Publications by authors named "Suhadinie Gamage"

4 Publications

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RhoG-Rac1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Metabolic Dysfunction of the Pancreatic Beta-Cells Under Chronic Hyperglycemic Conditions.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr;55(2):180-192

Biomedical Research Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA,

Background/aims: Published evidence suggests regulatory roles for small G proteins (Cdc42 and Rac1) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. More recent evidence suggests novel roles for these G proteins, specifically Rac1, in the induction of metabolic dysfunction of the islet beta-cell under the duress of a variety of stress conditions. However, potential upstream regulators of sustained activation of Rac1 have not been identified in the beta-cell. Recent studies in other cell types have identified RhoG, a small G protein, as an upstream regulator of Rac1 under specific experimental conditions. Herein, we examined putative roles for RhoG in islet beta-cell dysregulation induced by glucotoxic conditions.

Methods: Expression of RhoG or GDIγ was suppressed by siRNA transfection using the DharmaFect1 reagent. Subcellular fractions were isolated using NE-PER Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Extraction Reagent kit. The degree of activation of Rac1 was assessed using a pull-down assay kit. Extent of cell death was quantified using a Cell Death Detection ELISA kit.

Results: RhoG is expressed in human islets, rat islets, and clonal INS-1 832/13 cells. siRNA-RhoG markedly attenuated sustained activation of Rac1 and caspase-3 in INS-1 832/13 cells exposed to hyperglycemic conditions (20 mM; 24 hours). In a manner akin to Rac1, which has been shown to translocate to the nuclear fraction to induce beta-cell dysfunction under metabolic stress, a significant increase in the association of RhoG with the nuclear fraction was observed in beta-cells under the duress of metabolic stress. Interestingly, GDIγ, a known regulator of RhoG, remained associated with non-nuclear fraction under conditions RhoG and Rac1 translocated to the membrane. Lastly, siRNA-RhoG modestly attenuated pancreatic beta-cell demise induced by high glucose exposure conditions, but such an effect was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Based on these data we conclude that RhoG-Rac1 signaling module plays critical regulatory roles in promoting mitochondrial dysfunction (caspase-3 activation) of the islet beta cell under metabolic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000354DOI Listing
April 2021

P-Rex1 Mediates Glucose-Stimulated Rac1 Activation and Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2020 Dec;54(6):1218-1230

Biomedical Research Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA,

Background/aims: Despite the published evidence implicating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in the regulation of islet function, limited information is available on the putative contributory roles of its downstream signaling steps, including the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-Rex1) signaling pathway in the islet β-cell. Therefore, we investigated potential roles for P-Rex1 in glucose-stimulated Rac1 activation and insulin secretion in insulin-secreting (INS-1 832/13) β-cells.

Methods: Glucose-stimulated Insulin secretion (GSIS) was quantified by ELISA. Expression of endogenous P-Rex1 and RhoG was suppressed by siRNA transfection using the DharmaFect1 reagent. Total membrane and cytosolic fractions were isolated using the Mem-PER Plus Membrane Extraction Kit. The degree of activation of Rac1 was determined by the pull-down assay.

Results: P-Rex1 is expressed in INS-1 832/13 cells, normal rat islets and human islets. siRNA-mediated knockdown of P-Rex1 attenuated glucose-induced Rac1 activation, membrane association and insulin secretion. RhoG, which has been implicated in PI3-kinase-mediated Rac1 activation in other cell types, appears not to contribute to GSIS since the siRNA-mediated knockdown of RhoG failed to exert significant effects on GSIS. LY294002, a known inhibitor of PI3-kinase, potentiated GSIS without affecting glucose-induced Rac1 activation.

Conclusion: Based on these findings, we conclude that P-Rex1 plays a novel regulatory role in glucose-induced Rac1 activation and insulin secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000310DOI Listing
December 2020

Improvement in Glycemic Control in Mice of Different Age Groups.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 Jul 24. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Obesity and Metabolic Health Laboratory, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Aims And Methods: The declining ability to control blood glucose with advancement of age is an important health risk factor and may lead to insulin resistance, type-2-diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Adenovirus 36(Ad36) improves glycemic control independent of insulin signaling(insulin sparing effect) as evidenced by cell, animal and observational human studies. This property of Ad36 may be useful in correcting aging-related glucose intolerance and related health conditions. Therefore, we determined the effect of Ad36 on glycemic control in older mice, to identify the age group that best responds to Ad36. Six, 12 or 20-month old C57Bl/6 mice on chow diet were each divided into weight-matched groups(mock-infected or Ad36-infected). Body weight was recorded weekly post infection (p.i.) and fasting glucose measured(week 0, 4, 8 and 20 p.i.). Blood glucose and serum insulin were measured during glucose tolerance test(week 0 and 16 p.i.). At week 20 p.i., animals were sacrificed, blood and tissues collected.

Results: Mice from all age groups showed improvement in glucose clearance post Ad36 infection, but a more profound effect was observed in 6-month old mice compared with mock-infected mice. Under fed conditions though there was no difference in blood glucose at 20 wk p.i., interestingly, Ad36 reduced serum insulin in age groups old mice, compared with control mice.

Conclusions: These findings suggest Ad36 infected animals improve glycemic control and clear post-prandial gluco00000se increase without increasing insulin secretion in an insulin sparing manner. These beneficial effects provide strong evidence for developing Ad36-based approaches as a novel tool to attenuate age associated glucose intolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0961-7804DOI Listing
July 2019

Potential role of E4orf1 protein in aging-associated impairment in glycemic control.

J Diabetes Complications 2019 03 22;33(3):261-265. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Obesity and Metabolic Health Laboratory, Nutritional Sciences Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. Electronic address:

Aging constitutes a major risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes (T2D) where glucose tolerance declines with age, resulting in a high prevalence of T2D and impaired glucose tolerance in the elderly population. Currently more than half of the 20 million U.S. adults with T2D are above the age of 60, and the largest increase in T2D prevalence is expected in the elderly. Obesity is a causative factor for T2D associated insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, the aging process is accelerated by hyperglycemia and effective treatment options are limited for the vulnerable aging population. One of the mechanisms contributing to aging associated hyperglycemia is resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Chronic hyperglycemia also accelerates aging by increasing pro-inflammatory milieu leading to impaired immune function. Although currently available anti-diabetic agents improve glycemic control, they have potential serious side effects in some cases. Therefore, additional and better drugs are urgently needed for treatment of insulin resistance and aging associated health risk factors. This review presents the novel use of a microbial protein, E4orf1 as a potential anti-diabetic agent, which functions independent of insulin and obesity, highlighting the role of unique sources for future drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2018.11.006DOI Listing
March 2019