Publications by authors named "Sugitha Seneviratne"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Avoiding denervation of rectus abdominis in DIEP flap harvest II: an intraoperative assessment of the nerves to rectus.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2008 Nov;122(5):1321-1325

Parkville, Victoria, Australia From the Jack Brockhoff Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Research Unit, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne.

Background: The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap aims to reduce donor-site morbidity by minimizing rectus muscle damage; however, damage to motor nerves during perforator dissection may denervate rectus muscle. Although cadaveric research has demonstrated that individual nerves do not arise from single spinal cord segments and are not distributed segmentally, the functional distribution of individual nerves remains unknown. Using intraoperative nerve stimulation, the current study describes the motor distribution of individual nerves supplying the rectus abdominis, providing a guide to nerve dissection during DIEP flap harvest.

Methods: Twenty rectus abdominis muscles in 17 patients undergoing reconstructive surgery involving rectus abdominis (DIEP, transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous, or vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps) underwent intraoperative stimulation of nerves innervating the infraumbilical segment of the rectus. Nerve course and extent of rectus muscle contraction were recorded.

Results: In each case, three to seven nerves entered the infraumbilical segment of the rectus abdominis. Small nerves (type 1) innervated small longitudinal strips of rectus muscle, rather than transverse strips as previously described. There was significant overlap between adjacent type 1 nerves. In 18 of 20 cases, a single large nerve (type 2) at the level of the arcuate line supplied the entire width and length of rectus muscle.

Conclusions: Nerves innervating the rectus abdominis are at risk during DIEP flap harvest. Small, type 1 nerves have overlapping innervation from adjacent nerves and may be sacrificed without functional detriment. However, large type 2 nerves at the level of the arcuate line innervate the entire width of rectus muscle without adjacent overlap and may contribute to donor-site morbidity if sacrificed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181881e18DOI Listing
November 2008

A comparative anatomical study of brachioradialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles: implications for total tongue reconstruction.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2008 Mar;121(3):816-829

Melbourne, Victoria, Australia From the Jack Brockhoff Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Research Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne.

Background: Total or subtotal glossectomy following resection of intraoral tumors causes significant morbidity. Recent surgical endeavors have focused on the creation of a neotongue with both sensory and motor innervation. Although various local or regional free flaps have been used for this purpose, the optimal donor site remains undecided. The authors compared the neurovascular anatomy of the brachioradialis and flexor carpi ulnaris to assess their suitability as donor muscles together with overlying skin for functional total or subtotal tongue reconstruction.

Methods: Eighty-eight brachioradialis and 80 flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were studied, comprising 120 dissected specimens, 18 arterial studies, two venous studies, 20 histologic studies, and eight neurovascular studies.

Results: The dominant vascular pattern of the brachioradialis varied. The major pedicle arose from the radial (38 percent), radial recurrent (42 percent), and brachial arteries (20 percent). The muscle also lacked a single neurovascular pedicle. The vasculature of the flexor carpi ulnaris was consistent. The ulnar artery supplied the dominant pedicle in 86 percent of cases. The entry point of motor innervation is near that of the vascular pedicles. A minor distal nerve accompanied the main vascular pedicle in 65 percent of cases. The overlying skin was supplied by musculocutaneous perforators. The lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm supplied the skin over the brachioradialis, and the medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm provided sensation over the flexor carpi ulnaris.

Conclusion: The authors delineated the anatomical advantages of the flexor carpi ulnaris over the brachioradialis for total or subtotal tongue reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000299920.14548.2aDOI Listing
March 2008

Comparative anatomical study of the gracilis and coracobrachialis muscles: implications for facial reanimation.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2003 Jul;112(1):20-30

Jack Brockhoff Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Research Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia.

Since the introduction of cross-facial nerve grafting and free vascularized muscle transfer for the treatment of longstanding facial paralysis, substantial progress has been made toward restoration of facial expression that is as normal as possible. Much of the focus has remained on the gracilis as a donor muscle. However, its inherent anatomical characteristics may preclude it from ever being more than simply a mass of contractile tissue in the face. The coracobrachialis muscle, which is the analogue in the arm of the lower limb adductor mass, was proposed as an alternative donor muscle because it was thought that certain features would allow it to improve on the overall results that are currently possible with the gracilis. A comparative anatomical study was conducted to gauge this potential. A total of 133 muscles were analyzed, including 96 dissected specimens, 16 arterial and 14 venous study specimens, and seven neurovascular study specimens. Anatomical parameters were recorded for each muscle and later tabulated. Histological analysis of the nerves to 10 gracilis and 10 coracobrachialis muscles was performed, and the findings were confirmed with intraneural dissection of an additional 20 nerves under an operating microscope. The coracobrachialis was observed to be a practical alternative to the gracilis. Indeed, it has many of the attributes that initially drew attention to the gracilis as a possible donor muscle, including a reliable neurovascular supply, minimal donor-site morbidity, and the option of having two teams operate simultaneously. In addition, it has a size, shape, and form that make it an excellent choice for transfer to the face. It could be easily attached in the face to provide static support as well as animation, because of its long proximal tendon, the thick intermuscular septum along its lateral surface, and, when present, the ligament of Struthers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000065909.86735.F7DOI Listing
July 2003