Publications by authors named "Sufang Zhang"

123 Publications

The Value of Relative Size in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm.

Int J Gen Med 2021 3;14:2321-2328. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350005, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Ultrasonography as the first choice for thyroid nodules is still difficult to distinguish between solid follicular thyroid neoplasm (FTN) and solid nodular goiter (NG). We tried to investigate the value of relative size (M/S, M: the maximum diameter of target nodule, S: the maximum diameter of the largest of the remaining nodules) that may help to differentiate FTN from NG.

Methods: test and chi-square test were used to retrospectively analyze the differences of the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics between FTN and NG in 422 cases in our hospital. test was used to analyze the difference of M/S value in the two kinds of nodules. ROC was used to evaluate the accuracy of M/S value in distinguishing the two.

Results: There were statistically significant differences in age, echogenicity, calcification, peripheral halo and blood supply between the two. The M/S value is not only significantly different in the two kinds of nodules but also can be used as a quantitative indicator to guide ultrasound diagnosis. ROC analysis showed that the cutoff point and AUC of M/S value were 1.94 and 0.709, respectively.

Conclusion: In the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple thyroid nodules, the M/S value can better distinguish FTN and NG. We need to be aware of FTN when the M/S value of the nodule is greater than 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S313468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184232PMC
June 2021

Chinese Herbal Prescription Fu-Zheng-Qu-Xie Prevents Recurrence and Metastasis of Postoperative Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study Followed with Potential Mechanism Exploration.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 12;2021:6673828. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Oncology, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Chinese herbal Fu-Zheng-Qu-Xie (FZQX) prescription has been found to improve the immune function and survival of patients with early-stage lung cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy needs to be evaluated objectively, and the precise mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, a double-center, prospective cohort study was carried out to assess the clinical efficacy of the FZQX prescription in preventing the recurrence and metastasis of postoperative early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Our results indicated that the FZQX prescription could significantly reduce the 3-year postoperative recurrence rate and improve the life quality. Moreover, the peripheral blood indices showed that the positive immune index (CD T/CD T) increased and the negative immune indices (CD T, Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), Treg) decreased after treatment with the FZQX prescription. Since the positive regulatory effect of the FZQX prescription on immune function, a series of experiments were conducted to verify the tumor-suppressive effect and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Through the MDSC clearance xenograft model, we confirmed that the FZQX prescription could effectively suppress tumor growth with lesser side effects in vivo, and MDSCs may be involved in the biological process of the FZQX prescription's intervention in lung cancer progression. By establishing the coculture system of MDSCs/LLC to simulate the immune microenvironment of lung cancer, the tumor suppression effect of the FZQX prescription was further validated by in vitro experiments. Besides, it was confirmed that the FZQX prescription could regulate MDSCs to remodel the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, thus exerting its preventive effect on relapse of lung cancer. Finally, the pathway activator and inhibitor were further used to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Results demonstrated that the IL-1/NF-B signaling pathway was one of the critical signaling pathways of FZQX prescription regulating MDSCs to prevent the recurrence and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6673828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133853PMC
May 2021

RNAi-Mediated Silencing of the Chitinase 5 Gene for Fall Webworm () Can Inhibit Larval Molting Depending on the Timing of dsRNA Injection.

Insects 2021 Apr 30;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Chitinases, which are crucial enzymes required for chitin degradation and reconstruction, are often selectively considered to be effective molecular targets for pest control due to their critical roles in insect development. Although the chitinase gene has been reported previously, its sequence characteristics, gene function, and feasibility as a potential target for pest management were absent. In the present study, we characterized the chitinase gene and designated it . Phylogenic and domain structure analysis suggested that contained the typical chitinase features and was clustered into chitinase group I. Tissue-specific and developmental expression pattern analysis with Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that was mainly expressed in the integument tissues and that the transcript levels peaked during molting. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of caused 33.3% (2 ug) and 66.7% (4 ug) mortality rates after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection. Importantly, the interference efficiency of depended on the injection time of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), as the pre-molting treatment achieved molt arrest more effectively. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of RNAi samples demonstrated silencing of the down-regulated genes related to chitin metabolism and molting hormone signaling, as well as genes related to detoxification metabolism. Our results indicate the essential role of in development and detail the involvement of its gene function in the larval molting process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12050406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147239PMC
April 2021

Effects of salt concentration on the quality of paocai, a fermented vegetable product from China.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Collaborative Innovation Center of Provincial and Ministerial Co-Construction for Deep Processing, Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, China.

Background: Paocai is a traditional Chinese fermented vegetable food. As the most important ingredient, salt has crucial effects on the bacterial community and volatile compounds of paocai. To demonstrate the effects of salt on the fermentation of paocai, the bacterial composition and volatile compounds were investigated using high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The salt had no significant effects on the bacterial community at the phylum level. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes gradually decreased during the fermentation, and Firmicutes gradually increased as the dominant bacteria in the late stage of fermentation. At the genus level, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus gradually increased in relative abundance during the fermentation and became the dominant bacteria in paocai. High salt levels can contribute to the growth of Lactobacillus, which became the dominant genus in paocai. The salt concentration affected the profiles of volatile compounds in paocai after fermentation. A total of 42 volatile components were detected by GC-MS, among which phenols, aldehydes, and nitriles were the main ones. A high salt concentration will increase the volatile compound content, mainly aldehydes and alcohols, and improve the flavor of paocai. At the same time, the electronic tongue analysis also showed that a high salt concentration made a major contribution to the flavor of paocai.

Conclusions: These data are helpful to elucidate the effects of salt on the quality of paocai and contribute to improving the quality and reducing the use of salt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11271DOI Listing
April 2021

The Characteristics of Chemosensory and Opsin Genes in Newly Emerged and Sexually Mature , an Important Quarantine Forest Beetle.

Front Genet 2020 15;11:604757. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

The emerald ash borer (EAB), , is a highly destructive quarantine pest. The olfactory and visual systems of play different but critical roles at newly emerged and sexually mature stages; however, the molecular basis underlying these differences remain unclear. Consequently, based on deep transcriptome sequencing, we evaluated the expression levels of chemosensory-related proteins and opsins at the two developmental stages of . We found 15 new chemosensory-related genes in our transcriptome assembly compared with the previous genome assembly, including 6 that code for odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 9 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs). The expression of several chemosensory-related genes (, and ) differed markedly between newly emerged and sexually mature . We also found that the expression of and was higher in sexually mature male , which may be associated with their strong visual mate detection ability. This study forms the basis for further investigation of the chemosensory and visual system of , and these differentially expressed genes between newly emerged and sexually mature stages may serve as targets for the management of this destructive forest pest after sexual maturity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.604757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844324PMC
January 2021

Bacterial profiles and volatile flavor compounds in commercial Suancai with varying salt concentration from Northeastern China.

Food Res Int 2020 11 4;137:109384. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Suancai, a popular traditional fermented cabbage in northeast China, is commonly prepared by the spontaneous fermentation process at a certain salt concentration. The salt can affect the metabolites by affecting the microorganisms during Suancai fermentation. The bacterial community and volatile flavor compounds in commercial Suancai from different regions of Northeastern China at different salt concentrations were investigated using next-generation sequencing and GC-MS. Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla in the commercial Suancai, and Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc were the dominant genera. Among them, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus were considered as the biomarkers of the low and high salt Suncai, respectively. Eighty-five volatile flavor compounds were detected, and HS exhibited higher contents of volatile flavor compounds than LS. Based on the results of correlation analysis, Pediococcus were highly correlated with the alcohols and nitriles in Suancai. The contents of alcohols and nitriles significantly increased in the Suancai, fermented by Pediococcus pentosaceus. The co-inoculated fermentation of Lactobacillus plantarum and P. pentosaceus could increase the concentrations of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and nitriles in Suancai. This study provides a perspective for understanding the ecology of Suancai fermentation and facilitating the fermentation with multispecies inoculation fermentation at an appropriate salt concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109384DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of flavourzyme addition on physicochemical properties, volatile compound components and microbial community succession of Suanzhayu.

Int J Food Microbiol 2020 Dec 24;334:108839. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Collaborative Innovation Center of Provincial and Ministerial Co-Construction for Seafood Deep Processing, Liaoning Province Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Food Deep Processing, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Flavourzyme is known to promote protein decomposition, resulting in more peptides and amino acids which can improve the quality of fermented foods. In this study, the effects of flavourzyme addition on the fermentation of Suanzhayu fish were investigated. The results showed that the addition of 50 U/g flavourzyme reduced the water activity (a) of products and promoted the release of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids (FAAs). Thus, the stability of the product was improved and its nutritional value was increased. In addition, with the addition of flavourzyme, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces more quickly became the dominant genera in the fermentation. Furthermore, the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and esters was promoted in flavourzyme addition group. Redundant analysis (RDA) indicated that Lactobacillus and Lactococcus play important roles in the formation of flavors, especially for the characteristic flavors of Suanzhayu. Flavourzyme addition may be a novel method to greatly improve the properties of Suanzhayu and shorten the fermentation time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108839DOI Listing
December 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of the lipid-producing yeast Rhodotorula toruloides.

FEMS Yeast Res 2020 09;20(6)

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian 116023, China.

Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles with their own genome and crucial to cellular material and energy metabolism. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of a lipid-producing basidiomycetous yeast Rhodotorula toruloides NP11. The mitochondrial genome of R. toruloides NP11 was assembled into a circular DNA molecule of 125937bp, encoding 15 proteins, 28 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA subunits and 10 open reading frames with unknown function. The G + C content (41%) of the mitochondrial genome is substantially lower than that of the nuclear genome (62%) of R. toruloides NP11. Further reanalysis of the transcriptome data confirmed the transcription of four mitochondrial genes. The comparison of the mitochondrial genomes of R. toruloides NP11 and NBRC0880 revealed a significant genetic divergence. These data can complement our understanding of the genetic background of R. toruloides and provide fundamental information for further genetic engineering of this strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foaa048DOI Listing
September 2020

Synthesis and bioactivity of (13Z,15E)-octadecadienal: A sex pheromone component from Micromelalopha siversi Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jan 31;77(1):264-272. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing, China.

Background: Micromelalopha siversi (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is a defoliator of poplar trees, Populus spp. (Salicaceae). In our previous study, 13,15-octadecadienal has been conformed as a female-produced candidate sex pheromone component of M. siversi, but the Z/E stereochemistry of the 1,3-diene system has not been identified so far.

Results: Four unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes, Z13,E15-18:Ald, Z13,Z15-18:Ald, E13,E15-18:Ald, and E13,Z15-18:Ald, were synthesized from the commercially available 12-bromo-1-decanol mainly by alkylation of lithium alkyne, normal Wittig or Wittig-Schlosser olefination, and hydroboration-protonolysis. According to gas chromatography (GC) analysis of pheromone gland extracts, Z13,E15-18:Ald was the main component, and a small amount of Z13,Z15-18:Ald was also detected, with a ratio of approximately 7:3. However, the results of GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) showed that Z13,E15-18:Ald was the only compound with electrophysiological activity, whereas Z13,Z15-18:Ald elicited no activity. In the field, traps baited with only Z13,E15-18:Ald resulted in much superior results to those with Z13,Z15-18:Ald as well as the Z13,E15-18:Ald and Z13,Z15-18:Ald binary mixture.

Conclusions: Based on geometrically selective synthesis and bioactivity tests, the active sex pheromone component of M. siversi has been identified as Z13,E15-18:Ald, the pheromone component that has not been identified in Lepidoptera before. The synthetic component was attractive to male moths in preliminary field traps, which provides novel technologies to monitor and control this pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754109PMC
January 2021

Rhodosporidium toruloides - A potential red yeast chassis for lipids and beyond.

FEMS Yeast Res 2020 08;20(5)

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Rd, Dalian 116023, China.

The red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides naturally produces microbial lipids and carotenoids. In the past decade or so, many studies demonstrated R. toruloides as a promising platform for lipid production owing to its diverse substrate appetites, robust stress resistance and other favorable features. Also, significant progresses have been made in genome sequencing, multi-omic analysis and genome-scale modeling, thus illuminating the molecular basis behind its physiology, metabolism and response to environmental stresses. At the same time, genetic parts and tools are continuously being developed to manipulate this distinctive organism. Engineered R. toruloides strains are emerging for enhanced production of conventional lipids, functional lipids as well as other interesting metabolites. This review updates those progresses and highlights future directions for advanced biotechnological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foaa038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334043PMC
August 2020

Coding and Non-coding RNAs: Molecular Basis of Forest-Insect Outbreaks.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 11;8:369. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

Insect population dynamics are closely related to 'human' ecological and economic environments, and a central focus of research is outbreaks. However, the lack of molecular-based investigations restricts our understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms responsible for insect outbreaks. In this context, the moth Walker can serve as an ideal model species for insect population dynamics research because it undergoes periodic outbreaks. Here, high-throughput whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed using , sampled during latent and outbreak periods, to systemically explore the molecular basis of insect outbreaks and to identify the involved non-coding RNA (ncRNA) regulators, namely microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs. Differentially expressed mRNAs of from different outbreak periods were involved in developmental, reproductive, immune, and chemosensory processes; results that were consistent with the physiological differences in during differing outbreak periods. Targets analysis of the non-coding RNAs indicated that long non-coding RNAs could be the primary ncRNA regulators of outbreaks, while circular RNAs mainly regulated synapses and cell junctions. The target genes of differentially expressed microRNAs mainly regulated the metabolic and reproductive pathways during the outbreaks. Developmental, multi-organismal, and reproductive processes, as well as biological adhesion, characterized the competing endogenous RNA network. Chemosensory and immune genes closely related to the outbreak of were further analyzed in detail: from their ncRNA regulators' analysis, we deduce that both lncRNA and miRNA may play significant roles. This is the first report to examine the molecular basis of coding and non-coding RNAs' roles in insect outbreaks. The results provide potential biomarkers for control targets in forest insect management, as well as fresh insights into underlying outbreak-related mechanisms, which could be used for improving insect control strategies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300193PMC
June 2020

Chemical signal interactions of the bark beetle with fungal symbionts, and host/non-host trees.

J Exp Bot 2020 10;71(19):6084-6091

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

The symbiosis between the bark beetle (Ips subelongatus) and its fungal symbiont (Endoconidiophora fujiensis) poses a serious threat to larch forests. However, the signaling pathways between these symbiotic partners and their host/non-host trees are not fully understood. Inoculation of the host larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) with two strains of E. fujiensis induced a rapid and long-term release of monoterpenes. Although the fungi had a level of tolerance to these compounds, many monoterpenes inhibited fungal growth in culture. Moreover, monoterpenes with stronger inhibitory effects on fungal growth exhibited weaker synergistic effects on the attraction of I. subelongatus to aggregation pheromone. Surprisingly, individual isomers of aggregation pheromone components promoted fungal symbiont growth in a culture medium. Non-host volatiles (NHVs) were tested and shown to completely inhibit the growth of fungal symbionts in culture but had no effects on beetle responses to aggregation pheromone, with the exception of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. These results reveal convergence and mutualism patterns in the evolution of I. subelongatus and E. fujiensis with respect to host tree volatiles but not in response to NHVs. Ultimately, we put forward a hypothesis that host plants are ecological and evolutionary determinants of bark beetle-fungus symbioses in terms of their complex signaling interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa296DOI Listing
October 2020

Anti-fibrotic effect of melittin on TRIM47 expression in human embryonic lung fibroblast through regulating TRIM47 pathway.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 2;256:117893. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Respiratory Disease, Baoshan Branch, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China; Department of Respiratory Disease, Baoshan District Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of melittin and tripartite motif (TRIM) family in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF).

Materials And Methods: Lentiviral RNA interference vector and lentiviral overexpression vector were constructed and packaged by transfecting 293T cells; the proliferation of HELF was examined using Cell Counting Kit 8; Western blot and qRT-PCR were performed to examine protein and mRNA expression; the interaction with protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A) was examined by Co-immunoprecipitation.

Key Findings: Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of the TRIM6, TRIM8 and TRIM47 in the IPF group significantly increased. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression and protein expression levels of TRIM47, the HELF proliferation, the hydroxyproline levels, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3; the interference of TRIM47 inhibited the protein expression of Vimentin, α-SMA, CTGF, the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the synthesis of hydroxyproline; TRIM47 overexpression elevated the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, induced ubiquitination of PPM1A and decreased the expression level of PPM1A, while TRIM47 RNA interference reversed this result.

Significance: Melittin has anti-fibrotic effect in HELF by directly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 or indirectly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 by decreasing the expression levels of TRIM47 whose overexpression induces ubiquitination of PPM1A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117893DOI Listing
September 2020

Engineering of β-Glucosidase Bgl15 with Simultaneously Enhanced Glucose Tolerance and Thermostability To Improve Its Performance in High-Solid Cellulose Hydrolysis.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 May 4;68(19):5391-5401. Epub 2020 May 4.

In this study, a Petri-dish-based double-layer high-throughput screening method was established to improve glucose tolerance of β-glucosidase Bgl15. Two beneficial mutations were identified, and the joint mutant 2R1 improved the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of glucose from 0.04 to 2.1 M. The crystal structure of 2R1 was subsequently determined at 2.7 Å. Structure analysis revealed that enhancement of glucose tolerance may be due to improved transglycosylation activity made possible by a hydrophobic binding site for glucose as an acceptor and more stringent control of a putative water channel. To further ameliorate the application potential of the enzyme, it was engineered to increase the half-life at 50 °C from 0.8 h (Bgl15) to 180 h (mutant 5R1). Furthermore, supplementation of 5R1 to the cellulase cocktail significantly improved glucose production from pretreated sugar cane bagasse by 38%. Consequently, this study provided an efficient approach to enhance glucose tolerance and generated a promising catalyst for cellulose saccharification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01817DOI Listing
May 2020

Chromosome-level genome assembly of an important pine defoliator, Dendrolimus punctatus (Lepidoptera; Lasiocampidae).

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 Jul 13;20(4):1023-1037. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

Dendrolimus spp. are important destructive pests of conifer forests, and Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (Lepidoptera; Lasiocampidae) is the most widely distributed Dendrolimus species. During periodic outbreaks, this species is said to make "fire without smoke" because large areas of pine forest can be quickly and heavily damaged. Yet, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the unique ecological characteristics of this forest insect. Here, we combined Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RSII single-molecule long reads and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) genomics-linked reads to produce a high-quality, chromosome-level reference genome for D. punctatus. The final assembly was 614 Mb with contig and scaffold N50 values of 1.39 and 22.15 Mb, respectively, and 96.96% of the contigs anchored onto 30 chromosomes. Based on the prediction, this genome contained 17,593 protein-coding genes and 56.16% repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that D. punctatus diverged from the common ancestor of Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera litura and Thaumetopoea pityocampa ~ 108.91 million years ago. Many gene families that were expanded in the D. punctatus genome were significantly enriched for the xenobiotic biodegradation system, especially the cytochrome P450 gene family. This high-quality, chromosome-level reference genome will be a valuable resource for understanding mechanisms of D. punctatus outbreak and host resistance adaption. Because this is the first Lasiocampidae insect genome to be sequenced, it also will serve as a reference for further comparative genomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13169DOI Listing
July 2020

Evolution of sex pheromone receptors in Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is divergent from other moth species.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2020 07 17;122:103375. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, 100091, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is a pine caterpillar moth distributed in most areas of southern China and is an economically important pest of pine, due to its defoliation activity. Understanding fundamental sex pheromone perception mechanisms in D. punctatus may provide effective and sustainable options for novel control strategies. However, the identification and function of pheromone receptors, key genes that receipt the pheromone of this pest, are both unclear now. Previous researches suggested several candidate pheromone receptors whose expression levels were male antennae bias in D. punctatus. In this study, we cloned six candidate pheromone receptors (DpunOR 20/45/46/51/54/58) and Orco from D. punctatus. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that lepidopteran PRs tend to be conserved and clustered together; however, D. punctatus candidate PRs were located in a distinct clade. Motif analysis of PRs showed clear sequences differences between Dendrolimus spp. and other tested moth species. To illustrate the ligand response properties of the candidate PRs of D. punctatus, each of the six genes was expressed with an Orco gene in Xenopus oocytes and using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. Finally, we successfully identified two sex pheromone receptors (PR45 and PR46). Our study, which identified a novel lineage of PRs tuned to Type I pheromones in Lepidoptera, provides evidence for the new evolution origin of sex pheromone communication in moths, and lays a foundation for the development of novel control strategies of D. punctatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2020.103375DOI Listing
July 2020

Lineage Divergence of in Southern China Based on Mitochondrial Genome.

Front Genet 2020 19;11:65. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration of China, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

In southern China, the masson pine caterpillar, , has caused serious damage to the (Lamb.) pine forests. Here, the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was employed to analyze the population evolution of and to understand the process underlying its current phylogenetic pattern. populations within its distribution range in China were categorized into five subgroups: central and eastern China (CEC), southwestern China (SWC), Yibin in Sichuan (SC), Baise in Guangxi (GX), and Luoding in Guangdong (GD), with a high level of haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity among them. The genetic distances between subgroups are relatively large; however, the genetic distances between populations within the CEC subgroup were relatively small, suggesting that many populations were closely related in this subgroup. The mantel test showed that geographic distance had an important impact on the genetic distance of different geographic populations ( = 0.3633, < 0.001). The neutrality tests, Bayesian skyline plot, and haplotype network showed that experienced a population expansion around 100,000 years ago. The divergence times of GX/SC, SWC, GD, and CEC were 0.347, 0.236, 0.200, and 0.110 million years ago, respectively. The SWC, CEC, and GD subgroups might have evolved from GX or SC subgroups. The population genetic structure of was closely related to its host tree species, geographic distance among populations, the weak flight capacity, and many eco-environment conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045034PMC
February 2020

Identification and Expression Patterns of Opsin Genes in a Forest Insect, .

Insects 2020 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is the most serious coniferous forest defoliator in China. This species has long life history, and shows different activity rhythms and light response behaviors at larval and adult stages. Insect vision system play important roles for survival and reproduction, and disturbance of photoreception may help us to control this pest. However, we know little about the visual system of . . As opsins are the most important genes determining photoreceptor sensitivity of insects, we identified opsins of and analyzed their expression patterns at different development stages in this study. Four opsin genes were identified based on our transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there are three classical ultraviolet (UV), blue, and long-wavelength (LW) light sensitive opsin genes, and another UV-like opsin as homolog of a circadian photoreceptor, Rh7, in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects. Expression analysis indicated that the UV and UV-like opsins expression levels only fluctuated slightly during whole life stages of , while Blue and LW opsins were up-regulated many times at adult stage. Interestingly, the ratio of UV-opsin was much higher in eggs and larvae stages, and lower in pupa and adult stages; reversely, LW-opsin showed extremely high relative ratio in pupa and adult stages. High expression level of LW opsin in the adult stage may correlate to the nocturnal lifestyles of this species at adult stage, and different ratios of UV and LW opsins in larval and adult stages may help to explain the different visual ecologies of these two development stages of D. punctatus. This work is the foundation for further research of opsin functions and vision mechanisms of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11020116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074091PMC
February 2020

Changes and Clinical Significance of Detailed Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Evaluating the Immunity for Cancer Patients.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 9;12:209-219. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Biotherapy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, The Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The evaluation of lymphocyte subsets is widely regarded as an important factor for monitoring tumor progression and response to therapy. This study was designed to establish a comprehensive and detailed assessment of peripheral lymphocyte subsets with a multi-parametric flow cytometry assay for response prediction and prognosis evaluation of cancer patients.

Methods: Peripheral blood samples collected from 40 cancer patients and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were tested for 29 lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry. The univariate analysis was applied to establish the reference interval of healthy samples, and the ratio and proportion of 29 lymphocyte subsets between patient samples and healthy controls were compared to evaluate their clinical significance by Mann-Whitney -test model.

Results: The reference ranges of 29 lymphocyte subsets were established with a normal distribution and no significant differences were observed between genders. Compared with healthy control group, lower proportion and ratio of specific parameters, such as Naïve Th cells (<0.01), Naïve Tc cells (<0.01), CM (central memory) Tc cells (<0.01), Naïve T cells/Memory T cells (<0.001), Naïve T cells/EM (effector memory) T cells (<0.001) and Naive Th cells/Memory Th cells (< 0.001), and higher proportion and ratio of EM Th cells (<0.001), EM Tc cells (<0.01), effector Tc cells (<0.05), EM Th cells/CM Th cells (<0.01) and EM Tc cells/CM Tc cells (<0.01), as well as Breg (<0.001), B cells (<0.05) and CD16-NK cells (<0.001) were found in cancer cohorts.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the changes in certain lymphocyte subsets might be helpful to evaluate the immunity of cancer patients, and holds great potential for clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S221586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957005PMC
January 2020

Analysis of carotenoid profile changes and carotenogenic genes transcript levels in Rhodosporidium toruloides mutants from an optimized Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Feb 22;68(1):71-81. Epub 2020 May 22.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

Rhodosporidium toruloides has been reported as a potential biotechnological microorganism to produce carotenoids. The most commonly used molecular and genetic manipulation methods based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (ATMT). However, this method was of relatively lower transformation efficiency. In this study, we optimized the ATMT method for R. toruloides on account of the promoter on T-DNA, the ratio of A. tumefaciens to R. toruloides NP11, acetosyringone concentration, cocultivation temperature and time, and a transformation efficiency of 2,369 cells per 10 recipient cells was obtained and was 24 times as that of the previous report. With this optimized method, four redder mutants and four yellower mutants were selected out with torularhodin and β-carotene production preference, respectively. The highest torularhodin production was 1,638.15 µg/g dry cell weight in A1-13. The yellower mutants were found to divert the metabolic flux from torularhodin and torulene to γ-carotene and β-carotene, and the proportion of γ-carotene and β-carotene were all over 92%. TAIL-PCR was carried out to found T-DNA insertion in these mutants, and insertion hotspot was found. RT-qPCR results showed that CTA1 genes in these mutants were closely related to the synthesis of total carotenoids, especially torularhodin, and was a potenial metabolic engineering site in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1895DOI Listing
February 2021

Improving Galactooligosaccharide Synthesis Efficiency of β-Galactosidase Bgal1-3 by Reshaping the Active Site with an Intelligent Hydrophobic Amino Acid Scanning.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Oct 30;67(40):11158-11166. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

School of Life Sciences, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, National Engineering Center for Marine Biotechnology of South China Sea , Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou 510275 , P. R. China.

There are ongoing interests in improving the galactooligosaccharide (GOS) synthesis efficiency of β-galactosidase by protein engineering. In this study, an intelligent double-hydrophobic amino acid scanning strategy was proposed and employed to target nine residues forming the glycon-binding site (-1 subsite) of β-galactosidase Bgal1-3. Two mutants C510V and H512I with significantly improved GOS synthesis efficiency were obtained. When 40% (w/v) lactose was used as a substrate, Bgal1-3 reached a maximum GOS yield of 45.3% at 16 h, while the mutants reached higher yields in a much shorter time (59.1% at 10 h for C510V, 51.5% at 2 h for H512I). When skim milk was treated with these enzymes, more GOS was produced (19.9 g/L for C510V, 12.7 g/L for H512I) than that for Bgal1-3 (10.3 g/L) at a lactose conversion of 90%. These results validated hydrophobicity scanning as an efficient method to engineer β-galactosidases into promising catalysts for the preparation of GOS and GOS-enriched milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04774DOI Listing
October 2019

Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of Erannis ankeraria Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Nov 16;82(11):1903-1910. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

Erannis ankeraria Staudinger, 1861 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the major pests causing serious damages on Larix spp., Quercus L., and Picea Mill. To investigate the conceivable functions of antennal sensilla associated with pheromone detection, we observed the ultrastructure of antennae in female and male of E. ankeraria moths by scanning electron microscopy. Six types (including two subtypes and a new type) of sensilla were recorded and characterized, including Sensilla trichodea (ST I and ST II), Böhm bristles, Sensilla squamiformia, Sensilla chaetica, Sensilla auricillic (SAU) and newly observed serrate-like sensilla. ST I and SAU were abundant on male antennae, displaying a sexual dismorphism. Serrate-like sensilla were also peculiar to male antennae. In summary of reported functions of corresponding sensilla, we presumed putative functions of the recorded sensilla in E. ankeraria, providing the morphological basis for sensory mechanisms related to pest management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23358DOI Listing
November 2019

Two forms of human DNA polymerase δ: Who does what and why?

DNA Repair (Amst) 2019 09 8;81:102656. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, USA.

DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) plays a central role in lagging strand DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells, as well as an important role in DNA repair processes. Human Pol δ4 is a heterotetramer of four subunits, the smallest of which is p12. Pol δ3 is a trimeric form that is generated in vivo by the degradation of the p12 subunit in response to DNA damage, and during entry into S-phase. The biochemical properties of the two forms of Pol δ, as well as the changes in their distribution during the cell cycle, are reviewed from the perspective of understanding their respective cellular functions. Biochemical and cellular studies support a role for Pol δ3 in gap filling during DNA repair, and in Okazaki fragment synthesis during DNA replication. Recent studies of cells in which p12 expression is ablated, and are therefore null for Pol δ4, show that Pol δ4 is not required for cell viability. These cells have a defect in homologous recombination, revealing a specific role for Pol δ4 that cannot be performed by Pol δ3. Pol δ4 activity is required for D-loop displacement synthesis in HR. The reasons why Pol δ4 but not Pol δ3 can perform this function are discussed, as well as the question of whether helicase action is needed for efficient D-loop displacement synthesis. Pol δ4 is largely present in the G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and is low in S phase. This is discussed in relation to the availability of Pol δ4 as an additional layer of regulation for HR activity during cell cycle progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2019.102656DOI Listing
September 2019

Morphological analysis of sensilla on different organs in Pachyneuron aphidis, a hyperparasitoid of Myzus persicae.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Oct 18;82(10):1810-1818. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing, China.

Aphidius gifuensis is the main enemy of Myzus persieae. While its parasitic rate can be influenced by the hyperparasitoid, Pachyneuron aphidis. As important parts of insects to sense odors from various environments, study of sensilla can lay the foundation of the further study about the parasitic mechanisms, reduce the hyperparasitic rate, and make the most effect usage of A. gifuensis. Here, we give a fundamental study about the morphology of the sensilla on the whole body of male and female P. aphidis. We observed seven main types of sensilla on them totally by using scanning electron microscopy. Including Böhm bristle (BB), chaetica sensilla (ChS), basiconic sensilla (BS), trichoid sensilla (TS), and placodea sensilla (PS), coeleoconica sensilla (CoS), basiconic capitate peg sensilla (BCPS). In addition, TS on antennae can be divided into four subtypes, on wings can be divided into two subtypes. Sensilla were most abundant on the antennae. We observed all types of sensilla on antennae. TS4 was uniporous and PS was multiporous. The other sensilla were nonporous. We did not find sexual dimorphism with regards to sensilla on the antennae except for the location of CoS. In male, CoS situated on the fourth subsegment of flagellum, but on the eighth subsegment in female. In other organs, TS has the largest number. We also found BS on compound eyes and ovipositor, BB on thoracic legs. The possible roles of these sensilla played in life activities are discussed. Our study makes a contribution of the parasitic mechanism of hyperparasitoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23347DOI Listing
October 2019

Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in Larix olgensis and verified of differential expression miRNAs.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Jun 11;19(1):247. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding (Northeast Forestry University), Harbin, 150040, China.

Background: MiRNAs (microRNA) are 18-24 nt endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, including tissue-specific, developmental timing and evolutionary conservation gene expression.

Results: This study used high-throughput sequencing technology for the first time in Larix olgensis, predicted 78 miRNAs, including 12,229,003 reads sRNA, screened differentially expressed miRNAs. Predicting target genes was helpful for understanding the miRNA regulation function and obtained 333 corresponding target genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional annotation were analysed, mostly including nucleic acid binding, plant hormone signal transduction, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, and cellulose synthase. This study will lay the foundation for clarifying the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network for growth and development. In view of this, spatio-temporal expression of miR396, miR950, miR164, miR166 and miR160 were analysed in Larix olgensis during the growth stages of not lignified, beginning of lignification, and completely lignified in different tissues (root, stem, and leaf) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). There were differences in the expression of miRNAs in roots, stems and leaves in the same growth period. At 60 days, miR160, miR166 and miR396-2 exhibited the highest expression in leaves. At 120 days, most miRNAs in roots and stems decreased significantly. At 180 days, miRNAs were abundantly expressed in roots and stems. Meanwhile, analysis of the expression of miRNAs in leaves revealed that miR396-2 was reduced as time went on, whereas other miRNAs increased initially and then decreased. On the other hand, in the stems, miR166-1 was increase, whereas other miRNAs, especially miR160, miR164, miR396 and miR950-1, first decreased and then increased. Similarly, in the roots, miR950-2 first decreased and then increased, whereas other miRNAs exhibited a trend of continuous increase.

Conclusions: The present investigation included rapid isolation and identification of miRNAs in Larix olgensis through construction of a sRNA library using Solexa and predicted 78 novel miRNAs, which showed differential expression levels in different tissues and stages. These results provided a theoretical basis for further revealing the genetic regulation mechanism of miRNA in the growth and development of conifers and the verification of function in target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1853-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558743PMC
June 2019

Mitochondrial Gene Sequence () Reveals the Genetic Structure and Demographic History of (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) in and around China.

Insects 2019 May 22;10(5). Epub 2019 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of State Forest Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

The gypsy moth, , is among the most destructive quarantine pests of forests. Here, we reconstructed the genetic structure and determined the population differentiation of gypsy moths across its distribution range at different times. This information could be used to both improve the prevention and detection of gypsy moths in the field. Using 31 newly designed species-specific primers targeting fragments of 216-1102 bp, we identified 103 full-length cytochrome oxidase subunit I () gene sequences from eight fresh samples and 95 specimens collected between 1955 and 1996, mainly in China. Combining 103 full-length gene sequences with 146 gene sequences from Genbank or DNA barcode libraries, we analyzed the genetic differentiation, gene flow and haplotypes between gypsy moth populations in order to reflect the genetic structure and population dynamics of gypsy moths. We discovered 25 previously unknown haplotypes from old gypsy moth specimens. We found that the genetic diversity among gypsy moth populations (collected in the same region at different time points) was relatively high. Furthermore, the genetic structure of Chinese geographical populations (Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Beijing) in different years was distinct. Our results suggested that some gypsy moths in China showed the genetic affinity with European gypsy moths (a sub-species of gypsy moths found mainly in Europe).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects10050146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572239PMC
May 2019

Enhanced resistive acetone sensing by using hollow spherical composites prepared from MoO and InO.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 05 16;186(6):359. Epub 2019 May 16.

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Key Laboratory of gas sensors, Jilin Province, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun, 130012, People's Republic of China.

Hollow sphere composites were synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal method from MoO and InO. The spheres have a typical size of 800 ± 50 nm and were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, XPS. Gas sensors based on samples with different Mo/In composite ratios were fabricated and their gas sensing properties were studied. The results show that a Mo:In ratio of 1:1 in the composite gives the highest response, typically at a working temperature of 250 °C. The response increases to 38 when exposed to 100 ppm acetone at 250 °C. This is 13.6 times better than when using pure MoO. The sensor shows improved selectivity, response, repeatability and long-term stability. Typical features include a large specific surface area, and high levels of chemisorbed oxygen and defective oxygen sites. The N-N heterojunction theory was used to explain the improvement of gas sensing performance. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of MoO and InO composites and response test graph for 100 ppm acetone. The sensor based on this composite exhibits a very high response (38) to acetone at 250 °C and very fast response time (2 s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3471-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Facile and Efficient Syntheses of (11,13)-Hexadecadienal and Its Derivatives: Key Sex Pheromone and Attractant Components of Notodontidae.

Molecules 2019 May 8;24(9). Epub 2019 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Syntheses of (11,13)-hexadecadienal (), (11,13)-hexadecadienol (), (11,13)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (), and (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynal () from commercially available starting material 10-bromo-1-decanol are reported. These (,)-dienes and conjugated en-yne moieties are common in sex pheromone and attractant components for many Notodontide insect pests. The synthetic scheme, using the C10 + C3 + C3 strategy, was mainly based on three key steps: alkylation of lithium alkyne under a low temperature, -Wittig olefination of the aldehyde with propylidentriphenylphosphorane, and hydroboration-protonolysis of alkyne. This synthetic route provided (11,13)-hexadecadienal () in a 23.0% total yield via an eight-step sequence, alcohol () in a 21.9% total yield, acetate () in a 21.4% total yield, and (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynal () in a 34.7% total yield. This simple strategy provides a new way to achieve syntheses of the key sex pheromones of Notodontide insect pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6540594PMC
May 2019

Developing a CRISPR/Cas9 System for Genome Editing in the Basidiomycetous Yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

Biotechnol J 2019 Jul 3;14(7):e1900036. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China.

The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (R. toruloides) has been explored as a promising host for the production of lipids and carotenoids. However, the rational manipulation of this yeast remains difficult due to lack of efficient genetic tools. Here, the development of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas9) system for genome editing in R. toruloides is described. First, R. toruloides strains are generated with sufficient production of the Cas9 protein of Staphylococcus aureus origin by integrating a cassette containing a codon-optimized Cas9 gene into the genome. In parallel, two U6 genes are identified, predicting two U6 promoters and confirming better transcription of single-guide RNA (sgRNA) with the U6b promoter. Next, sgRNA cassettes are designed targeting CRTI, CAR2, and CLYBL gene, respectively, transforming into those Cas9-expressed strains, and finding over 60% transformants with successful insertion and deletion (indel) mutations. Furthermore, when the sgRNA cassette includes donor DNA flanked by two homologous arms of the gene CRTI, gene knockout occurs via homologous recombination. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is now established as a powerful genome-editing tool in R. toruloides, which should facilitate functional genomic study and advanced cell factory development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.201900036DOI Listing
July 2019

RNA interference in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

FEMS Yeast Res 2019 05;19(3)

Laboratory of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, PR China.

The red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is an excellent microbial host for production of carotenoids, neutral lipids and valuable enzymes. In recent years, genetic tools for gene expression and gene disruption have been developed for this red yeast. However, methods remain limited in terms of fine-tuning gene expression. In this study, we first demonstrated successful implementation of RNA interference (RNAi) in R. toruloides NP11, which was applied to down-regulate the expression of autophagy related gene 8 (ATG8), and fatty acid synthase genes (FAS1 and FAS2), respectively. Compared with the control strain, RNAi-engineered strains showed a silencing efficiency ranging from 11% to 92%. The RNAi approach described here ensures selective inhibition of the target gene expression, and should expand our capacity in the genetic manipulation of R. toruloides for both fundamental research and advanced cell factory development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foz031DOI Listing
May 2019
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