Publications by authors named "Suganya Murugesu"

5 Publications

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Toxicity study on leaf hexane fraction using embryos.

Toxicol Rep 2019 25;6:1148-1154. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Al-Rayan Research and Innovation Center, Al-Rayan Colleges, Medina, 42541, Saudi Arabia.

, an herbal shrub belonging to the Acanthaceae family, is traditionally used as a functional food to treat various ailments in Malaysia and Indonesia. Although the polar fraction of this plant shows non-toxic effect, the toxicity of the non-polar extract is not reported so far. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effect and determine the lethal concentration of this non-polar fraction using zebrafish embryos. The hexane fraction was partitioned from the crude extract of obtained using 80% methanolic solution. After spawning of the adult male and female zebrafish, the eggs were collected, transferred into a 96-well plate and incubated with the hexane fraction at concentrations of 15.63 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml, 62.5 μg/ml, 125 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml in 2% DMSO. The survival and sublethal endpoint were assessed, the mortality and hatchability rates were calculated based on microscopic observation, while the heartbeat rate was measured using DanioScope software. The median lethal concentration (LC) of the hexane fraction, which was determined using probit analysis, was calculated to be 75.49 μg/mL, which is harmful. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol and stigmasterol in the -hexane fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.10.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978205PMC
October 2019

Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors from leaf extract using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and protein-ligand interaction with molecular docking.

J Pharm Anal 2019 Apr 15;9(2):91-99. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

The present study used and techniques, as well as the metabolomics approach to characterise α-glucosidase inhibitors from different fractions of is a medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family, and is traditionally used to treat diabetes in Malaysia. Hexane, hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol fractions were obtained via partitioning of the 80% methanolic crude extract. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was analyzed using all the fractions collected, followed by profiling of the metabolites using liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The partial least square (PLS) statistical model was developed using the SIMCA P14.0 software and the following four inhibitors were obtained: 4,6,8-Megastigmatrien-3-one; N-Isobutyl-2-nonen-6,8-diynamide; 1',2'-bis(acetyloxy)-3',4'-didehydro-2'-hydro-β, ψ-carotene; and 22-acetate-3-hydroxy-21-(6-methyl-2,4-octadienoate)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid. The study performed via molecular docking with the crystal structure of yeast isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A) involved a hydrogen bond and some hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and protein. The residues that interacted include ASN259, HID295, LYS156, ARG335, and GLY209 with a hydrogen bond, while TRP15, TYR158, VAL232, HIE280, ALA292, PRO312, LEU313, VAL313, PHE314, ARG315, TYR316, VAL319, and TRP343 with other forms of bonding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2018.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460329PMC
April 2019

GC-MS analysis of metabolites from soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of flesh and its alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

Nat Prod Res 2020 May 25;34(9):1341-1344. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

Different extraction processes were employed to extract bioactive metabolites from flesh by a range of aqueous and organic solvents. The highest extraction yield was obtained by 50% ethanol extract of SE (73.18 ± 4.35%), whereas SFE_1 showed the lowest yield (0.42 ± 0.08%). All extracts were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, measured by their IC values in comparison to that of quercetin, the positive control (IC = 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was indicated by water extract of SE (IC = 724.3 ± 42.9 μg/mL) and the highest activity was demonstrated by 60% ethanol extract by UAE (IC = 16.2 ± 2.4 μg/mL). All extracts were analysed by GC-MS and identified metabolites like carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, sterols and alkane-based compounds etcetera that may possess the potential as α-glucosidase inhibitor and may attribute to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1560295DOI Listing
May 2020

Characterization of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Lindau Leaves by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Molecular Docking Simulation.

Molecules 2018 Sep 19;23(9). Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

Background: () is an herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

Methods: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

Conclusion: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225325PMC
September 2018

Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effects of Flavonoids: A Structure-Activity Relationship Based Study.

Biomed Res Int 2017 28;2017:8386065. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 46300 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

The best described pharmacological property of flavonoids is their capacity to act as potent antioxidant that has been reported to play an important role in the alleviation of diabetes mellitus. Flavonoids biochemical properties are structure dependent; however, they are yet to be thoroughly understood. Hence, the main aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of some structurally related flavonoids to identify key positions responsible, their correlation, and the effect of methylation and acetylation on the same properties. Antioxidant potential was evaluated through dot blot, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) assays. Antidiabetic effect was investigated through -glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) assays. Results showed that the total number and the configuration of hydroxyl groups played an important role in regulating antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in scavenging DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and FRAP assays and improved both -glucosidase and DPP-4 activities. Presence of C-2-C-3 double bond and C-4 ketonic group are two essential structural features in the bioactivity of flavonoids especially for antidiabetic property. Methylation and acetylation of hydroxyl groups were found to diminish the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the flavonoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8386065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727842PMC
August 2018