Publications by authors named "Sudhir Sahasrabudhe"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification and comparative analysis of hepatitis C virus-host cell protein interactions.

Mol Biosyst 2013 Dec 18;9(12):3199-209. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, RHPH 514, 575 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters the global behavior of the host cell to create an environment conducive to its own replication, but much remains unknown about how HCV proteins elicit these changes. Thus, a better understanding of the interface between the virus and host cell is required. Here we report the results of a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen to identify protein-protein interactions between HCV genotype 2a (strain JFH1) and cellular factors. Our study identified 112 unique interactions between 7 HCV and 94 human proteins, over 40% of which have been linked to HCV infection by other studies. These interactions develop a more complete picture of HCV infection, providing insight into HCV manipulation of pathways, such as lipid and cholesterol metabolism, that were previously linked to HCV infection and implicating novel targets within microtubule-organizing centers, the complement system and cell cycle regulatory machinery. In an effort to understand the relationship between HCV and related viruses, we compared the HCV 2a interactome to those of other HCV genotypes and to the related dengue virus. Greater overlap was observed between HCV and dengue virus targets than between HCV genotypes, demonstrating the value of parallel screening approaches when comparing virus-host cell interactomes. Using siRNAs to inhibit expression of cellular proteins, we found that five of the ten shared targets tested (CUL7, PCM1, RILPL2, RNASET2, and TCF7L2) were required for replication of both HCV and dengue virus. These shared interactions provide insight into common features of the viral life cycles of the family Flaviviridae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3mb70343fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4171131PMC
December 2013

An integrated approach to elucidate the intra-viral and viral-cellular protein interaction networks of a gamma-herpesvirus.

PLoS Pathog 2011 Oct 20;7(10):e1002297. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

School of Dentistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Genome-wide yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens were conducted to elucidate the molecular functions of open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). A library of 84 MHV-68 genes and gene fragments was generated in a Gateway entry plasmid and transferred to Y2H vectors. All possible pair-wise interactions between viral proteins were tested in the Y2H assay, resulting in the identification of 23 intra-viral protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Seventy percent of the interactions between viral proteins were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To systematically investigate virus-cellular protein interactions, the MHV-68 Y2H constructs were screened against a cellular cDNA library, yielding 243 viral-cellular PPIs involving 197 distinct cellar proteins. Network analyses indicated that cellular proteins targeted by MHV-68 had more partners in the cellular PPI network and were located closer to each other than expected by chance. Taking advantage of this observation, we scored the cellular proteins based on their network distances from other MHV-68-interacting proteins and segregated them into high (Y2H-HP) and low priority/not-scored (Y2H-LP/NS) groups. Significantly more genes from Y2H-HP altered MHV-68 replication when their expression was inhibited with siRNAs (53% of genes from Y2H-HP, 21% of genes from Y2H-LP/NS, and 16% of genes randomly chosen from the human PPI network; p<0.05). Enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms in the Y2H-HP group included regulation of apoptosis, protein kinase cascade, post-translational protein modification, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, and IκB kinase/NFκB cascade. Functional validation assays indicated that PCBP1, which interacted with MHV-68 ORF34, may be involved in regulating late virus gene expression in a manner consistent with the effects of its viral interacting partner. Our study integrated Y2H screening with multiple functional validation approaches to create γ-herpes viral-viral and viral-cellular protein interaction networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197595PMC
October 2011

A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2011 Dec 12;10(12):M111.012187. Epub 2011 Sep 12.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M111.012187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237087PMC
December 2011

A novel small molecule target in human airway smooth muscle for potential treatment of obstructive lung diseases: a staged high-throughput biophysical screening.

Respir Res 2011 Jan 13;12. Epub 2011 Jan 13.

Division of Physiology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Background: A newly identified mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation is the interaction between the small heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) and 14-3-3 proteins. Focusing upon this class of interactions, we describe here a novel drug target screening approach for treating airflow obstruction in asthma.

Methods: Using a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay, we screened a library of compounds that could act as small molecule modulators of HSP20 signals. We then applied two quantitative, cell-based biophysical methods to assess the functional efficacy of these molecules and rank-ordered their abilities to relax isolated human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Scaling up to the level of an intact tissue, we confirmed in a concentration-responsive manner the potency of the cell-based hit compounds.

Results: Among 58,019 compound tested, 268 compounds caused 20% or more reduction of the polarized emission in the FP assay. A small subset of these primary screen hits, belonging to two scaffolds, caused relaxation of isolated ASM cell in vitro and attenuated active force development of intact tissue ex vivo.

Conclusions: This staged biophysical screening paradigm provides proof-of-principle for high-throughput and cost-effective discovery of new small molecule therapeutic agents for obstructive lung diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1465-9921-12-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034681PMC
January 2011

A human MAP kinase interactome.

Nat Methods 2010 Oct;7(10):801-5

Departments of Medicine and Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways form the backbone of signal transduction in the mammalian cell. Here we applied a systematic experimental and computational approach to map 2,269 interactions between human MAPK-related proteins and other cellular machinery and to assemble these data into functional modules. Multiple lines of evidence including conservation with yeast supported a core network of 641 interactions. Using small interfering RNA knockdowns, we observed that approximately one-third of MAPK-interacting proteins modulated MAPK-mediated signaling. We uncovered the Na-H exchanger NHE1 as a potential MAPK scaffold, found links between HSP90 chaperones and MAPK pathways and identified MUC12 as the human analog to the yeast signaling mucin Msb2. This study makes available a large resource of MAPK interactions and clone libraries, and it illustrates a methodology for probing signaling networks based on functional refinement of experimentally derived protein-interaction maps.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967489PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1506DOI Listing
October 2010

A protein interaction network for Ecm29 links the 26 S proteasome to molecular motors and endosomal components.

J Biol Chem 2010 Oct 3;285(41):31616-33. Epub 2010 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

Ecm29 is a 200-kDa HEAT repeat protein that binds the 26 S proteasome. Genome-wide two-hybrid screens and mass spectrometry have identified molecular motors, endosomal components, and ubiquitin-proteasome factors as Ecm29-interacting proteins. The C-terminal half of human Ecm29 binds myosins and kinesins; its N-terminal region binds the endocytic proteins, Vps11, Rab11-FIP4, and rabaptin. Whereas full-length FLAG-Ecm29, its C-terminal half, and a small central fragment of Ecm29 remain bound to glycerol-gradient-separated 26 S proteasomes, the N-terminal half of Ecm29 does not. Confocal microscopy showed that Ecm-26 S proteasomes are present on flotillin-positive endosomes, but they are virtually absent from caveolin- and clathrin-decorated endosomes. Expression of the small central fragment of Ecm29 markedly reduces proteasome association with flotillin-positive endosomes. Identification of regions within Ecm29 capable of binding molecular motors, endosomal proteins, and the 26 S proteasome supports the hypothesis that Ecm29 serves as an adaptor for coupling 26 S proteasomes to specific cellular compartments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.154120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951235PMC
October 2010

Interaction of an atypical Plasmodium falciparum ETRAMP with human apolipoproteins.

Malar J 2008 Oct 20;7:211. Epub 2008 Oct 20.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355065, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Background: In order to establish a successful infection in the human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum must establish interactions with a variety of human proteins on the surface of different cell types, as well as with proteins inside the host cells. To better understand this aspect of malaria pathogenesis, a study was conducted with the goal of identifying interactions between proteins of the parasite and those of its human host.

Methods: A modified yeast two-hybrid methodology that preferentially selects protein fragments that can be expressed in yeast was used to conduct high-throughput screens with P. falciparum protein fragments against human liver and cerebellum libraries. The resulting dataset was analyzed to exclude interactions that are not likely to occur in the human host during infection.

Results: An initial set of 2,200 interactions was curated to remove proteins that are unlikely to play a role in pathogenesis based on their annotation or localization, and proteins that behave promiscuously in the two-hybrid assay, resulting in a final dataset of 456 interactions. A cluster that implicates binding between P. falciparum PFE1590w/ETRAMP5, a putative parasitophorous vacuole membrane protein, and human apolipoproteins ApoA, ApoB and ApoE was selected for further analysis. Different isoforms of ApoE, which are associated with different outcomes of malaria infection, were shown to display differential interactions with PFE1590w.

Conclusion: A dataset of interactions between proteins of P. falciparum and those of its human host was generated. The preferential interaction of the P. falciparum PFE1590w protein with the human ApoE epsilon3 and ApoE epsilon4 isoforms, but not the ApoE epsilon2 isoform, supports the hypothesis that ApoE genotype affects risk of malaria infection. The dataset contains other interactions of potential relevance to disease that may identify possible vaccine candidates and drug targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-7-211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2577112PMC
October 2008

RAS-RAF-MEK-dependent oxidative cell death involving voltage-dependent anion channels.

Nature 2007 Jun;447(7146):864-8

Department of Biological Sciences, Fairchild Center, 1212 Amsterdam Avenue, MC 2406, New York, New York 10027, USA.

Therapeutics that discriminate between the genetic makeup of normal cells and tumour cells are valuable for treating and understanding cancer. Small molecules with oncogene-selective lethality may reveal novel functions of oncoproteins and enable the creation of more selective drugs. Here we describe the mechanism of action of the selective anti-tumour agent erastin, involving the RAS-RAF-MEK signalling pathway functioning in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Erastin exhibits greater lethality in human tumour cells harbouring mutations in the oncogenes HRAS, KRAS or BRAF. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we discovered that erastin acts through mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs)--a novel target for anti-cancer drugs. We show that erastin treatment of cells harbouring oncogenic RAS causes the appearance of oxidative species and subsequent death through an oxidative, non-apoptotic mechanism. RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of VDAC2 or VDAC3 caused resistance to erastin, implicating these two VDAC isoforms in the mechanism of action of erastin. Moreover, using purified mitochondria expressing a single VDAC isoform, we found that erastin alters the permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Finally, using a radiolabelled analogue and a filter-binding assay, we show that erastin binds directly to VDAC2. These results demonstrate that ligands to VDAC proteins can induce non-apoptotic cell death selectively in some tumour cells harbouring activating mutations in the RAS-RAF-MEK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047570PMC
June 2007

Huntingtin interacting proteins are genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration.

PLoS Genet 2007 May;3(5):e82

Prolexys Pharmaceuticals, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to co-immunoprecipitate with full-length Htt from mouse brain. These studies demonstrate that high-throughput screening for protein interactions combined with genetic validation in a model organism is a powerful approach for identifying novel candidate modifiers of polyglutamine toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1866352PMC
May 2007

Genome-wide functional analysis of human cell-cycle regulators.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 Oct 25;103(40):14819-24. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, and Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Human cells have evolved complex signaling networks to coordinate the cell cycle. A detailed understanding of the global regulation of this fundamental process requires comprehensive identification of the genes and pathways involved in the various stages of cell-cycle progression. To this end, we report a genome-wide analysis of the human cell cycle, cell size, and proliferation by targeting >95% of the protein-coding genes in the human genome using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Analysis of >2 million images, acquired by quantitative fluorescence microscopy, showed that depletion of 1,152 genes strongly affected cell-cycle progression. These genes clustered into eight distinct phenotypic categories based on phase of arrest, nuclear area, and nuclear morphology. Phase-specific networks were built by interrogating knowledge-based and physical interaction databases with identified genes. Genome-wide analysis of cell-cycle regulators revealed a number of kinase, phosphatase, and proteolytic proteins and also suggests that processes thought to regulate G(1)-S phase progression like receptor-mediated signaling, nutrient status, and translation also play important roles in the regulation of G(2)/M phase transition. Moreover, 15 genes that are integral to TNF/NF-kappaB signaling were found to regulate G(2)/M, a previously unanticipated role for this pathway. These analyses provide systems-level insight into both known and novel genes as well as pathways that regulate cell-cycle progression, a number of which may provide new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0604320103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1595435PMC
October 2006

Initial large-scale exploration of protein-protein interactions in human brain.

Proc IEEE Comput Soc Bioinform Conf 2003 ;2:229-34

Myriad Proteomics, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84116, USA.

Study of protein interaction networks is crucial to post-genomic systems biology. Aided by high-throughput screening technologies, biologists are rapidly accumulating protein-protein interaction data. Using a random yeast two-hybrid (R2H) process, we have performed large-scale yeast two-hybrid searches with approximately fifty thousand random human brain cDNA bait fragments against a human brain cDNA prey fragment library. From these searches, we have identified 13,656 unique protein-protein interaction pairs involving 4,473 distinct known human loci. In this paper, we have performed our initial characterization of the protein interaction network in human brain tissue. We have classified and characterized all identified interactions based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of interacting loci. We have also described the "scale-free" topological structure of the network.
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August 2006

A protein interaction network of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Nature 2005 Nov;438(7064):103-7

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Box 357730, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria and kills up to 2.7 million people annually. Despite the global importance of P. falciparum, the vast majority of its proteins have not been characterized experimentally. Here we identify P. falciparum protein-protein interactions using a high-throughput version of the yeast two-hybrid assay that circumvents the difficulties in expressing P. falciparum proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From more than 32,000 yeast two-hybrid screens with P. falciparum protein fragments, we identified 2,846 unique interactions, most of which include at least one previously uncharacterized protein. Informatic analyses of network connectivity, coexpression of the genes encoding interacting fragments, and enrichment of specific protein domains or Gene Ontology annotations were used to identify groups of interacting proteins, including one implicated in chromatin modification, transcription, messenger RNA stability and ubiquitination, and another implicated in the invasion of host cells. These data constitute the first extensive description of the protein interaction network for this important human pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04104DOI Listing
November 2005

Phage display of functional human TNF-alpha converting enzyme catalytic domain: a rapid method for the production of stabilized proteolytic proteins for assay development and high-throughput screening.

J Biomol Screen 2002 Oct;7(5):433-40

Department of Functional Genomics, Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

The catalytic domain of human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) converting enzyme (TACE) was expressed in a phage display system to determine whether stable and active enzyme could be made for high-throughput screening (HTS). This would address many issues around screening of proteases in this class. The phage-displayed TACE catalytic domain (PDT) properly cleaved the fusion protein of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pro-TNF-alpha to generate the mature TNF-alpha in vitro. To determine the utility of the PDT in HTS, the authors further demonstrated that PDT was able to generate a strong reproducible fluorescence signal by cleaving a fluorogenic TNF-alpha-specific peptide in vitro. More important, the catalytic activity of the PDT was inhibited by a broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor but not by an MMP-I specific inhibitor, illustrating the potential utility of PDT for HTS. The PDT was also compared with baculovirus-expressed TACE (BET) in these assays to establish the relative efficacy of PDT. Both PDT and BET showed a similar specific cleavage profile against the defined substrates. Activity of the BET, however, was stable at 4 degrees C for less than 24 h. In contrast, the PDT exhibited remarkable stability, losing very little activity even after 2 years at 4 degrees C. On the basis of these results, the authors concluded that the phage display system might be a useful tool for expressing proteins that have stability issues related to auto-proteolytic activity. Furthermore, the ease and low cost of large-scale production of phage should make it suitable for assay development and HTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108705702237675DOI Listing
October 2002

Gene expression in lung adenocarcinomas of smokers and nonsmokers.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2003 Aug 21;29(2):157-62. Epub 2003 Feb 21.

Department of Medicine, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Adenocarcinoma (AC) has become the most frequent type of lung cancer in men and women, and is the major form of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Our goal in this paper was to determine if AC in smokers and nonsmokers represents the same genetic disease. We compared gene expression profiles in resected samples of nonmalignant lung tissue and tumor tissue in six never-smokers with AC and in six smokers with AC, who were matched for clinical staging and histologic criteria of cell differentiation. Results were analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic tools. Four times as many genes changed expression in the transition from noninvolved lung to tumor in nonsmokers as in smokers, suggesting that AC in nonsmokers evolves locally, whereas AC in smokers evolves in a field of genetically altered tissue. There were some similarities in gene expression in smokers and nonsmokers, but many differences, suggesting different pathways of cell transformation and tumor formation. Gene expression in the noninvolved lungs of smokers differed from that of nonsmokers, and multidimensional scaling showed that noninvolved lungs of smokers groups with tumors rather than noninvolved lungs of nonsmokers. In addition, expression of a number of genes correlated with smoking intensity. Our findings, although limited by small sample size, suggest that additional studies comparing noninvolved to tumor tissue may identify pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic targets that differ in AC of smokers and nonsmokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2002-0183RCDOI Listing
August 2003

A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).

Science 2002 Apr;296(5565):92-100

Torrey Mesa Research Institute, Syngenta, 3115 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The genome of the japonica subspecies of rice, an important cereal and model monocot, was sequenced and assembled by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled sequence covers 93% of the 420-megabase genome. Gene predictions on the assembled sequence suggest that the genome contains 32,000 to 50,000 genes. Homologs of 98% of the known maize, wheat, and barley proteins are found in rice. Synteny and gene homology between rice and the other cereal genomes are extensive, whereas synteny with Arabidopsis is limited. Assignment of candidate rice orthologs to Arabidopsis genes is possible in many cases. The rice genome sequence provides a foundation for the improvement of cereals, our most important crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1068275DOI Listing
April 2002