sectional study.

Indian J Dent Res 2015 Sep-Oct;26(5):537-41

Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, M S Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: The increasing use of chewing tobacco (CT) in the last 10-12 years has led to an increased incidence of potentially malignant oral disorders and frank oral malignancies.

Aim: To determine the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and to correlate the dose-response relationship among CT users of Bengaluru North province.

Settings And Design: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomized cluster sample of adults in low-income group (slums), of Bengaluru North, Karnataka state, India.

Materials And Methods: Nine hundred and one subjects, all CT users were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. A prestructured questionnaire which included information on type and amount of CT used, duration and frequency of use, and location of placement of tobacco in the oral cavity was used for assessment, which was followed by oral examination for the presence of lesions.

Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance.

Results: Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5%) followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%), leukoplakia (8%), lichenoid reaction (6.5%), oral cancer (2.7%), and lichen planus (0.5%).

Conclusion: This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.172083DOI Listing
July 2016

Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Among Diabetic Patients: An Emerging Trend.

Mycopathologia 2015 Dec 9;180(5-6):389-96. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, M.S. Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital, Msrit Post, New Bel Road, Bangalore, 560054, Karnataka, India.

Mucormycosis is an acute necrotic fungal infection with a fulminant course. Earlier considered a rare entity, mucormycosis is being reported with increasing frequency in recent years, possibly due to the increase in immunocompromised population especially diabetic patients. We report three cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis among poorly controlled diabetic patients. This article emphasizes the need for further awareness of this disease, early diagnosis, and treatment to counter this opportunistic infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-015-9934-xDOI Listing
December 2015

Tumour associated tissue eosinophilia as a predictor of locoregional recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

J Clin Exp Dent 2015 Feb 1;7(1):e1-6. Epub 2015 Feb 1.

MDS, Senior resident, SCB Dental College and Hospital, Odisha.

Objectives: The increasing global burden of oral cancer has driven much of the focus of research to the determination of reliable prognostic markers which may have significant effects on survival and the control of post-treatment morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate tumour associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) quantitatively in oral cancer specimens and observe for its possible association with tumour stage, patterns of locoregional recurrence and overall prognosis.

Study Design: 14 patients undergoing surgical resection for primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were subjected to grey scale ultrasonography (USG) to assess tumour dimensions. The findings were compared with the cTNM stage initially documented. TATE was evaluated along the invasive tumour front (ITF) using H & E stained sections of histopathological specimens for 10 continuous high power fields (HPF) and graded as mild, moderate or intense. Patients were followed up over 5 years and observed for patterns of recurrence.

Results: Loco regional recurrence was significantly associated with intense degree of TATE. (p<0.001) cTNM stage as well as USG stage did not correlate with the degree of TATE with p=0.419 and 0.772 respectively. None of the patients with mild/ moderate dysplasia developed locoregional recurrence within the period of follow up.

Conclusions: Analysis of TATE in OSCC patients may provide an early indication of future locoregional recurrence. Identification of an appropriate biopsy site representing the ITF where TATE analysis can be performed may be a simple, inexpensive method of obtaining valuable prognostic information at the time of diagnosis. Key words:Tumour associated tissue eosinophilia, oral cancer, prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.51610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367994PMC
February 2015

Clinical implications of prescribing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in oral health care--a review.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Mar 13;119(3):264-71. Epub 2014 Dec 13.

Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital, Panchkula, Haryana, India.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including both the traditional nonselective NSAIDs and the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, are widely used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. They are routinely prescribed in dental practice for the management of pain and swelling. Their use in treating acute dental pain and chronic orofacial pain, as adjuncts to the treatment of periodontal disease, and to minimize edema following surgical procedures is well documented. However, long-term utilization of nonselective NSAIDs could increase the risk of gastrointestinal symptoms, ranging from mild (e.g., dyspepsia, nausea, or vomiting) to serious gastric problems (e.g., gastric bleeding or perforation). Therefore, selective COX-2 inhibitors have been developed with fewer GI side effects but the recently identified cardiovascular adverse reactions limit their routine use in dental practice. Another major concern for oral physicians is NSAID-induced mucosal lesions and prolongation of bleeding time during invasive dental procedures. This article reviews therapeutic and analgesic uses of NSAIDs in dentistry. The various issues surrounding NSAID-induced adverse reactions and their implications in dentistry are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.12.002DOI Listing
March 2015

Prohexadione, a plant growth regulator, inhibits histone lysine demethylases and modulates epigenetics.

Toxicol Rep 2014 4;1:1152-1161. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

Background: Epigenetic modifications, particularly DNA methylation and posttranslational histone modifications regulate heritable changes in transcription without changes in the DNA sequence. Despite a number of studies showing clear links between environmental factors and DNA methylation, little is known about the effect of environmental factors on the recently identified histone lysine methylation. Since their identification numerous studies have establish critical role played by these enzymes in mammalian development.

Objectives: Identification of the Jumonji (Jmj) domain containing histone lysine demethylase have added a new dimension to epigenetic control of gene expression by dynamic regulation of histone methylation marks. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of prohexadione and trinexapac, widely used plant growth regulators of the acylcyclohexanediones class, on the enzymatic activity of histone lysine demethylases and histone modifications during the neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation.

Methods: Here we show that prohexadione, but not trinexapac, directly inhibits non-heme iron (II), 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone lysine demethylase such as Jmjd2a. We used molecular modeling to show binding of prohexadione to Jmjd2a. We also performed demethylation assays to show the inhibitory effect of prohexadione on Jmjd2a. Further we tested this molecule in cell culture model of mouse hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells to demonstrate its effect toward neuronal proliferation and differentiation.

Results: Molecular modeling studies suggest that prohexadione binds to the 2-oxoglutarate binding site of Jmjd2a demethylase. Treatment of primary neural stem/progenitor cells with prohexadione showed a concentration dependent reduction in their proliferation. Further, the prohexadione treated neurospheres were induced toward neurogenic lineage upon differentiation.

Conclusions: Our results describe an important chemico-biological interaction of prohexadione, in light of critical roles played by histone lysine demethylases in human health and diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.10.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5598483PMC
November 2014

Relationship between femur bone mineral density, body mass index and dental panoramic mandibular cortical width in diagnosis of elderly postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Aug 20;8(8):ZC36-40. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College , Bangalore, Karnataka, India .

Objectives: To measure and determine mandibular cortical width (MCW) on the panoramic radiographs, to evaluate the usefulness of the method in identifying postmenopausal women with low femoral bone mineral densities (f- BMD) and to correlate the radiographic findings on panoramic radiographs with the f-BMD assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to predict the efficacy of the radiographic method in diagnosing osteoporosis.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and twenty postmenopausal women (60 normal and 60 osteoporotic) in the age group of 50-75 y with f-BMD assessed by DXA had undergone panoramic radiographic examination. The patients were classified as normal (T-score ≥ -1.0) and osteoporotic (T-score ≤ -2.5). MCW on panoramic radiographs was measured bilaterally at the mental foramen region with a caliper and their mean was used as the exposure measure in the analysis.

Results: Student t-test showed that mean f-BMD, BMI and MCW was found be less in osteoporotic patients as compared to normal group with a statistically significant p-value < 0.001. Pearson correlation coefficient test revealed that MCW correlated positively with f-BMD and showed a significant decrease with age of the patient.

Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with low f-BMD had thinner mandibular cortex at the mental foramen region when compared to normal subjects and are more susceptible to femoral neck fractures. Mandibular inferior cortical width at the mental foramen region could be used to identify postmenopausal women with low f- BMD. Hence, dental panoramic radiographs serve as a useful screening tool for early diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/9210.4748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190791PMC
August 2014

Dental management in an encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis patient: a case report.

Oral Health Dent Manag 2014 Sep;13(3):725-7

Department of Oral medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, M.S.Ramaiah Dental College & Hospital, MSRIT Post, New BEL Road, Bangalore-560054, Karnataka, India; e-mail:

Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS) is a rare, non-hereditary, congenital neuro cutaneous disorder characterized by vascular hamartomatous proliferations affecting classically, the leptomeninges and the skin of the face and may be associated with glaucoma, seizures and mental retardation. Intraoral findings are variable. A case of Roach type II Sturge Weber syndrome is reported here that did not show any neurological disorder but revealed a prominent angiomatous enlargement of the ipsilateral maxillary gingiva. SWS is a condition where dental management and surgical procedures of the patient can be risky, thus a sound knowledge of the disease and its management protocols better equips the clinician to avoid serious complications.
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September 2014

Evaluation of nano-biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics for bone tissue engineering applications: in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies.

J Biomater Appl 2013 Jan 27;27(5):565-75. Epub 2012 Jan 27.

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India.

Reconstruction of critical sized bone injuries is a major problem that continues to inspire the design of new materials and grafts. Natural ceramics (hydroxyapatite (HA) coralline HA, or synthetic HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are being explored for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering, among several other materials. The present study evaluated the bone forming capacity of nanosize bioceramics synthesized in situ in poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) with different ratios of HA and β-TCP; the Ca/P ratio was 1.62 for bioceramic P1, 1.60 for P2 and 1.58 for P3. Further osteogenesis in vitro with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) acquired from different sources for osteogenesis in vitro and their bone healing properties in vivo were also evaluated. MSC isolated from human placenta, Wharton's jelly from umbilical cord, fetal bone marrow and adipose tissue, cultured in the presence of nanosize bioceramic particles, were monitored for osteogenic differentiation. Placental cells showed the best osteogenic potential of the different MSC studied on the basis of expression of osteogenic markers. Complete regeneration of the damaged region was observed in vivo when MSC derived from placenta were used with nanoceramic (Ca/P ratio 1.58) in the experimental defect created in the femur of Wistar rats. Even small variation in the Ca/P ratio can alter the outcome of tissue constructs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328211415132DOI Listing
January 2013

Wiscott Aldrich syndrome with oral involvement: a case report.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2011 Jan-Apr;78(1):49-52

Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, M.S. Ramaiah Dental College & Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. [email protected] yahoo.com

Wiskott Aldrich syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with microplatelets, eczema, recurrent infections, and predisposition to autoimmune disease and malignancy. It is a rare syndrome, and the incidence rate is approximately 4 in every 1 million live male births with no clear ethnic or racial predilection. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome with oral involvement demonstrated by 2 male siblings.
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March 2012

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: report of a case with electron microscopic study.

Indian J Dermatol 2011 Jul;56(4):456-8

Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, M. S. Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital, MSRIT Post, New BEL Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. E-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.84718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179027PMC
July 2011

Evaluation of the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression material for bite mark analysis.

EXCLI J 2011 10;10:55-61. Epub 2011 May 10.

Department of Community Medicine, M S Ramaiah Medical College, MSRIT Post, New BEL Road, Bangalore-560054, Karnataka (India).

The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic Vinyl Poly Siloxane [VPS] impression material for bite mark documentation and analysis. Medium body VPS impressions of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth among thirty subjects were taken and dental stone casts prepared. Hollow volume overlays were made and metric analysis was done using advanced imaging software like Adobe Photoshop - 9 and Image J. These values were compared to the measurements taken from bite mark impressions of the same 30 individuals on wax wafers using light body VPS material. The mean differences in the parameters measured by the different techniques were compared using Intra Class Correlation Coefficients [ICCC]. Additionally validity parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were computed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5109018PMC
May 2011

Comparison of the efficacy of conventional radiography, digital radiography, and ultrasound in diagnosing periapical lesions.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010 Sep;110(3):379-85

Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology, K. D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, India.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography, digital radiography and ultrasound imaging in diagnosing periapical lesions.

Study Design: Twenty-one patients aged between 15 and 45 years with well defined periapical radiolucency associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth requiring endodontic surgery or extraction were selected and consented to the study. Preoperative intraoral periapical radiographs and digital images using charge-coupled device obtained by paralleling technique were assessed by 3 specialist observers who gave their diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Then ultrasound examination was performed and the images were assessed for size, contents, and vascular supply by 3 ultrasonographers. It was followed by curettage of periapical tissues to enable histopathologic investigation, which is the gold standard in diagnosis. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS, analysis of variance, and kappa statistics.

Results: The percentage accuracy of diagnosing periapical lesions using conventional radiography was 47.6%, digital radiography 55.6%, and ultrasound 95.2%. Ultrasound had the highest sensitivity and specificity: 0.95 and 1.00, respectively.

Conclusion: Conventional and digital radiography enable diagnosis of periapical diseases, but not their nature, whereas ultrasound provides accurate information on the pathologic nature of the lesions, which is of importance in predicting the treatment outcome. Therefore ultrasound can be used as an adjunct to conventional or digital radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.04.039DOI Listing
September 2010

Sialography: report of 3 cases.

Indian J Dent Res 2009 Oct-Dec;20(4):499-502

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, M. S. Ramaiah Dental College & Hospital, MSRIT post, New Bel Road, Bangalore 560 054, India.

Salivary gland examination is an important part of oral examination, especially because of it's involvement in most of the systemic diseases. Patients most commonly seek medical attention when the major salivary glands like parotid and submandibular gland become enlarged or painful. The various imaging modalities practiced to check the salivary gland disorders include conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Sialography is one of the oldest imaging procedures and still most commonly practiced, as it is a chair side procedure, simple to perform, and cost effective. We report the role of sialography as an adjuvant in the diagnosis of bacterial sialadenitis and sialadenosis and as a diagnostic and therapeutic aid in a case of juvenile recurrent parotitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.59449DOI Listing
May 2010

Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome: report of a rare case.

Quintessence Int 2008 Nov;39(10):821-5

Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis, and Radiology, MS Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, Kamataka, India.

Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome is a very rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by congenital cataracts, multiple minor facial dysmorphic features, congenital heart defects, and dental anomalies including canine radiculomegaly and oligodontia. It is unrecognized by many medical and dental professionals. Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome is inherited as an X-linked dominant condition and is lethal in males. Only 20 cases have been documented to date. The present case is that of an affected female who had congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, characteristic dental anomalies, and typical facial dysmorphism.
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November 2008

Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking and chewing tobacco products.

Indian J Dent Res 2008 Apr-Jun;19(2):88-91

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, MS Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: To estimate the nicotine content of some popular Indian brands of smoking tobacco (cigarettes and bidis) and pan masalas (chewable tobacco).

Materials And Methods: Commercially available cigarettes, bidis, and pan masalas (chewable tobacco) were obtained from local retail outlets for the study. Nicotine was estimated using gas-liquid chromatography.

Results: The analyses showed relatively higher levels of nicotine in tobacco from bidis (26.9 mg gm) as compared to cigarettes(15 mg/gm); the difference is statistically significant ( P P > 0.01). Nicotine concentration in chewing tobacco was 3.4 mg/gm.

Conclusion: The study concludes that the nicotine content of Indian brands of smoking tobacco was slightly high compared to other international brands. Higher concentration of nicotine was found in bidis compared to cigarettes. The nicotine content in commercially available chewing tobacco products was found to be much lower than in the smoking form of tobacco, but the average daily consumption made it comparable to the smoking form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.40458DOI Listing
September 2008

Differing conformational pathways before and after chemistry for insertion of dATP versus dCTP opposite 8-oxoG in DNA polymerase beta.

Biophys J 2007 May 9;92(9):3063-70. Epub 2007 Feb 9.

Department of Chemistry and Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York, USA.

To elucidate how human DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) discriminates dATP from dCTP when processing 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), we analyze a series of dynamics simulations before and after the chemical step with dATP and dCTP opposite an 8-oxoG template started from partially open complexes of pol beta. Analyses reveal that the thumb closing of pol beta before chemistry is hampered when the incorrect nucleotide dATP is bound opposite 8-oxoG; the unfavorable interaction between active-site residue Tyr(271) and dATP that causes an anti to syn change in the 8-oxoG (syn):dATP complex explains this slow motion, in contrast to the 8-oxoG (anti):dCTP system. Such differences in conformational pathways before chemistry for mismatched versus matched complexes help explain the preference for correct insertion across 8-oxoG by pol beta. Together with reference studies with a nonlesioned G template, we propose that 8-oxoG leads to lower efficiency in pol beta's incorporation of dCTP compared with G by affecting the requisite active-site geometry for the chemical reaction before chemistry. Furthermore, because the active site is far from ready for the chemical reaction after partial closing or even full thumb closing, we suggest that pol beta is tightly controlled not only by the chemical step but also by a closely related requirement for subtle active-site rearrangements after thumb movement but before chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.092106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1852361PMC
May 2007
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