Publications by authors named "Sue Kyung Park"

102 Publications

Persistent Resistant Hypertension Has Worse Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease than that Resolved in Two Years: Results from the KNOW-CKD Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 3;10(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 61469, Korea.

Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (ATRH) is closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the long-term outcomes and the effects of improvement in ATRH in patients with CKD are not well understood. We evaluated the relationship between the persistence of ATRH and the progression of CKD. This cohort study enrolled 1921 patients with CKD. ATRH was defined as blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg and intake of three different types of antihypertensive agents, including diuretics, or intake of four or more different types of antihypertensive agents, regardless of blood pressure. We defined ATRH subgroups according to the ATRH status at the index year and two years later. The prevalence of ATRH at baseline was 14.0%. The presence of ATRH at both time points was an independent risk factor for end-point renal outcome (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92; = 0.027). On the other hand, the presence of ATRH at any one of the time points was not statistically significant. In conclusion, persistent ATRH is more important for the prognosis of renal disease than the initial ATRH status. Continuous follow-up and appropriate treatment are important to improve the renal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432533PMC
September 2021

Dietary Micronutrients and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cohort Study with 12 Year Follow-Up.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 103 Daehakro, Jongnogu, Seoul 03080, Korea.

We investigated the association between dietary micronutrient intakes and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Ansan-Ansung study of the Korean Genome and Epidemiologic Study (KoGES), a population-based prospective cohort study. Of 9079 cohort participants with a baseline estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m and a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) <300 mg/g and who were not diagnosed with CKD, we ascertained 1392 new CKD cases over 12 year follow-up periods. The risk of CKD according to dietary micronutrient intakes was presented using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a full multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for multiple micronutrients and important clinico-epidemiological risk factors. Low dietary intakes of phosphorus (<400 mg/day), vitamin B2 (<0.7 mg/day) and high dietary intake of vitamin B6 (≥1.6 mg/day) and C (≥100 mg/day) were associated with an increased risk of CKD stage 3B and over, compared with the intake at recommended levels (HR = 6.78 [95%CI = 2.18-21.11]; HR = 2.90 [95%CI = 1.01-8.33]; HR = 2.71 [95%CI = 1.26-5.81]; HR = 1.83 [95%CI = 1.00-3.33], respectively). In the restricted population, excluding new CKD cases defined within 2 years, an additional association with low folate levels (<100 µg/day) in higher risk of CKD stage 3B and over was observed (HR = 6.72 [95%CI = 1.40-32.16]). None of the micronutrients showed a significant association with the risk of developing CKD stage 3A. Adequate intake of micronutrients may lower the risk of CKD stage 3B and over, suggesting that dietary guidelines are needed in the general population to prevent CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145051PMC
April 2021

Smoking Cessation and Coronary Artery Calcification in CKD.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 06 20;16(6):870-879. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

Background And Objectives: Smoking is associated with vascular calcification and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the association of smoking dose and cessation with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with CKD.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: From a nationwide, prospective cohort of Korean patients with CKD, 1914 participants were included. Prevalent CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0, using computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as ≥30%/yr increase in Agatston score at the 4-year follow-up examination in patients with baseline CAC.

Results: Prevalent CAC was observed in 952 (50%) patients. Compared with never smokers, former smokers had a similar prevalence ratio for CAC, but current smokers had a 1.25-fold higher prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10 to 1.42). Among former smokers, a lower smoking load of <10 pack-years (prevalence ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.90) and longer duration of smoking cessation (prevalence ratio for 10 to <20 years, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98: prevalence ratio for ≥20 years, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.96) were associated with lower risk of prevalent CAC compared with current smoking. The prevalence ratios did not differ between never smoking and long-term cessation. However, short-term cessation with heavy smoking load was associated with a higher risk of prevalent CAC (prevalence ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.40) compared with never smoking. CAC progression was observed in 111 (33%) patients with baseline CAC. Compared with never smokers, former smokers showed a similar risk of CAC progression, but current smokers had a higher risk (relative risk, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.86).

Conclusions: In CKD, former smoking with a lower smoking load and long-term cessation were associated with a lower risk of prevalent CAC than current smoking. CAC progression was more pronounced in current smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.15751020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216611PMC
June 2021

Discrepant glomerular filtration rate trends from creatinine and cystatin C in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from the KNOW-CKD cohort.

BMC Nephrol 2020 07 16;21(1):280. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) can both be used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and eGFR). However, certain conditions may cause discrepancies between eGFR trends from Cr and CysC, and these remain undetermined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: A total of 1069 patients from the Korean CKD cohort (KNOW-CKD), which enrolls pre-dialytic CKD patients, whose Cr and CysC had been followed for more than 4 years were included in the sample. We performed trajectory analysis using latent class mixed modeling and identified members of the discrepancy group when patient trends between eGFR and eGFR differed. Multivariate logistic analyses with Firth's penalized likelihood regression models were performed to identify conditions related to the discrepancy.

Results: Trajectory patterns of eGFR were classified into three groups: two groups with stable eGFR (stable with high eGFR and stable with low eGFR) and one group with decreasing eGFR. Trajectory analysis of eGFR also showed similar patterns, comprising two groups with stable eGFR and one group with decreasing eGFR. Patients in the discrepancy group (decreasing eGFR but stable & low eGFR; n = 55) were younger and had greater proteinuria values than the agreement group (stable & low eGFR and eGFR; n = 706), differences that remained consistent irrespective of the measurement period (4 or 5 years).

Conclusions: In the present study, we identify conditions related to discrepant trends of eGFR and eGFR. Clinicians should remain aware of such potential discrepancies when tracing both Cr and CysC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01932-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364655PMC
July 2020

Mediation of the relationship between proteinuria and serum phosphate: Insight from the KNOW-CKD study.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(6):e0235077. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Proteinuria and hyperphosphatemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the interaction between proteinuria and the serum phosphate level is well established, the mechanistic link between the two, particularly the extent to which this interaction is mediated by phosphate-regulating factors, remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the association between proteinuria and the serum phosphate level, as well as potential mediators, including circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF23)/klotho, the 24-h urinary phosphate excretion rate to glomerular filtration rate ratio (EP/GFR), and the 24-h tubular phosphate reabsorption rate to GFR ratio (TRP/GFR). The analyses were performed with data from 1793 patients in whom 24-h urine protein and phosphate, serum phosphate, FGF23, and klotho levels were measured simultaneously, obtained from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Multivariable linear regression and mediation analyses were performed. Total, direct, and indirect effects were also estimated. Patients with high serum phosphate levels were found to be more likely to exhibit greater proteinuria, higher FGF23 levels, and lower klotho levels. The 24-h EP/GFR increased and the 24-h TRP/GFR decreased with increasing proteinuria and CKD progression. Simple mediation analyses showed that 15.4% and 67.9% of the relationship between proteinuria and the serum phosphate level were mediated by the FGF23/klotho ratio and 24-h EP/GFR, respectively. Together, these two factors accounted for 73.1% of the relationship between serum markers. These findings suggest that proteinuria increases the 24-h EP/GFR via the FGF23/klotho axis as a compensatory mechanism for the increased phosphate burden well before the reduction in renal function is first seen.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235077PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307748PMC
September 2020

Intensity of statin therapy and renal outcome in chronic kidney disease: Results from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2020 Mar;39(1):93-102

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Higher statin intensity is associated with a lower risk of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the relationship between statin intensity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression.

Methods: We studied whether statin intensity affects kidney function decline in 1,073 patients from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. The participants were classified based on statin intensity as low, moderate, and high. The study endpoint was CKD progression (composite of doubling of serum creatinine, ≥ 50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] from baseline, or end-stage renal disease).

Results: The mean age was 56.0 ± 11.4 years, and 665 (62.0%) participants were male. The mean eGFR was 51.7 ± 26.7 mL/min/1.73 m; there were no differences in baseline eGFR among statin intensity groups. During the median follow-up of 39.9 (25.4-61.6) months, 255 (23.8%) patients reached the study endpoint. In multivariable Cox model after adjustment of confounders, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for adverse kidney outcome were 0.97 (0.72-1.30) and 1.15 (0.60-2.20) in moderate and high statin intensity groups, respectively, compared with the low intensity group. In addition, no significant association was observed in subgroups stratified by age, sex, eGFR, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores.

Conclusion: We did not observe any significant association between intensity of statin therapy and progression of CKD. Long-term kidney outcomes may not be affected by statin intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23876/j.krcp.20.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105621PMC
March 2020

Re-evaluating genetic variants identified in candidate gene studies of breast cancer risk using data from nearly 280,000 women of Asian and European ancestry.

EBioMedicine 2019 Oct 16;48:203-211. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, USA; Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets.

Methods: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets.

Findings: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS.

Interpretation: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.09.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838373PMC
October 2019

Association between Change in Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome: Analysis from the Health Examinees Study.

Diabetes Metab J 2019 Oct 23;43(5):615-626. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The association between change in alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome is unclear.

Methods: This retrospective cohort consisted of 41,368 males and females from the Health Examinees-GEM study. Participants were divided into non-drinkers (0.0 g/day), light drinkers (male: 0.1 to 19.9 g/day; female: 0.1 to 9.9 g/day), moderate drinkers (male: 20.0 to 39.9 g/day; female: 10.0 to 19.9 g/day), and heavy drinkers (male: ≥40.0 g/day; female: ≥20.0 g/day) for each of the initial and follow-up health examinations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing metabolic syndrome according to the change in alcohol consumption between the initial and follow-up health examinations. Adjusted mean values for the change in waist circumference, fasting serum glucose (FSG), blood pressure, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined according to the change in alcohol consumption by linear regression analysis.

Results: Compared to persistent light drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to heavy levels had elevated risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.92). In contrast, heavy drinkers who became light drinkers had reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.84) compared to persistent heavy drinkers. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with elevated adjusted mean values for waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels (all <0.05). Reduction in alcohol intake was associated with decreased waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels among initial heavy drinkers (all <0.05).

Conclusion: Heavy drinkers who reduce alcohol consumption could benefit from reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6834843PMC
October 2019

Weight change after smoking cessation and incident metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Korean men: an observational study.

Sci Rep 2019 02 28;9(1):3103. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We aimed to examine the effect of weight change attributable to cessation of cigarette smoking on newly diagnosed metabolic syndrome (MetS). We prospectively followed 5,809 men aged between 40 to 69 years without MetS at baseline in the Health Examinees-Gem (HEXA-G) study up to 4 years. The participants were grouped into continual smokers, quitters with weight gain, quitters without weight change, quitters with weight loss, and never smokers. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, health status, and health conditions to estimate the odds of newly diagnosed MetS. During the follow-up, there were 609 cases of newly diagnosed MetS in 5,809 men of the HEXA-G study. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for MetS were 1.90 (95% CI: 1.43-2.52) in quitters with weight gain, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00) in quitters without weight change, and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.28-0.57) in quitters with weight loss compared with continual smokers. Never smokers also had lower odds of MetS (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.42-0.71) compared to continual smokers. Weight management program following smoking cessation may be necessary in clinical practice to reduce worsening of cardiometabolic risk factors related to post-cessation weight gain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39811-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395682PMC
February 2019

The effect of interactions between proteinuria, activity of fibroblast growth factor 23 and serum phosphate on renal progression in patients with chronic kidney disease: a result from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 03;35(3):438-446

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recent experimental study reported that proteinuria increases serum phosphate by decreasing biologic activity of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). We examined this relationship in a large chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohort and evaluated the combined effect of proteinuria, FGF-23 activity and serum phosphate on CKD progression.

Methods: The activity of FGF-23, measured by the fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP)/FGF-23 ratio, was compared according to the degree of proteinuria in 1909 patients with CKD. Primary outcome was CKD progression defined as ≥50% decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate, doubling of serum creatinine and start of dialysis.

Results: There was a negative relationship between 24-h urine protein (24-h UP) and FEP/FGF-23 ratio (γ -0.07; P = 0.005). In addition, after matching variables associated with serum phosphate, patients with more proteinuria had higher serum phosphate (P < 0.001) and FGF-23 (P = 0.012), and lower FEP/FGF-23 ratio (P = 0.007) compared with those with less proteinuria. In the matched cohort, low FEP/FGF-23 ratio was an independent risk factor for CKD progression (hazard ratio 0.87 per 1 log increase; 95% confidence interval 0.79-0.95; P = 0.002), and there was significant interaction between 24-h UP and FEP/FGF-23 ratio (P = 0.039). Furthermore, 24-h UP and serum phosphate also had a significant interaction on CKD progression (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Proteinuria is associated with decreased biologic activity of FGF-23 and increased serum phosphate. Furthermore, diminished activity of FGF23 is an independent risk factor for renal progression in proteinuric CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy403DOI Listing
March 2020

Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and health-related quality of life in adults with chronic kidney disease.

Qual Life Res 2019 Apr 7;28(4):1075-1083. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Obesity is linked to poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the general population, but its role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study that investigated 1880 participants from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With CKD (KNOW-CKD) who underwent complete baseline laboratory tests, health questionnaires, and HRQOL. HRQOL was assessed by physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF-36 questionnaire. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) with HRQOL.

Results: Adults with higher BMI and greater WC showed lower PCS. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic state, comorbidities, and laboratory findings, we found that WC, but not BMI, was associated with PCS. Greater WC quintiles were associated with lower PCS [WC-4th quintile (β, - 2.63, 95% CI - 5.19 to - 0.06) and WC-5th quintile (β, - 3.71, 95% CI - 6.28 to - 1.15)]. The association between WC and PCS was more pronounced in older adults, woman, patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or lower eGFR. The relationship between BMI and WC with MCS was not significant.

Conclusions: In adults with CKD, WC is a better indicator of poor physical HRQOL than BMI. The association between WC and physical HRQOL is modified by age, sex, eGFR, and comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-2084-0DOI Listing
April 2019

Reclassification of and variants of uncertain significance: a multifactorial analysis of multicentre prospective cohort.

J Med Genet 2018 12 10;55(12):794-802. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: and () variants classified ambiguously as variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are a major challenge for clinical genetic testing in breast cancer; their relevance to the cancer risk is unclear and the association with the response to specific -targeted agents is uncertain. To minimise the proportion of VUS in , we performed the multifactorial likelihood analysis and validated this method using an independent cohort of patients with breast cancer.

Methods: We used a data set of 2115 patients with breast cancer from the nationwide multicentre prospective Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study. In total, 83 VUSs (, n=26; , n=57) were analysed. The multifactorial probability was estimated by combining the prior probability with the overall likelihood ratio derived from co-occurrence of each VUS with pathogenic variants, personal and family history, and tumour characteristics. The classification was compared with the interpretation according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines. An external validation was conducted using independent data set of 810 patients.

Results: We were able to redefine 38 VUSs (, n=10; , n=28). The revised classification was highly correlated with the ACMG/AMP guideline-based interpretation (, p for trend=0.015; , p=0.001). Our approach reduced the proportion of VUS from 19% (154/810) to 8.9% (72/810) in the retrospective validation data set.

Conclusion: The classification in this study would minimise the 'uncertainty' in clinical interpretation, and this validated multifactorial model can be used for the reliable annotation of VUSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105565DOI Listing
December 2018

A New Functional Scale and Ambulatory Functional Classification of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Scale Development and Preliminary Analyses of Reliability and Validity.

Ann Rehabil Med 2018 Oct 31;42(5):690-701. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To develop a simplified functional scale and classification system to evaluate the functional abilities of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

Methods: A Comprehensive Functional Scale for DMD (CFSD) was developed using the modified Delphi method. The accompanying Ambulatory Functional Classification System for DMD (AFCSD) was developed based on previously published classification systems.

Results: The CFSD consists of 21 items and 78 sub-items, assessing body structure and function, activities, and participation. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient values were above 0.7 for 17 items. The overall limits of agreement between the two examiners ranged from -6.21 to 3.11. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the total score on the AFCSD and the Vignos Functional Scale was 0.833, and 0.714 between the total score of the AFCSD and the Brooke scale. Significant negative correlations existed between the total score for each functional level of the AFCSD and each functional grade of the Vignos and Brooke scales. The total scores of the CFSD varied significantly between the functional grades of the Vignos scale, and specific grades of the Brooke scale. For the AFCSD, total scores of the CFSD varied significantly between the functional levels.

Conclusion: We have developed a new scale and the associated classification system, to assess the functional ability of children diagnosed with DMD. Preliminary evaluation of the psychometric properties of the functional scale and classification systems indicate sufficient reliability and concurrent validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.2018.42.5.690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6246862PMC
October 2018

Sleep Duration and Health-Related Quality of Life in Predialysis CKD.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 06 3;13(6):858-865. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic risk and mortality. The health-related quality of life represents a patient's comprehensive perception of health and is accepted as a health outcome. We examined the relationship between sleep duration and health-related quality of life in predialysis CKD.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1910 adults with CKD enrolled in the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with CKD were analyzed. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the physical component summary and mental component summary of the Short Form-36 Health Survey. Low health-related quality of life was defined as a Short Form-36 Health Survey score >1 SD below the mean. Using a generalized additive model and multivariable logistic regression analysis, the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and health-related quality of life was examined.

Results: Seven-hour sleepers showed the highest health-related quality of life. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and health-related quality of life as analyzed by a generalized additive model. In multivariable logistic analysis, short sleepers (≤5 h/d) had lower health-related quality of life (odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.86 to 5.60 for the physical component summary; odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.43 to 3.94 for the mental component summary), and long sleepers (≥9 h/d) had lower health-related quality of life (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.55 to 5.03 for the physical component summary; odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 3.60 for the mental component summary) compared with 7-hour sleepers. Sleep duration had a significant U-shaped association with low health-related quality of life.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that short or long sleep duration is independently associated with low health-related quality of life in adults with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11351017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989677PMC
June 2018

Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE): a retrospective, population-based cohort study conducted at the Seoul National University Hospital Gangnam Center, Korea.

BMJ Open 2018 04 19;8(4):e019327. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Healthcare Research Institute, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: The Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE) study was designed to investigate the association of diagnostic imaging results, biomarkers and the predisease stage of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as malignancies and metabolic diseases, in an average-risk population in Korea.

Participants: This study enrolled a large-scale retrospective cohort at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, from October 2003 to December 2014.

Findings To Date: The baseline and follow-up information collected in the predisease stage of NCDs allows for evaluation of an individual's potential NCD risk, which is necessary for establishing personalised prevention strategies. A total of 91 336 health examinees were included in the cohort, and we repeatedly measured and collected information for 50.9% (n=46 484) of the cohort members. All participants completed structured questionnaires (lifestyle, medical history, mini-dietary assessment index, sex-specific variables and psychiatric assessment), doctors' physical examinations, laboratory blood and urine tests and digital chest X-ray imaging. For participants with available data, we also obtained information on specific diagnostic variables using advanced diagnostic tests, including coronary CT for coronary calcium scores, colonoscopy and brain MRI. Furthermore, 17 455 of the participants who provided informed consent and donated blood samples were enrolled into the Gene-environmental interaction and phenotype study, a subcohort of the H-PEACE, from October 2013, and we analysed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array data for 6579 of these blood samples.

Future Plans: The data obtained from this cohort will be used to facilitate advanced and accurate diagnostic techniques related to NCDs while considering various phenotypes. Potential collaborators can access the dataset after receiving approval from our institutional review board. Applications can be submitted on the study homepage (http://en-healthcare.snuh.org/HPEACEstudy).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5914782PMC
April 2018

Mutational spectrum in a worldwide study of 29,700 families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

Hum Mutat 2018 05 12;39(5):593-620. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903938PMC
May 2018

Prediction of Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks in Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jul 27;35(20):2240-2250. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Julie Lecarpentier, Karoline B. Kuchenbaecker, Daniel Barrowdale, Joe Dennis, Lesley McGuffog, Goska Leslie, Andrew Lee, Ali Amin Al Olama, Jonathan P. Tyrer, Debra Frost, Steve Ellis, Douglas F. Easton, and Antonis C. Antoniou, University of Cambridge; Karoline B. Kuchenbaecker, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton; Marc Tischkowitz, Addenbrooke's Treatment Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge; D. Gareth Evans, Manchester University, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester; Alex Henderson, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne; Carole Brewer, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter; Diana Eccles, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton; Jackie Cook, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield; Kai-ren Ong, Birmingham Women's Hospital Healthcare NHS Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham; Lisa Walker, Churchill Hospital, Oxford; Lucy E. Side, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust; Shirley Hodgson, St George's, University of London; Louise Izatt, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust; Ros Eeles, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust; Nick Orr, The Institute of Cancer Research, London; Mary E. Porteous, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh; Rosemarie Davidson, South Glasgow University Hospitals, Glasgow; Julian Adlard, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom; Valentina Silvestri, Piera Rizzolo, Anna Sara Navazio, Virginia Valentini, Veronica Zelli, and Laura Ottini, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome; Angela Toss, Veronica Medici, and Laura Cortesi, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena; Ines Zanna and Domenico Palli, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute, Florence; Paolo Radice, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernard Peissel, and Jacopo Azzollini, Fondazione Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Nazionale Tumori (INT); Paolo Peterlongo, Italian Foundation for Cancer Research Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM), Milan; Alessandra Viel and Giulia Cini, CRO Aviano, National Cancer Institute, Aviano; Giuseppe Damante, University of Udine, Udine; Stefania Tommasi, Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II", Bari; Elisa Alducci, Silvia Tognazzo, and Marco Montagna, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS, Padua; Maria A. Caligo, University and University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Penny Soucy and Jacques Simard, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Research Center and Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec; Anna Marie Mulligan and Irene L. Andrulis, University of Toronto; Gord Glendon and Irene L. Andrulis, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Melissa Southey, Ian Campbell, Paul James, and Gillian Mitchell, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria; Amanda B. Spurdle, Helene Holland, and Georgia Chenevix-Trench, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland; Ian Campbell, Paul James, and Gillian Mitchell, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, New South Wales, Australia; Esther M. John, Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont; Linda Steele, Yuan Chun Ding, Susan L. Neuhausen, and Jeffrey N. Weitzel, City of Hope, Duarte, CA; Thomas A. Conner and Saundra S. Buys, Huntsman Cancer Institute; David E. Goldgar, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT; Andrew K. Godwin, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City; Priyanka Sharma, University of Kansas Medical Center, Westwood, KS; Timothy R. Rebbeck, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Joseph Vijai, Mark Robson, Anne Lincoln, Jacob Musinsky, Pragna Gaddam, and Kenneth Offit, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Jennifer T. Loud and Mark H. Greene, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; Amanda Ewart Toland and Leigha Senter, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Dezheng Huo, Sarah M. Nielsen, and Olufunmilayo I. Olopade, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL; Katherine L. Nathanson and Susan M. Domchek, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Christa Lorenchick and Rachel C. Jankowitz, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; Fergus J. Couch, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Ramunas Janavicius, State Research Institute Innovative Medicine Center, Vilnius, Lithuania; Thomas V.O. Hansen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen; Anders Bojesen and Henriette Roed Nielsen, Vejle Hospital, Vejle; Anne-Bine Skytte, Lone Sunde, and Uffe Birk Jensen, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus; Inge Sokilde Pedersen, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg; Lotte Krogh, Torben A. Kruse, and Mads Thomassen, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Ana Osorio, National Cancer Research Centre and Spanish Network on Rare Diseases; Miguel de la Hoya, Vanesa Garcia-Barberan, Trinidad Caldes, and Pedro Perez Segura, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, El Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid; Judith Balmaña, University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron; Sara Gutiérrez-Enríquez and Orland Diez, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology; Orland Diez, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron; Alex Teulé, Jesús Del Valle, Lidia Feliubadalo, Miquel Angel Pujana, and Conxi Lazaro, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona; Angel Izquierdo, Esther Darder, and Joan Brunet, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona, Spain; Florentia Fostira, National Centre for Scientific Research "Demokritos," Athens, Greece; Ute Hamann, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ); Christian Sutter, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Alfons Meindl, Klinikumrechts der Isar, Technical University Munich; Nina Ditsch, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich; Andrea Gehrig, University Würzburg, Würzburg; Bernd Dworniczak, University of Münster, Münster; Christoph Engel, University of Leipzig; Dorothea Wand, University Hospital, Leipzig; Dieter Niederacher, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf; Doris Steinemann, Hannover Medical School, Hannover; Eric Hahnen, Jan Hauke, Kerstin Rhiem, Barbara Wappenschmidt, and Rita K. Schmutzler, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne; Karin Kast, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Dresden; Norbert Arnold, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel; Shan Wang-Gohrke, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany; Christine Lasset, Francesca Damiola, and Laure Barjhoux, Centre Léon Bérard; Sylvie Mazoyer, University of Lyon, Lyon; Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet and Muriel Belotti, Institut Curie, Paris, France; Mattias Van Heetvelde, Bruce Poppe, Kim De Leeneer, and Kathleen B.M. Claes, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; Johanna I. Kiiski, Sofia Khan, and Heli Nevanlinna, University of Helsinki; Johanna I. Kiiski, Kristiina Aittomäki, Sofia Khan, and Heli Nevanlinna, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Christi J. van Asperen, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Tibor Vaszko, Miklos Kasler, and Edith Olah, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary; Adalgeir Arason, Bjarni A. Agnarsson, Oskar Th. Johannsson, and Rosa B. Barkardottir, Landspitali University Hospital and Biomedical Centre, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Manuel R. Teixeira and Pedro Pinto, Portuguese Oncology Institute; Manuel R. Teixeira, Porto University, Porto, Portugal; Jong Won Lee, Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center; Min Hyuk Lee and Jihyoun Lee, Soonchunhyang University and Hospital; Sung-Won Kim and Eunyoung Kang, Daerim St Mary's Hospital; Sue Kyung Park, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul; Zisun Kim, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea; Yen Y. Tan, Andreas Berger, and Christian F. Singer, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Sook-Yee Yoon and Soo-Hwang Teo, Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia; and Anna von Wachenfeldt, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.69.4935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501359PMC
July 2017

Baseline General Characteristics of the Korean Chronic Kidney Disease: Report from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD).

J Korean Med Sci 2017 Feb;32(2):221-230

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

The KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) was developed to investigate various clinical courses and risk factors for progression of Korean chronic kidney disease (CKD). The KNOW-CKD study consists of nine clinical centers in Korea, and patients aged between 20 and 75 years with CKD from stage 1 to 5 (predialysis) were recruited. At baseline, blood and urine samples were obtained and demographic data including comorbidities, drugs, quality of life, and health behaviors were collected. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-calibrated serum creatinine measured at a central laboratory. As a dynamic cohort, a total of 2,341 patients were enrolled during the enrollment period from 2011 until 2015, among whom 2,238 subjects were finally analyzed for baseline profiles. The mean age of the cohort was 53.7 ± 12.2 year and 61.2% were men. Mean eGFR was 50.5 ± 30.3 mL/min/1.73 m². The participants with lower eGFR had a tendency to be older, with more comorbidities, to have higher systolic blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure, with lower income level and education attainment. The patients categorized as glomerulonephritis (GN) were 36.2% followed by diabetic nephropathy (DN, 23.2%), hypertensive nephropathy (HTN, 18.3%), polycystic kidney disease (PKD, 16.3%), and other unclassified disease (6.1%). The KNOW-CKD participants will be longitudinally followed for 10 years. The study will provide better understanding for physicians regarding clinical outcomes, especially renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2017.32.2.221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5219987PMC
February 2017

Normal body mass index with central obesity has increased risk of coronary artery calcification in Korean patients with chronic kidney disease.

Kidney Int 2016 12;90(6):1368-1376

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In chronic kidney disease (CKD), overweight and mild obesity have shown the lowest cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, central obesity has been directly associated with CV risk in these patients. This bidirectional relationship of body mass index (BMI) and central obesity prompted us to evaluate CV risk based on a combination of BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in nondialysis CKD patients. We included 1078 patients with CKD stage 2 through 5 (nondialysis) enrolled in a nationwide prospective cohort of Korea. Patients were divided into 3 groups by BMI (normal BMI, 18.5-22.9; overweight, 23.0-27.4; and obese, 27.5 and over kg/m) and were dichotomized by a sex-specific median WHR (0.92 in males and 0.88 in females). Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was determined by multislice computed tomography. CAC (score above 10 Agatston units) was found in 477 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that BMI was not independently associated with CAC. However, WHR showed an independent linear and significant association with CAC (odds ratio, 1.036; 95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.065 per 0.01 increase). Furthermore, when patients were categorized into 6 groups according to a combination of BMI and WHR, normal BMI but higher WHR had the highest risk of CAC compared with the normal BMI with lower WHR group (2.104; 1.074-4.121). Thus, a normal BMI with central obesity was associated with the highest risk of CAC, suggesting that considering BMI and WHR, 2 surrogates of obesity, can help to discriminate CV risk in Korean nondialysis CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2016.09.011DOI Listing
December 2016

Inheritance of deleterious mutations at both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in an international sample of 32,295 women.

Breast Cancer Res 2016 11 11;18(1):112. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Genomic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Institute of Human Development, Manchester University, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood.

Methods: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). "Cases" were defined as TH, and "controls" were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 "controls" carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH "case". Matched SH2 "controls" carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH "case". After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2.

Results: The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC.

Conclusions: Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-016-0768-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5106833PMC
November 2016

Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: identification of a modifier of breast cancer risk at locus 11q22.3.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017 01 28;161(1):117-134. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways.

Methods: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

Results: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance.

Conclusion: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-016-4018-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5222911PMC
January 2017

Serum adiponectin and protein-energy wasting in predialysis chronic kidney disease.

Nutrition 2017 Jan 30;33:254-260. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Adiponectin (ADPN) has antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and insulin-sensitizing effects. Serum ADPN levels are increased in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and higher ADPN is paradoxically a predictor of mortality in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum ADPN levels and protein-energy wasting (PEW) in predialysis CKD.

Method: We examined serum ADPN concentrations and PEW in 1303 patients from the KNOW-CKD (KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease) study. PEW was defined as the presence of three or more of the following four indicators: serum albumin <3.8 g/dL, body mass index <23 kg/m, urine creatinine excretion (UCE) below the lower quartile, and daily dietary protein intake <0.6 g/kg. We analyzed the association between PEW and ADPN using a multivariate regression model after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, and laboratory findings.

Results: Among 1303 predialysis CKD patients, 72 (5.5%) had PEW. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher ADPN level was associated with PEW (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08 by 1 μg/mL ADPN). The highest ADPN quartile was associated with PEW in comparison with the lowest quartile (odds ratio, 10.54; 95% CI, 1.28-86.74). In multiple linear regression with PEW indicators, ADPN was more strongly associated with UCE (β = -2.21; 95% CI, -4.13 to -0.28; R = 0.67).

Conclusion: High ADPN is independently associated with PEW. Among PEW indicators, serum ADPN is closely associated with UCE as an indirect measure of muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.06.014DOI Listing
January 2017

Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus.

Nat Commun 2016 09 7;7:12675. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle Hospital, Vejle 7100, Denmark.

A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10(-13)), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10(-16)) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10(-5)). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10(-3)) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10(-3)). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5023955PMC
September 2016

Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

PLoS One 2016 27;11(7):e0158801. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, Polabska 4, Szczecin, Poland.

Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158801PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4963094PMC
July 2017

Breast cancer risk variants at 6q25 display different phenotype associations and regulate ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170.

Nat Genet 2016 Apr 29;48(4):374-86. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

We analyzed 3,872 common genetic variants across the ESR1 locus (encoding estrogen receptor α) in 118,816 subjects from three international consortia. We found evidence for at least five independent causal variants, each associated with different phenotype sets, including estrogen receptor (ER(+) or ER(-)) and human ERBB2 (HER2(+) or HER2(-)) tumor subtypes, mammographic density and tumor grade. The best candidate causal variants for ER(-) tumors lie in four separate enhancer elements, and their risk alleles reduce expression of ESR1, RMND1 and CCDC170, whereas the risk alleles of the strongest candidates for the remaining independent causal variant disrupt a silencer element and putatively increase ESR1 and RMND1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4938803PMC
April 2016

Albuminuria as a Risk Factor for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Result from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD).

PLoS One 2015 2;10(10):e0139747. Epub 2015 Oct 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Anemia is a common complication among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with CKD independent of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We assessed the association of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR with anemia in CKD patients.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association of albuminuria with anemia. Furthermore, odds ratios for anemia were calculated by cross-categorization of ACR and eGFR.

Results: Among 1,456 patients, the mean age was 53.5 ± 12.4 years, and the mean eGFR and ACR were 51.9 ± 30.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 853.2 ± 1,330.3 mg/g, respectively. Anemia was present in 644 patients (40.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the odds ratio of anemia increased according to ACR levels, after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, body mass index, pulse pressure, cause of CKD, use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, serum calcium and ferritin (ACR < 30 mg/g as a reference group; 30-299 mg/g, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88-2.33; ≥300 mg/g, adjusted OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.12-3.10). In addition, graded associations were observed in cross-categorized groups of a higher ACR and eGFR compared to the reference group with an ACR <30 mg/g and eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that albuminuria was a significant risk factor for anemia in CKD patients independent of the eGFR.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139747PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4592200PMC
June 2016

Body mass index at age 18-20 and later risk of spontaneous abortion in the Health Examinees Study (HEXA).

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015 Sep 24;15:228. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Spontaneous abortion (SA) affects 11.2% of recognized pregnancies in Korea. Many studies have focused on the increased risk of SA in obese populations, but there are few studies that have focused on underweight (Body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2) women, especially in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the role of pre-pregnancy BMI at age 18-20 in later SA.

Methods: Among the women who were ever pregnant in the Health Examinees Study (HEXA), which was one of the cohorts studied in the KoGES (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study) from 2004 to 2012 (N = 80,447), the likelihood of SA based on pre-pregnancy BMI, classified by the criteria for Asians (Underweight: <18.5 kg/m2; Normal range: 18.5-22.9 kg/m2; Overweight at risk: 23-24.9 kg/m2; Obese I: 25-29.9 kg/m2; Obese II: ≥30 kg/m2), was presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression models.

Results: Being underweight or obese relative to the normal weight range was associated with a higher likelihood of SA (OR = 1.10 [95% CI = 1.05-1.15] in underweight women and OR = 1.06 [95% CI = 0.96-1.16] in obese women), and this effect was much greater in women who experienced recurrent SAs (for three or more SAs: OR = 1.29 [95% CI 1.14-1.46] in underweight women and OR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.09-1.78] in obese women). Obesity was associated with an increased likelihood of SA at a younger age (≤25 years), whereas underweight was associated with an increased OR of SA at an older age (≥26 years).

Discussion: As this study was conducted with baseline data of original cohort which focused on other chronic diseases, recall for previous pregnancy-related information might be less accurate. However, this study shows strength in its large size and prospective potential.

Conclusions: Pre-pregnancy BMI at ages 18-20 years revealed a U-shaped association with SA, and underweight and obese women showed increased likelihood for SA during different age periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0665-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4582827PMC
September 2015

Nomogram for sample size calculation on a straightforward basis for the kappa statistic.

Ann Epidemiol 2014 Sep 3;24(9):673-80. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Kappa is a widely used measure of agreement. However, it may not be straightforward in some situation such as sample size calculation due to the kappa paradox: high agreement but low kappa. Hence, it seems reasonable in sample size calculation that the level of agreement under a certain marginal prevalence is considered in terms of a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa value. Therefore, sample size formulae and nomograms using a simple proportion of agreement rather than a kappa under certain marginal prevalences are proposed.

Methods: A sample size formula was derived using the kappa statistic under the common correlation model and goodness-of-fit statistic. The nomogram for the sample size formula was developed using SAS 9.3.

Results: The sample size formulae using a simple proportion of agreement instead of a kappa statistic and nomograms to eliminate the inconvenience of using a mathematical formula were produced.

Conclusions: A nomogram for sample size calculation with a simple proportion of agreement should be useful in the planning stages when the focus of interest is on testing the hypothesis of interobserver agreement involving two raters and nominal outcome measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.06.097DOI Listing
September 2014

Attributable fraction of alcohol consumption on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in the Republic of Korea.

BMC Cancer 2014 Jun 10;14:420. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Division of Cancer Registration and Surveillance, National Cancer Center, Goyang, South Korea.

Background: In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population.

Methods: The cancer sites studied were those for which there is convincing evidence of a positive association with alcohol consumption: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx and female breast. Sex- and cancer-specific population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated based on: 1) the prevalence of alcohol drinkers among adults ≥ 20 years of age in 1989; 2) the average daily alcohol consumption (g/day) among drinkers in 1998; 3) relative risk (RR) estimates for the association between alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer incidence obtained either from a large Korean cohort study or, when more than one Korean study was available for a specific cancer site, meta-analyses were performed and the resulting meta-RRs were used; 4) national cancer incidence and mortality data from 2009.

Results: Among men, 3% (2,866 cases) of incident cancer cases and 2.8% (1,234 deaths) of cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol consumption. Among women, 0.5% (464 cancer cases) of incident cancers and 0.1% (32 deaths) of cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol consumption. In particular, the PAF for alcohol consumption in relation to oral cavity cancer incidence among Korean men was 29.3%, and the PAFs for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer incidence were 43.3% and 25.8%, respectively. Among Korean women, the PAF for colorectal cancer incidence was the highest (4.2%) and that for breast cancer incidence was only 0.2%. Avoiding alcohol consumption, or reducing it from the median of the highest 4th quartile of consumption (56.0 g/day for men, 28.0 g/day for women) to the median of the lowest quartile (2.80 g/day for men, 0.80 g/day for women), would reduce the burden of alcohol-related cancers in Korea.

Conclusions: A reduction in alcohol consumption would decrease the cancer burden and a significant impact is anticipated specifically for the cancers oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx among men in the Republic of Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-420DOI Listing
June 2014
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