Publications by authors named "Sue K Park"

254 Publications

Body mass index and type 2 diabetes and breast cancer survival: a Mendelian randomization study.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3921-3934. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan.

The causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer prognosis is still ambiguous. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic effect of BMI and T2D on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) among Asian individuals. In this two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, the instrumental variables (IVs) were identified using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) among 24,000 participants in the Taiwan Biobank. Importantly, the validity of these IVs was confirmed with a previous large-scale GWAS (Biobank Japan Project, BBJ). In this study, we found that a genetic predisposition toward higher BMI (as indicated by BMI IVs, F = 86.88) was associated with poor breast cancer DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.11; P < 0.001). Furthermore, higher level of genetically predicted T2D (as indicated by T2D IVs) was associated with an increased risk of recurrence of and mortality from breast cancer (HR = 1.43; P < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses, including the weighted-median approach, MR-Egger regression, Radial regression and Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) supported the consistency of our findings. Finally, the causal relationship between BMI and poor breast cancer prognosis was confirmed in a prospective cohort study. Our MR analyses demonstrated the causal relationship between the genetic prediction of elevated BMI and a greater risk of T2D with poor breast cancer prognosis. BMI and T2D have important clinical implications and may be used as prognostic indicators of breast cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414374PMC
August 2021

Impact of insulin therapy on the mortality of acute heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 09 8;20(1):180. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of heart failure (HF) than those without it. Approximately 40 % of HF patients have DM and they tend to have poorer outcomes than those without DM. This study evaluated the impact of insulin therapy on mortality among acute HF patients.

Methods: A total of 1740 patients from the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry with DM were included in this study. The risk of all-cause mortality according to insulin therapy was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard models with inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance the clinical characteristics (pretreatment covariates) between the groups.

Results: DM patients had been treated with either oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) alone (n = 620), insulin alone (n = 682), or insulin combined with OHAs (n = 438). The insulin alone group was associated with an increased mortality risk compared with the OHA alone group (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.21-1.66]). Insulin therapy combined with OHAs also showed an increased mortality risk (HR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.14-1.46) compared with the OHA alone group. Insulin therapy was consistently associated with increased mortality risk, regardless of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or HF etiology. A significant increase in mortality was observed in patients with good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.0 %) receiving insulin, whereas there was no significant association in patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%).

Conclusions: Insulin therapy was found to be associated with increased mortality compared to OHAs. The insulin therapy was harmful especially in patients with low HbA1c levels which may suggest the necessity of specific management strategies and blood sugar targets when using insulin in patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01370-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424885PMC
September 2021

Association of Sleep Duration With All- and Major-Cause Mortality Among Adults in Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2122837. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Importance: The association between long sleep duration and mortality appears stronger in East Asian populations than in North American or European populations.

Objectives: To assess the sex-specific association between sleep duration and all-cause and major-cause mortality in a pooled longitudinal cohort and to stratify the association by age and body mass index.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study of individual-level data from 9 cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2002. The final population included participants from Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea. Mean (SD) follow-up time was 14.0 (5.0) years for men and 13.4 (5.3) years for women. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2018, to May 31, 2021.

Exposures: Self-reported sleep duration, with 7 hours as the reference category.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mortality, including deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with shared frailty models adjusted for age and the key self-reported covariates of marital status, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, history of diabetes and hypertension, and menopausal status (for women).

Results: For 322 721 participants (mean [SD] age, 54.5 [9.2] years; 178 542 [55.3%] female), 19 419 deaths occurred among men (mean [SD] age of men, 53.6 [9.0] years) and 13 768 deaths among women (mean [SD] age of women, 55.3 [9.2] years). A sleep duration of 7 hours was the nadir for associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and other-cause mortality in both men and women, whereas 8 hours was the mode sleep duration among men and the second most common sleep duration among women. The association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was J-shaped for both men and women. The greatest association for all-cause mortality was with sleep durations of 10 hours or longer for both men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.44) and women (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.36-1.61). Sex was a significant modifier of the association between sleep duration and mortality from cardiovascular disease (χ25 = 13.47, P = .02), cancer (χ25 = 16.04, P = .007), and other causes (χ25 = 12.79, P = .03). Age was a significant modifier of the associations among men only (all-cause mortality: χ25 = 41.49, P < .001; cancer: χ25 = 27.94, P < .001; other-cause mortality: χ25 = 24.51, P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that sleep duration is a behavioral risk factor for mortality in both men and women. Age was a modifier of the association between sleep duration in men but not in women. Sleep duration recommendations in these populations may need to be considered in the context of sex and age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22837DOI Listing
September 2021

The Concept of Economic Evaluation and Its Application in Thyroid Cancer Research.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Aug 27;36(4):725-736. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Economic evaluation is a type of comparative analysis between interventions in terms of both their resource use and health outcomes. Due to the good prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC), the socioeconomic burden of TC patients post-diagnosis is increasing. Therefore, economic evaluation studies focusing on TC are recommended. This study aimed to describe the concept and methods of economic evaluation and reviewed previous TC studies. Several previous studies compared the costs of interventions or evaluated recurrence, complications, or quality of life as measures of their effectiveness. Regarding costs, most studies focused on direct costs and applied hypothetical models. Cost-minimization analysis should be distinguished from simple cost analysis. Furthermore, due to the universality of the term "cost-effectiveness analysis" (CEA), several studies have not distinguished CEA from cost-utility analysis; this point needs to be considered in future research. Cost-benefit analyses have not been conducted in previous TC research. Since TC has a high survival rate and good prognosis, the need for economic evaluations has recently been pointed out. Therefore, correct concepts and methods are needed to obtain clear economic evaluation results. On this basis, it will be possible to provide appropriate guidelines for TC treatment and management in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419602PMC
August 2021

Association of Blood Pressure with Cardiovascular Outcome and Mortality: Results from the KNOW-CKD Study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Optimal BP control is a major therapeutic strategy to reduce adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with CKD. We studied the association of BP with adverse cardiovascular outcome and all-cause death in patients with CKD.

Methods: Among 2,238 participants from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With CKD, 2,226 patients with baseline BP measurements were enrolled. Main predictor was SBP categorized by 5 levels: <110, 110-119, 120-129, 130-139, and ≥140 mmHg. Primary endpoint was a composite outcome of all-cause death or incident cardiovascular events. We primarily used marginal structural models using averaged and the most recent time-updated SBPs.

Results: During a median follow-up of 10233.79 person-years (median 4.60 years), the primary composite outcome occurred in 240 (10.8%) participants, with a corresponding incidence rate of 23.5 (95% CI, 20.7-26.6) per 1,000 patient-years. Marginal structural models with averaged SBP showed a U-shaped relationship with the primary outcome. Compared to time-updated SBP of 110-119 mmHg, hazard ratios (95% CI) for <110, 120-129, 130-139, and ≥140 mmHg were 2.47 (1.48-4.11), 1.29 (0.80-2.08), 2.15 (1.26-3.69), and 2.19 (1.19-4.01), respectively. Marginal structural models with the most recent SBP also showed similar findings.

Conclusions: In Korean patients with CKD, there was a U-shaped association of SBP with the risk of adverse clinical outcome. Our findings highlight the importance of BP control and suggest a potential hazard of SBP <110 mmHg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab257DOI Listing
September 2021

Coffee and tea consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective studies from the Asia Cohort Consortium.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that consuming coffee may lower the risk of death, but evidence regarding tea consumption in Asians is limited. We examined the association between coffee and tea consumption and mortality in Asian populations.

Methods: We used data from 12 prospective cohort studies including 248 050 men and 280 454 women from the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted in China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. We estimated the study-specific association of coffee, green tea and black tea consumption with mortality using Cox proportional-hazards regression models and the pooled study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using a random-effects model.

Results: In total, 94 744 deaths were identified during the follow-up, which ranged from an average of 6.5 to 22.7 years. Compared with coffee non-drinkers, men and women who drank at least five cups of coffee per day had a 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%, 29%] and a 28% (95% CI 19%, 37%) lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Similarly, we found inverse associations for coffee consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among both men and women. Green tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and other causes but not from cancer. The association of drinking green tea with CVD-specific mortality was particularly strong, with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.79 (0.68, 0.91) for men and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for women who drank at least five cups per day of green tea compared with non-drinkers. The association between black tea consumption and mortality was weak, with no clear trends noted across the categories of consumption.

Conclusions: In Asian populations, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death overall and with lower risks of death from CVD and cancer. Green tea consumption is associated with lower risks of death from all causes and CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab161DOI Listing
September 2021

Association between Iodine Intake, Thyroid Function, and Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Aug 11;36(4):790-799. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC).

Methods: A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression.

Results: Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels.

Conclusion: Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419609PMC
August 2021

The Korean Hypertension Cohort study: design and baseline characteristics.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 Sep 22;36(5):1115-1125. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA), Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients.

Methods: The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data.

Results: This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively.

Conclusion: The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435490PMC
September 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 07 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322933PMC
July 2021

The predictive ability of the 313 variant-based polygenic risk score for contralateral breast cancer risk prediction in women of European ancestry with a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

Methods: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS and CBC risk.

Results: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively.

Conclusion: The PRS can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Polypharmacy and the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 4;46(4):460-468. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Uijeongbu Eulji University Medical Center, Uijeongbu, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: The renal hazard of polypharmacy has never been evaluated in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

Objective: We aimed to analyze the renal hazard of polypharmacy in predialysis CKD patients with stage 1-5.

Method: The data of 2,238 patients from a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study (2011-2016), excluding 325 patients with various missing data, were reviewed. Polypharmacy was defined as taking 6 or more medications at the time of enrollment; renal events were defined as a ≥50% decrease in kidney function from baseline values, doubling of the serum creatinine levels, or initiation of renal replacement treatment. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis.

Results: Of the 1,913 patients, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 53.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean medication count was 4.1, and the prevalence of polypharmacy was 27.1%. During the average period of 3.6 years, 520 patients developed renal events (27.2%). Although increased medication counts were associated with increased renal hazard with HR (95% CI) of 1.056 (1.007-1.107, p = 0.025), even after adjusting for various confounders, adding comorbidity score and kidney function nullified the statistical significance. In mediation analysis, 55.6% (p = 0.016) of renal hazard in increased medication counts was mediated by the kidney function, and there was no direct effect of medication counts on renal event development. In subgroup analysis, the renal hazard of the medication counts was evident only in stage 1-3 of CKD patients (p for interaction = 0.014).

Conclusions: We cannot identify the direct renal hazard of multiple medications, and most of the potential renal hazard was derived from intimate relationship with disease burden and kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516029DOI Listing
June 2021

Gene-Environment Interactions Relevant to Estrogen and Risk of Breast Cancer: Can Gene-Environment Interactions Be Detected Only among Candidate SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies?

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.2 × 10). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.1 × 10). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156547PMC
May 2021

Low serum adiponectin level is associated with better physical health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease.

Sci Rep 2021 May 25;11(1):10928. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 29 Saemunan-ro, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 03181, Republic of Korea.

Hyperadiponectemia is paradoxically associated with renal disease progression and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Its association with health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is unknown. This study aimed to verify the association between adiponectin and HR-QOL in Korean pre-dialysis CKD cohort. This cross-sectional study analyzed 1551 pre-dialysis CKD patients from KNOW-CKD (KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease). Participants were categorized into three tertiles (T1-T3) according to adiponectin levels. HR-QOL was assessed using SF-36. High physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) were defined as highest quartile of each score. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for high PCS and MCS. Prevalence of high PCS were 33.3%, 27.5%, and 17.0% and that of high MCS were 31.7%, 24.8%, and 21.3% for T1, T2, and T3 (both p for trend < 0.001). The adjusted OR [95% CI] of T1 and T2 in reference to T3 were 1.56 [1.09-2.23] and 1.19 [0.85-1.68] for high PCS and 1.19 [0.85-1.68] and 0.94 [0.68-1.29] for high MCS. Serum adiponectin level was inversely associated with physical HR-QOL in Korean pre-dialysis CKD patients. This relationship was independent of various cardiovascular risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90339-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149720PMC
May 2021

A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial for Assessing the Usefulness of Suppressing Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Target Levels after Thyroid Lobectomy in Low to Intermediate Risk Thyroid Cancer Patients (MASTER): A Study Protocol.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Jun 26;36(3):574-581. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

Background: Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy.

Methods: This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years.

Conclusion: The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258337PMC
June 2021

Reduction in total and major cause-specific mortality from tobacco smoking cessation: a pooled analysis of 16 population-based cohort studies in Asia.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Little is known about the time course of mortality reduction following smoking cessation in Asians who have smoking behaviours distinct from their Western counterparts. We evaluated the level of reduction in all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung cancer mortality by years since quitting smoking, in Asia.

Methods: Using Cox regression, we analysed individual participant data (n = 709 151) from 16 prospective cohorts conducted in China, Japan, Korea/Singapore, and India/Bangladesh, separately by cohorts. Cohort-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 108 287 deaths were ascertained-35 658 from CVD and 7546 from lung cancer. Among Asian men, a dose-response relationship of risk reduction in deaths from all causes, CVD and lung cancer was observed with an increase in years after smoking cessation. Compared with never smokers, however, all-cause and CVD mortality among former smokers remained elevated 10-14 years after quitting [multivariable-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25 (1.13-1.37) and 1.20 (1.02-1.41), respectively]. Lung cancer mortality stayed almost 2-fold higher than among never smokers 15-19 years after smoking cessation [1.97 (1.41-2.73)], particularly among former heavy smokers [2.62 (1.71-4.00)]. Women who quitted for ≥5 years retained a significantly elevated mortality from all causes, CVD and lung cancer. Overall patterns of the cessation-mortality associations were similar across countries.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adverse effects of tobacco smoking persist for an extended time period, even for more than two decades, which is beyond the time windows defined in current clinical guidelines for risk assessment of lung cancer and CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab087DOI Listing
February 2021

High-Risk Population Based on BC Risk Factors.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:405-417

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of female cancers worldwide in 2018, followed by lung cancer, and the fifth fatal cancer, followed by lung, colorectal, gastric, and liver cancers. The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in Western women have been shown to decrease for a long period of time, while the incidence and mortality rates of Asian women are rapidly increasing. The incidence and mortality rates of BC in Western women have been changing to a recent decrease from a fluctuation in rates for a long time, while in Asian women, the incidence and mortality rates have increased rapidly. The secular changes in rates are mainly related to medical advancement in treatment or diagnosis for BC, and preventive management and policy in each country, but also to the change of risk factors in the population.In this chapter, we briefly review the epidemiologic characteristics of breast cancer reported so far and summarize the results for various risk factors of breast cancer. Moreover, we summarize the potential for risk modification in high-risk population of breast cancer with various risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9620-6_21DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance in the prospective Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8485. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Surgery, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk, Republic of Korea.

Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is crucial in diagnosing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes and has increased with the development of multigene panel tests. However, results classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS) present challenges to clinicians in attempting to choose an appropriate management plans. We reviewed a total of 676 breast cancer patients included in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study with a VUS on BRCA mutation tests between November 2007 and April 2013. These results were compared to the ClinVar database. We calculated the incidence and odds ratios for these variants using the Korean Reference Genome Database. A total of 58 and 91 distinct VUS in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified in the KOHBRA study (comprising 278 and 453 patients, respectively). A total of 27 variants in the KOHBRA study were not registered in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database. Among BRCA1 VUSs, 20 were reclassified as benign or likely benign, four were reclassified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and eight remained as VUSs according to the ClinVar database. Of the BRCA2 VUSs, 25 were reclassified as benign or likely benign, two were reclassified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and 33 remained as VUS according to the ClinVar database. There were 12 variants with conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity for BRCA1 and 18 for BRCA2. Among them, p.Leu1780Pro showed a particularly high odds ratio. Six pathogenic variants and one conflicting variant identified using ClinVar could be reclassified as pathogenic variants in this study. Using updated ClinVar information and calculating odds ratios can be helpful when reclassifying VUSs in BRCA1/2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87792-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055990PMC
April 2021

Rapid Weight Change Over Time Is a Risk Factor for Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Ren Nutr 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: Both obesity and being underweight are risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, the effects of longitudinal weight changes on patients with predialysis CKD have not yet been studied. In this study, we analyzed the effects of weight change over time on the adverse outcomes in predialysis CKD population.

Methods: Longitudinal data from a multicenter prospective cohort study (KNOW-CKD) were analyzed. In a total of 2,022 patients, the percent weight change per year were calculated using regression analysis and the study subjects were classified into five categories: group 1, ≤ -5%/year; group 2, -5< to ≤ -2.5%/year; group 3, -2.5< to <2.5%/year; group 4, 2.5≤ < 5%/year; and group 5, ≥5%/year. The incidences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death were calculated in each group and compared to group 3 as reference.

Results: During a median 4.4 years of follow-up, 414 ESRD, and 188 composite of CVD and mortality events occurred. Both weight gain and loss were independent risk factors for adverse outcomes. There was a U-shaped correlation between the degree of longitudinal weight change and ESRD (hazard ratio 3.61, 2.15, 1.86 and 3.66, for group 1, 2, 4 and 5, respectively) and composite of CVD and death (hazard ratio 2.92, 2.15, 1.73 and 2.54, respectively), when compared to the reference group 3. The U-shape correlation was most prominent in the subgroup of estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m.

Conclusion: Both rapid weight gain and weight loss are associated with high risk of adverse outcomes, particularly in the advanced CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2021.01.026DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic allergen sensitization with nasal septal deviation, often misdiagnosed as allergic rhinitis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is often defined based on symptoms accompanied by a positive allergen sensitivity test result. However, a positive skin prick test (SPT) does not always imply the occurrence of clinical symptoms. If an asymptomatic allergen-sensitized patient has nasal septal deviation (DSN) that could cause nasal obstruction, the condition could easily be confused with typical symptomatic AR. This study investigated the clinical and laboratory characteristics of asymptomatic allergen-sensitization with septal deviation (ASSD).

Methods: Patients from a nationwide AR cohort study, conducted in 8 university hospitals, were investigated. AR was diagnosed when there were at least 1 rhinitis symptom with a positive SPT result. The ASSD group included patients who had severe nasal obstruction with few other symptoms and a positive SPT, along with septal deviation. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between the ASSD group and the true AR group.

Results: In total, 728 patients were included. The average age was 32.2 ± 12.7 and 66% of the patients had DSN. SPT indicated that ASSD patients were less sensitized to house dust mite (p = 0.019 for Dp and p = 0.021 for Df). There was a significant sex difference: the male-to-female ratio was higher in the ASSD than in the AR group (3.59 vs. 1.77, p = 0.012). However, no statistically significant differences in age, family history, and body mass index were found.

Conclusion: ASSD can mimic AR. When dealing with allergen-sensitized patients with a predominant symptom of nasal obstruction, DSN might also be considered before confirming a diagnosis of AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06725-5DOI Listing
March 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Obesity measures at baseline, their trajectories over time, and the incidence of chronic kidney disease: A 14 year cohort study among Korean adults.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 03 5;31(3):782-792. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: We investigated the association of baseline obesity measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR), and their trajectories over time with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods And Results: Utilizing data from 2001 to 2014 for 9796 Korean adults without CKD at baseline, the association of baseline obesity measures with incident CKD was evaluated using logistic regression. Further, among 5605 subjects with repeated measures, the effect of the trajectories in obesity measures on CKD incidence was investigated via Cox regression. Baseline obesity in terms of BMI, WC, and HC increased the odds of incident CKD (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.33; OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.38; and OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41, respectively), while baseline WHR did not show such an association. A "became non-obese" BMI, WC, or WHR trajectory, and a "constantly not large" HC trajectory decreased the hazard of incident CKD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99; HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.92; HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.85; and HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95, respectively) when compared with a "constantly obese or became obese" trajectory.

Conclusion: Both baseline obesity and obesity trajectories over time were associated with CKD incidence. BMI and WC were equally good measures of CKD risk, while WHR was not. Separately examining WC and HC components of WHR (= WC/HC) may explain WHR's inconsistency, and WHR's usefulness as a measure of CKD risk should be reevaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.10.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611105PMC
February 2021

Incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in Korean patients with chronic kidney disease.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1131. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Few studies have investigated the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Asian chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This study assessed the incidence of CVD, death, and a composite outcome of CVD and death in a prospective Korean predialysis CKD cohort. From a total of 2179 patients, incidence rates were analyzed, and competing risk analyses were conducted according to CKD stage. Additionally, incidence was compared to the general population. During a median 4.1 years of follow-up, the incidence of CVD, all-cause death, and the composite outcome was 17.2, 9.6, and 24.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. These values were higher in diabetic vs. non-diabetic subjects (P < 0.001). For all outcomes, incidence rates increased with increasing CKD stage (CVD, P = 0.001; death, P < 0.001; and composite, P < 0.001). Additionally, CKD stage G4 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.8, P = 0.008] and G5 (HR 5.0, P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for the composite outcome compared to stage G1 after adjustment. Compared to the general population, the total cohort population (stages G1-G5) showed significantly higher risk of CVD (HR 2.4, P < 0.001) and the composite outcome (HR 1.7, P < 0.001). The results clearly demonstrate that CKD is a risk factor for CVD in an Asian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80877-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806882PMC
January 2021

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33445DOI Listing
December 2020

Association Between Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and the Risk of Lung Cancer Among Patients With Hypertension From the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort.

J Prev Med Public Health 2020 Dec 3;53(6):476-486. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of lung cancer in relation to angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) use among patients with hypertension from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hypertension who started to take antihypertensive medications and had a treatment period of at least 6 months. We calculated the weighted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer associated with ARB use compared with calcium channel blocker (CCB) use using inverse probability treatment weighting.

Results: Among a total of 60 469 subjects with a median follow-up time of 7.8 years, 476 cases of lung cancer were identified. ARB use had a protective effect on lung cancer compared with CCB use (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.96). Consistent findings were found in analyses considering patients who changed or discontinued their medication (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.77), as well as for women (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.93), patients without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.00), never-smokers (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.99), and non-drinkers (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.97). In analyses with different comparison antihypertensive medications, the overall protective effects of ARBs on lung cancer risk remained consistent.

Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that ARBs could decrease the risk of lung cancer. More evidence is needed to establish the causal effect of ARBs on the incidence of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733756PMC
December 2020

Causal Inference between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Breast Cancer in East Asian and European Population: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 5;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Previous studies have been reported that the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and breast cancer remains inconclusive. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis can reveal the potential causal association between exposure and outcome. A two-sample MR analysis using the penalized robust inverse variance weighted (PRIVW) method was performed to analyze the association between RA and breast cancer risk based on the summary statistics of six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) targeting RA in an East Asian population along with summary statistics of the BioBank Japan (BBJ), Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), and Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) targeting breast cancer. We found that the direction of the effect of RA on breast cancer varied among GWAS-summary data from BBJ, BCAC, and CIMBA. Significant horizontal pleiotropy based on a penalized robust MR-Egger regression was observed only for BBJ and CIMBA BRCA2 carriers. As the results of the two-sample MR analyses were inconsistent, the causal association between RA and breast cancer was inconclusive. The biological mechanisms explaining the relationship between RA and breast cancer were unclear in Asian as well as in Caucasians. Further studies using large-scale patient cohorts are required for the validation of these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694331PMC
November 2020

Isoflavone intake on the risk of overall breast cancer and molecular subtypes in women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Nov 17;184(2):615-626. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Interdisciplinary Program in Cancer Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: We investigated the association between isoflavone (ISF) intake and hereditary breast cancer (BC) risk, particularly by molecular subtype, in East-Asian BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers at a high risk of hereditary breast cancer (i.e., family history of BC (FHBC) and early-onset BC [EOBC, age < 40 years]).

Methods: The association between ISF intake and BC risk by molecular subtypes was assessed in 1709 participants (407 BRCA1/2 carriers, 585 FHBC non-carriers, 586 EOBC non-carriers, and 131 unaffected non-carriers) from the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer Study using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in weighted Cox regression models. Daily ISF intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We evaluated gene-environment interactions between BRCA1/2 mutation and ISF intake in 1604 BC cases by calculating the case-only odds ratios (CORs) and 95% CIs in logistic regression models.

Results: ISF intake was inversely associated with luminal A BC risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers and FHBC non-carriers (HR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04-0.50 for high intake [ISF intake ≥ 15.50 mg/day]; HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.69 for high intake, respectively). We observed a reduced risk of triple negative BC (TNBC) in BRCA1 carriers and FHBC non-carriers (HR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.02-0.40 for high intake; HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.05-0.69 for high intake, respectively). In the case-only design, an interaction between BRCA1 mutation carrier status and ISF intake emerged in TNBC patients (COR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16-0.95).

Conclusions: This study suggests that ISF intake is inversely associated with BC risk in women at high risk of hereditary BC and that the effect could differ by molecular subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05875-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Association between Use of Hydrochlorothiazide and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Common Data Model Cohort Study in Asian Population.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 9;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Although hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) has been suggested to increase skin cancer risk in white Westerners, there is scant evidence for the same in Asians. We analyzed the association between the use of hydrochlorothiazide and non-melanoma in the Asian population using the common data model.

Methods: A retrospective multicenter observational study was conducted using a distributed research network to analyze the effect of HCTZ on skin cancer from 2004 to 2018. We performed Cox regression to evaluate the effects by comparing the use of HCTZ with other antihypertensive drugs. All analyses were re-evaluated using matched data using the propensity score matching (PSM). Then, the overall effects were evaluated by combining results with the meta-analysis.

Results: Positive associations were observed in the use of HCTZ with high cumulative dose for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in univariate analysis prior to the use of PSM. Some negative associations were observed in the use of low and medium cumulative doses.

Conclusion: Although many findings in our study were inconclusive, there was a non-significant association of a dose-response pattern with estimates increasing in cumulative dose of HCTZ. In particular, a trend with a non-significant positive association was observed with the high cumulative dose of HCTZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563303PMC
September 2020
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