Publications by authors named "Sudeshna Bhattacharjya"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ecotoxicological effect of TiO nano particles on different soil enzymes and microbial community.

Ecotoxicology 2021 May 1;30(4):719-732. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

ICAR- Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, 462038, India.

TiO nano particles (NPs) are one of the most produced nanoparticles in the world which are increasingly being released in to the soil. Soils are exposed to various level of concentration of TiO NPs, which has raised concern over the adverse influence on soil microbial community, in turn on ecosystem functions. Although, increasing number of studies on ecotoxicological effect of TiO NPs are coming up recently, however, a common conscience has yet to be reached regarding the impact of TiO NPs on soil microbial community and processes. Moreover, very few studies have targeted soil enzymes which are being considered as sensitive indicator of soil health. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to estimate the ecotoxicological effect of various doses of TiO NPs (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100 mg kg soil) on different soil enzymes and microbial community structure. Results revealed that soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass had a uniform trend where the value increased up to the dose of 20 mg TiO NPs kg soil and there onwards reduced drastically up to 100 mg TiO NPs kg soil dose. On the contrary, soil respiration and metabolic quotient kept increasing up to 100 mg TiO NPs kg soil dose indicating sub-lethal stress on microbial community. Nevertheless, the structure of microbial community had slightly different trend where the biomass of total phospho lipid fatty acid (PLFA), Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria, fungi, actinomyctetes and anaerobes were found to be increased up to dose of 80 mg TiO NPs kg soil, but, significantly declined at 100 mg TiO NPs kg soil dose. Furthermore, temperature effect on TiO NPs toxicity had exhibited a less negative impact at 40 °C rather than at 25 °C. In addition alteration index (AI3), an integrated indicator of C, N, P cycling of soils as well as a well-documented indicator of soil pollution, has been found to be regulated by soil respiration, clay content, anaerobe and eukaryote for AI3-Acid Phos. and by fungi to bacteria ratio, soil respiration, microbial biomass and Gram positive bacteria for AI3-Alk. Phos. Overall, the study provided valuable information regarding ecotoxicological impact of environmentally relevant concentrations of TiO NPs in clay loam soils as well as improved our perception regarding the impact of NPs on soil functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02398-2DOI Listing
May 2021

In situ decomposition of crop residues using lignocellulolytic microbial consortia: a viable alternative to residue burning.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, 462038, India.

Open field burning of crop residue causes severe air pollution and greenhouse gas emission contributing to global warming. In order to seek an alternative, the current study was initiated to explore the prospective of lignocellulolytic microbes to expedite in situ decomposition of crop residues. Field trials on farmers' field were conducted in the state of Haryana and Maharashtra, to target the burning of rice and wheat residue and sugarcane trash, respectively. A comparative study among crop residue removal (CRR), crop residue burning (CRB) and in situ decomposition of crop residues (IND) revealed that IND of rice and wheat residues took 30 days whereas IND of sugarcane trash took 45 days. The decomposition status was assessed by determining the initial and final lignin to cellulose ratio which increased significantly from 0.23 to 0.25, 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.24 to 0.27 for rice, wheat residues and sugarcane trash, respectively. No yield loss was noticed in IND for both rice-wheat system and sugarcane-based system; rather IND showed relatively better crop yield as well as soil health parameters than CRB and CRR. Furthermore, the environmental impact assessment of residue burning indicated a substantial loss of nutrients (28-31, 23-25 and 51-77 kg ha of N+PO+KO for rice, wheat and sugarcane residue) as well as the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. However, more field trials, as well as refinement of the technology, are warranted to validate and establish the positive potential of in situ decomposition of crop residue to make it a successful solution against the crop residue burning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12611-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Thermophilic ligno-cellulolytic fungi: The future of efficient and rapid bio-waste management.

J Environ Manage 2019 Aug 20;244:144-153. Epub 2019 May 20.

Former Member, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, 110001, India.

To accelerate the process of decomposition using consortia of thermophilic ligno-cellulolytic fungi, different crop residues viz. sorghum (SG), soybean (SS), maize (MS), sugarcane (SC), cotton (CS) and pigeon pea (PS) with a varied C:N ratio and sawdust (SD) having high lignin content were collected and used for decomposition process. Compost quality assessed by evaluating different maturity and stability indices at five succeeding stages [first mesophilic (M1), thermophilic (T), second mesophilic (M2), cooling (C) and humification (H)]. A significant reduction was observed in the C:N ratio, biodegradability index, nitrification index, ratio of water-soluble carbon to organic nitrogen (WSC/Org.N) with an increase in concomitant over time while Ash (%), organic matter loss (%), CEC/TOC ratio, cellulose biodegradation ratio (BR) and lignin/cellulose ratio were significantly increased with time. By correlation study, biodegradability index (BI) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis emerged as the most suitable compost maturity and stability parameters, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) results confirmed that BI, BR, WSC/Org. N and FDA can be regarded as key indicators for assessing compost quality. Our findings conclude that fungal consortia of Tricoderma viride, Rhizomucor pusillus, Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus flavus can accelerate decomposition time from 8 to 12 months (which is normal farming practice) to 120 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.015DOI Listing
August 2019
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