Publications by authors named "Suchitra Rao"

41 Publications

IVIG Compared to IVIG Plus Infliximab in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

Pediatrics 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-052702DOI Listing
September 2021

Weight Status and Risk of Inpatient Admission for Children With Lower Respiratory Tract Disease.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington.

Objectives: To identify associations between weight category and hospital admission for lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), defined as asthma, community-acquired pneumonia, viral pneumonia, or bronchiolitis, among children evaluated in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children 2 to <18 years of age evaluated in the PED at 6 children's hospitals within the PEDSnet clinical research network from 2009 to 2019. BMI percentile of children was classified as underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and class 1, 2, or 3 obesity. Children with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between BMI categories and hospitalization or 7- and 30-day PED revisits, adjusted for covariates (age, sex, race and ethnicity, and payer).

Results: Among 107 446 children with 218 180 PED evaluations for LRTD, 4.5% had underweight, 56.4% had healthy normal weight, 16.1% had overweight, 14.6% had class 1 obesity, 5.5% had class 2 obesity, and 3.0% had class 3 obesity. Underweight was associated with increased risk of hospital admission compared with normal weight (odds ratio [OR] 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-1.84). Overweight (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.85-0.90), class 1 obesity (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.85-0.91), and class 2 obesity (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.87-0.96) had negative associations with hospital admission. Class 1 and class 2, but not class 3, obesity had small positive associations with 7- and 30-day PED revisits.

Conclusions: We found an inverse relationship between patient weight category and risk for hospital admission in children evaluated in the PED for LRTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2021-005975DOI Listing
December 2021

Effectiveness of 2-Dose Vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults - Nine States, January-September 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Nov 5;70(44):1553-1559. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might not acquire the same level of protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as do immunocompetent adults (3,4). To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) among immunocompromised adults, data from the VISION Network* on hospitalizations among persons aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness from 187 hospitals in nine states during January 17-September 5, 2021 were analyzed. Using selected discharge diagnoses, VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization conferred by completing a 2-dose series of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine ≥14 days before the index hospitalization date (i.e., being fully vaccinated) was evaluated using a test-negative design comparing 20,101 immunocompromised adults (10,564 [53%] of whom were fully vaccinated) and 69,116 immunocompetent adults (29,456 [43%] of whom were fully vaccinated). VE of 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was lower among immunocompromised patients (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74%-80%) than among immunocompetent patients (90%; 95% CI = 89%-91%). This difference persisted irrespective of mRNA vaccine product, age group, and timing of hospitalization relative to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance in the state of hospitalization. VE varied across immunocompromising condition subgroups, ranging from 59% (organ or stem cell transplant recipients) to 81% (persons with a rheumatologic or inflammatory disorder). Immunocompromised persons benefit from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination but are less protected from severe COVID-19 outcomes than are immunocompetent persons, and VE varies among immunocompromised subgroups. Immunocompromised persons receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should receive 3 doses and a booster, consistent with CDC recommendations (5), practice nonpharmaceutical interventions, and, if infected, be monitored closely and considered early for proven therapies that can prevent severe outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7044e3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8568092PMC
November 2021

Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19-Like Illness with Infection-Induced or mRNA Vaccine-Induced SARS-CoV-2 Immunity - Nine States, January-September 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Nov 5;70(44):1539-1544. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7044e1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8568091PMC
November 2021

IVIG Compared to IVIG Plus Infliximab in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

Pediatrics 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-052702DOI Listing
September 2021

Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines in Ambulatory and Inpatient Care Settings.

N Engl J Med 2021 10 8;385(15):1355-1371. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Response Team, Atlanta (M.G.T., C.H.B., S. Reynolds, J.F., P.P., E.P.G., R.M.P., L.B., A.S., N.O., S.J.S., J.R.V., A.F., E.A.-B.); the Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City (E.S., K.D., N.G., J.A.); the Center for Biomedical Informatics, Regenstrief Institute (S.G., B.E.D., W.F.F., N.R.V.), Indiana University School of Medicine (S.G.), and Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health (B.E.D., W.F.F., N.R.V.) - all in Indianapolis; Westat, Rockville, MD (S.W.B., R.J.B., M.E.L., E.A.R., M.D., Y.Z., P.S.); the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Center for Health Research, Portland, OR (A.L.N., S.A.I.); the Department of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado, Aurora (T.C.O., S. Rao, M.B.); HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis (M.B.D., E.K.); the Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center (K.N., J.H.), and New York-Presbyterian Hospital (K.N.) - both in New York; the Vaccine Study Center, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland (N.L., K.G., B.F., O.Z., N.P.K.); and Baylor Scott and White Health, Texas A&M University College of Medicine, Temple, TX (M.G.).

Background: There are limited data on the effectiveness of the vaccines against symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) currently authorized in the United States with respect to hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or ambulatory care in an emergency department or urgent care clinic.

Methods: We conducted a study involving adults (≥50 years of age) with Covid-19-like illness who underwent molecular testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We assessed 41,552 admissions to 187 hospitals and 21,522 visits to 221 emergency departments or urgent care clinics during the period from January 1 through June 22, 2021, in multiple states. The patients' vaccination status was documented in electronic health records and immunization registries. We used a test-negative design to estimate vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated patients with those among unvaccinated patients. Vaccine effectiveness was adjusted with weights based on propensity-for-vaccination scores and according to age, geographic region, calendar time (days from January 1, 2021, to the index date for each medical visit), and local virus circulation.

Results: The effectiveness of full messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (≥14 days after the second dose) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 91) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization, 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) against infection leading to an ICU admission, and 91% (95% CI, 89 to 93) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. The effectiveness of full vaccination with respect to a Covid-19-associated hospitalization or emergency department or urgent care clinic visit was similar with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines and ranged from 81% to 95% among adults 85 years of age or older, persons with chronic medical conditions, and Black or Hispanic adults. The effectiveness of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 79) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization and 73% (95% CI, 59 to 82) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit.

Conclusions: Covid-19 vaccines in the United States were highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization, ICU admission, or an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. This vaccine effectiveness extended to populations that are disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2110362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8451184PMC
October 2021

SARS-CoV-2 persistence in immunocompromised children.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 12 28;68(12):e29277. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases and Hospital Medicine and Epidemiology), University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Objectives: We evaluated the length of time immunocompromised children (ICC) remain positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identified factors associated with viral persistence, and determined cycle threshold (C ) values of children with viral persistence as a surrogate of viral load.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ICC at a pediatric hospital from March 2020 to March 2021. Immunocompromised status was defined as primary, secondary, or acquired due to medical comorbidities/immunosuppressive treatment. The primary outcome was time to first of two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests at least 24 hours apart. Testing of sequential clinical specimens from the same subject was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2019-nCoV real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR Diagnostic Panel assay. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier curve median event times and log-rank tests were used to compare outcomes between groups.

Results: Ninety-one children met inclusion criteria. Median age was 15.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8-18), 64% were male, 58% were White, and 43% were Hispanic/Latinx. Most (67%) were tested in outpatient settings and 58% were asymptomatic. The median time to two negative tests was 42 days (IQR 25.0-55.0), with no differences in median time by illness presentation or level of immunosuppression. Seven children had more than one sample available for repeat testing, and five of seven (71%) children had initial C values of <30 (moderate to high viral load); four children had C values of <30, 3-4 weeks later, suggesting persistent moderate to high viral loads.

Conclusions: Most ICC with SARS-CoV-2 infection had mild disease, with prolonged viral persistence >6 weeks and moderate to high viral load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29277DOI Listing
December 2021

Effect of Rapid Respiratory Virus Testing on Antibiotic Prescribing Among Children Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Respiratory Illness: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2111836. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology), University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora.

Importance: There is high usage of antibiotics in the emergency department (ED) for children with acute respiratory illnesses. Studies have reported decreased antibiotic use among inpatients with rapid respiratory pathogen (RRP) testing.

Objective: To determine whether RRP testing leads to decreased antibiotic use and health care use among children with influenzalike illness (ILI) in an ED.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A randomized clinical trial among children aged 1 month to 18 years presenting to an ED with ILI from December 1, 2018, to November 30, 2019, was conducted. Data were analyzed March 23, 2020, to April 2, 2021. All children received a nasopharyngeal swab for RRP testing and were randomized 1:1 to the intervention group or control group (results not given, routine clinical care). Results were available in 45 minutes. Intention-to-treat analyses and modified intention-to-treat (clinician knows results) analyses were conducted using multivariable Poisson regression.

Interventions: Rapid respiratory pathogen test results given to clinicians.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Antibiotic prescribing was the primary outcome; influenza antiviral prescribing, ED length of stay, hospital admission, and recurrent health care visits were the secondary outcomes.

Results: Among 931 ED visits (intervention group, 452 children group and control group, 456 children after exclusion of those not meeting criteria or protocol violations), a total of 795 RRP test results (85%) were positive. The median age of the children was 2.1 years (interquartile range, 0.9-5.6 years); 509 (56%) were boys. Most children (478 [53%]) were Hispanic, 688 children (76%) received government insurance, and 314 (35%) had a high-risk medical condition. In the intention-to-treat intervention group, children were more likely to receive antibiotics (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7), with no significant differences in antiviral prescribing, medical visits, and hospitalization. In inverse propensity-weighted modified intention-to-treat analyses, children with test results known were more likely to receive antivirals (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5) and be hospitalized (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5); there was no significant difference in antibiotic prescribing (RR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4).

Conclusions And Relevance: The use of RRP testing in the ED for ILI did not decrease antibiotic prescribing in this randomized clinical trial. There is a limited role for RRP pathogen testing in children in this setting.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03756753.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178728PMC
June 2021

Assessment of 135 794 Pediatric Patients Tested for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Across the United States.

JAMA Pediatr 2021 02;175(2):176-184

Applied Clinical Research Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Importance: There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and infection among pediatric patients across the United States.

Objective: To describe testing for SARS-CoV-2 and the epidemiology of infected patients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic health record data from 135 794 patients younger than 25 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from January 1 through September 8, 2020. Data were from PEDSnet, a network of 7 US pediatric health systems, comprising 6.5 million patients primarily from 11 states. Data analysis was performed from September 8 to 24, 2020.

Exposure: Testing for SARS-CoV-2.

Main Outcomes And Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness.

Results: A total of 135 794 pediatric patients (53% male; mean [SD] age, 8.8 [6.7] years; 3% Asian patients, 15% Black patients, 11% Hispanic patients, and 59% White patients; 290 per 10 000 population [range, 155-395 per 10 000 population across health systems]) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 5374 (4%) were infected with the virus (12 per 10 000 population [range, 7-16 per 10 000 population]). Compared with White patients, those of Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity had lower rates of testing (Black: odds ratio [OR], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.68-0.72]; Hispanic: OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.63-0.67]; Asian: OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.57-0.63]); however, they were significantly more likely to have positive test results (Black: OR, 2.66 [95% CI, 2.43-2.90]; Hispanic: OR, 3.75 [95% CI, 3.39-4.15]; Asian: OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.69-2.48]). Older age (5-11 years: OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.13-1.38]; 12-17 years: OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.73-2.12]; 18-24 years: OR, 3.51 [95% CI, 3.11-3.97]), public payer (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.31-1.57]), outpatient testing (OR, 2.13 [1.86-2.44]), and emergency department testing (OR, 3.16 [95% CI, 2.72-3.67]) were also associated with increased risk of infection. In univariate analyses, nonmalignant chronic disease was associated with lower likelihood of testing, and preexisting respiratory conditions were associated with lower risk of positive test results (standardized ratio [SR], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.84]). However, several other diagnosis groups were associated with a higher risk of positive test results: malignant disorders (SR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.19-1.93]), cardiac disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.05-1.32]), endocrinologic disorders (SR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.31-1.75]), gastrointestinal disorders (SR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.04-1.38]), genetic disorders (SR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.40]), hematologic disorders (SR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.47]), musculoskeletal disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.07-1.30]), mental health disorders (SR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]), and metabolic disorders (SR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.24-1.61]). Among the 5374 patients with positive test results, 359 (7%) were hospitalized for respiratory, hypotensive, or COVID-19-specific illness. Of these, 99 (28%) required intensive care unit services, and 33 (9%) required mechanical ventilation. The case fatality rate was 0.2% (8 of 5374). The number of patients with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease in early 2020 was 40% lower (259 vs 433 and 430) than in 2018 or 2019.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this large cohort study of US pediatric patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were low, and clinical manifestations were typically mild. Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity; adolescence and young adulthood; and nonrespiratory chronic medical conditions were associated with identified infection. Kawasaki disease diagnosis is not an effective proxy for multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684518PMC
February 2021

Evaluation of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Among Young Children Receiving Consecutive Versus Nonconsecutive Vaccination During Influenza A(H3N2)-Predominant Seasons.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Apr;10(3):359-362

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

A test-negative case-control analysis of 1478 children aged 6 months to 8 years of age seeking care at an emergency/urgent care setting with influenza like illness during the 2016-17 and 2018-19 (H3N2 predominant) influenza seasons demonstrated that influenza vaccine effectiveness did not vary significantly by the prior seasons' vaccination status.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02979626.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023305PMC
April 2021

Evaluating the ALERT algorithm for local outbreak onset detection in seasonal infectious disease surveillance data.

Stat Med 2020 04 27;39(8):1145-1155. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Estimation of epidemic onset timing is an important component of controlling the spread of seasonal infectious diseases within community healthcare sites. The Above Local Elevated Respiratory Illness Threshold (ALERT) algorithm uses a threshold-based approach to suggest incidence levels that historically have indicated the transition from endemic to epidemic activity. In this paper, we present the first detailed overview of the computational approach underlying the algorithm. In the motivating example section, we evaluate the performance of ALERT in determining the onset of increased respiratory virus incidence using laboratory testing data from the Children's Hospital of Colorado. At a threshold of 10 cases per week, ALERT-selected intervention periods performed better than the observed hospital site periods (2004/2005-2012/2013) and a CUSUM method. Additional simulation studies show how data properties may effect ALERT performance on novel data. We found that the conditions under which ALERT showed ideal performance generally included high seasonality and low off-season incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169531PMC
April 2020

Incidence and Clinical Outcomes of Streptococcus anginosus in Acute Complicated Sinusitis: A Pediatric Cohort.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Mar;10(2):168-171

Department of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases, Hospital Medicine and Epidemiology), University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 160 hospitalized children admitted for acute complicated sinusitis and compared children with S anginosus-associated infection to children with other or no pathogens identified. The incidence of S anginosus-associated infections increased 12% per year, and infections with S anginosus are associated with increased morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996638PMC
March 2021

Be inFLUential: Evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to increase influenza vaccination rates among pediatric inpatients.

Vaccine 2020 02 18;38(6):1370-1377. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background And Objective: Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for individual ≥6 months of age, yet vaccination rates remain below national targets in the US. Hospitalization provides another medical setting for influenza vaccination, but the effectiveness of inpatient interventions has not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention to increase influenza vaccination rates among pediatric inpatients.

Methods: We conducted a pre-post interventional study on medical inpatient units at Children's Hospital Colorado from September 2016-April 2017 (pre-intervention) and September 2017-April 2018 (intervention). The intervention targeted nurses (web-based education modules, huddles and reminders) and providers (vaccination lists in the electronic health record, reminders, vaccination reports and financial incentives for residents). Outcomes were influenza vaccine ordering rates, and influenza vaccination rates at discharge. We analyzed data using descriptive statistics, bivariate and logistic regression.

Results: Among 4,050 inpatients in 2016-2017 and 4,523 inpatients in 2017 aged ≥ 6 months, vaccination status was documented for 2,902/4,050 (71.7%) and 3,431/4,523 (75.9%) children aged > 6 months of age hospitalized during the study period. The vaccine ordering rate among eligible children was 28.8% in the pre-intervention season versus 50.2% in the intervention season (p < 0.001). The intervention was associated with 1.23 (95% CI 1.11-1.35) times higher odds of appropriate vaccination screening on admission, 2.27 (95% CI 2.01-2.56) times higher odds of a vaccination being ordered, and 1.39 (95% CI 1.27-1.53) times higher odds of a child being vaccinated against influenza at discharge (all p < 0.001). Residents (56%) and medical providers (39%) were more likely to order vaccines compared with nurses (5%), p = 0.014).

Conclusion: A multifaceted intervention targeting nurses, residents and providers comprising education, visual reminders, vaccination reports and financial incentives is an effective way of improving influenza vaccine ordering, resulting in higher inpatient influenza vaccination rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.010DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of a New Clinical Endpoint for Moderate to Severe Influenza Disease in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 Sep;9(4):460-467

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: A moderate to severe (M/S) influenza clinical endpoint has been proposed in children, defined as fever >39°C, otitis media, lower respiratory tract infection, or serious extrapulmonary manifestations. The objective of the study was to evaluate the M/S measure against clinically relevant outcomes including hospitalization, emergency room visits, antimicrobial use, and child/parental absenteeism.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of children aged 6 months-8 years at the Children's Hospital Colorado emergency department (ED) and urgent care site during 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Children with influenza-like illness (ILI) underwent influenza testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); children who tested positive and a subset of matched test-negative controls underwent follow-up at 2 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of children who were hospitalized. Secondary outcomes included recurrent ED visits, antimicrobial use, hospital charges, and child/parental absenteeism within 14 days.

Results: Among 1478 children enrolled with ILI, 411 (28%) tested positive for influenza by PCR. Of children with influenza illness, 313 (76%) met the M/S definition. Children with M/S influenza were younger (3.8 years vs 4.8 years), infected with influenza A (59% vs 44%), and more frequently hospitalized (unadjusted risk difference [RD], 6.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-10.4; P = .03) and treated with antibiotics (unadjusted RD, 13.3%; 95% CI, 4.3-22.4; P < .01) compared to those with mild disease.

Conclusions: Children with M/S influenza have a higher risk of hospitalization and antibiotic use compared with mild disease. This proposed definition may be a useful clinical endpoint to study the public health and clinical impact of influenza interventions in children.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02979626.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495912PMC
September 2020

What can we learn about influenza infection and vaccination from transcriptomics?

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 22;15(11):2615-2623. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Medicine, Pathology and Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Transcriptomics studies the set of RNA transcripts produced by the genome using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics. This growing field has revolutionized our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, revealing new insights into the host response to influenza infection and vaccination. Studies using transcriptomics have identified a unique immunosignature for influenza discernable from other bacterial and viral pathogens, key transcriptional factors that discriminate early from late, mild versus severe, and symptomatic versus asymptomatic infection. Recent studies evaluating the host response to influenza vaccines have revealed key differences in live versus inactivated influenza vaccines, identified early transcriptional signatures that predict hemagglutinin antibody production following vaccination, increased our understanding of how adjuvants enhance the immune response to influenza vaccine antigens, and demonstrate biologic variability in the response to vaccination due to host factors. These studies demonstrate the potential for influenza transcriptomics to be applied to clinical care, understanding the mechanisms of infection, and informing vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1608744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930070PMC
May 2020

A population-based study of maternal and infant factors influencing influenza vaccination among young children born in Colorado from 2008 to 2016.

Vaccine 2019 02 2;37(10):1293-1298. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado and Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, Aurora, CO, USA.

Introduction: Influenza causes significant morbidity among young children, and vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent disease. Understanding factors influencing early influenza vaccination uptake are important to identify strategies to increase vaccination rates.

Objective: To assess maternal and neonatal factors associated with influenza vaccination among first-born children within the first two years of life.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study linking Colorado Birth Registry data and state immunization data of all live births between 2008 and 2016. The cohort was limited to singleton, first births. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal and neonatal factors and influenza vaccination.

Results: Among 126,763 births meeting criteria for inclusion, 50.2% were vaccinated against influenza by two years of age. Mothers of unvaccinated children were older (27 vs 26 years, p < 0.0001), married (67.8% vs 66.8%, p < 0.0001), with a college education (38.8% vs 37.2%, p < 0.0001). Influenza vaccination rates declined over time by birth year (30.5% in 2009 vs 6.8% in 2013, p < 0.0001). Children admitted to the NICU receiving oxygen with 72 h of birth were 20% less likely to be vaccinated (RR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.67-0.96) after adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education and preterm birth. Conversely, premature births were associated with an increase in influenza vaccination by age two years (RR = 1.1, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.15).

Conclusions: Among a large population-based cohort of mother-infant pairs in Colorado using birth and immunization registry data, there were statistically significant differences in maternal factors between unvaccinated and vaccinated children with influenza in the first 2 years of life, but the differences were too small to be clinically significant. Children admitted to the NICU were 20% less likely to be vaccinated, highlighting the need to target influenza vaccination in this population once eligible. Ongoing studies are needed to explore factors associated with early influenza vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.054DOI Listing
February 2019

The Power of the Nudge to Decrease Decision Fatigue and Increase Influenza Vaccination Rates.

JAMA Netw Open 2018 09 7;1(5):e181754. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Aurora.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.1754DOI Listing
September 2018

Neurologic Manifestations of Influenza A(H3N2) Infection in Children During the 2016-2017 Season.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 Feb;9(1):71-74

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora.

Among 182 children with influenza infection in 2016-2017, 18% had neurologic manifestations of influenza (NMI), including seizures and encephalopathy; 85% of these children were infected with the H3N2 strain. Children with NMI had 3.5-times-higher odds of having a neurologic comorbidity than those without NMI and a 10-fold increased odds of hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317155PMC
February 2020

Evaluating Interventions to Increase Influenza Vaccination Rates among Pediatric Inpatients.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e102. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Pediatrics (Hospital Medicine), University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colo.

Introduction: Hospitalization provides an ideal opportunity for influenza vaccination, and strategies can enhance existing tools within the electronic medical record (EMR). The objectives of the study were to introduce and evaluate the effectiveness of provider and family-directed interventions to increase influenza vaccination ordering among inpatients.

Methods: We conducted a quality improvement initiative for children aged older than 6 months on medical inpatient teams at a large pediatric tertiary care hospital from September 2014 to March 2015, comprising 2 intervention groups (provider reminders and family education) and 1 control group for comparison, using EMR prompts alone. The provider reminder interventions comprised weekly e-mails indicating inpatient immunization status; vaccination reports; and visual reminders. The family education group intervention consisted of handouts regarding the benefits and safety of influenza vaccination. We measured vaccine ordering rates for each group among eligible children and overall vaccination rates. Data were analyzed using Statistical Process Control Charts and Chi-square tests.

Results: Among 2,552 patients aged older than 6 months hospitalized during the study period, 1,657 were unimmunized. During the intervention period, the provider group ordered 213/409 (52%) influenza vaccines, the family education group ordered 138/460 (30%) and the control group ordered 71/279 (25%) ( < 0.0001). The provider group had higher influenza immunization status than the control group (61% versus 53%; = 0.0017). Exposure to the intervention did not impact the length of stay/discharge time.

Conclusions: Provider reminders including e-mails, visual reminders, and vaccination reports are effective ways of increasing inpatient influenza vaccination rates and are more effective than family education, or EMR prompts alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221588PMC
September 2018

Analysis of solid tumor mutation profiles in liquid biopsy.

Cancer Med 2018 11 27;7(11):5439-5447. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Strand Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Liquid biopsy is increasingly gaining traction as an alternative to invasive solid tumor biopsies for prognosis, treatment decisions, and disease monitoring. Matched tumor-plasma samples were collected from 180 patients across different cancers with >90% of the samples below Stage IIIB. Tumors were profiled using next-generation sequencing (NGS) or quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the mutation status was queried in the matched plasma using digital platforms such as droplet digital PCR (ddCPR) or NGS for concordance. Tumor-plasma concordance of 82% and 32% was observed in advanced (Stage IIB and above) and early (Stage I to Stage IIA) stage samples, respectively. Interestingly, the overall survival outcomes correlated to presurgical/at-biopsy ctDNA levels. Baseline ctDNA stratified patients into three categories: (a) high ctDNA correlated with poor survival outcome, (b) undetectable ctDNA with good outcome, and (c) low ctDNA whose outcome was ambiguous. ctDNA could be a powerful tool for therapy decisions and patient management in a large number of cancers across a variety of stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6246960PMC
November 2018

Rat Lungworm Infection Associated with Central Nervous System Disease - Eight U.S. States, January 2011-January 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Aug 3;67(30):825-828. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Angiostrongyliasis is caused by infection and migration to the brain of larvae of the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, or rat lungworm. Adult A. cantonensis reside in the lungs of the definitive wild rodent host, where they produce larvae passed in feces, which are then ingested by snails and slugs (gastropods). Human infection typically occurs when gastropods containing mature larvae are inadvertently ingested by humans. Although human infection often is asymptomatic or involves transient mild symptoms, larval migration to the brain can lead to eosinophilic meningitis, focal neurologic deficits, coma, and death. The majority of cases of human angiostrongyliasis occur in Asia and the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii, but autochthonous and imported cases have been reported in the continental United States (1,2), underscoring the importance of provider recognition to ensure prompt identification and treatment. The epidemiologic and clinical features of 12 angiostrongyliasis cases in the continental United States were analyzed. These cases were identified through A. cantonensis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (3) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) submitted to CDC from within the continental United States. Six cases were likely a result of autochthonous transmission in the southern United States. All 12 patients had CSF pleocytosis and eosinophilia, consistent with eosinophilic meningitis. Health care providers need to be aware of the possibility of angiostrongyliasis in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, especially in residents in the southern United States or persons who have traveled outside the continental United States and have a history of ingestion of gastropods or contaminated raw vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6730a4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6072054PMC
August 2018

Exploring provider and parental perceptions to influenza vaccination in the inpatient setting.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 05 14;12(3):416-420. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Hospitalization provides an ideal opportunity for immunization, but few studies have explored provider and parental attitudes toward pediatric inpatient vaccination against influenza.

Objectives: The objectives were to determine provider and caregiver attitudes and explore potential barriers to inpatient influenza vaccination.

Methods: We developed and distributed two surveys to parents/caregivers as well as providers of general pediatric inpatients at Children's Hospital Colorado between October 2014 and March 2015 assessing attitudes toward influenza and inpatient influenza vaccination. We analyzed the Likert scale responses using univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression to assess associations between responses and vaccination status.

Results: The overall response rate was 95% and 58% for parents and providers, respectively. Parents of hospitalized children who agreed that flu vaccines are safe (adjusted OR 2.50 [95%CI 1.76-3.58]), and that the influenza vaccine is needed every year had higher odds of having a vaccinated child (adjusted OR 3.30 [95%CI 2.30-4.81]). Most providers (91%) agree that influenza vaccination is an important priority among inpatients, but believe that parental misconceptions and their reluctance for inpatient vaccination are the most important barriers to influenza vaccination. Providers forgetting to ask about vaccination status and order the vaccine are the next most commonly identified barriers. In contrast, most parents surveyed had favorable attitudes toward inpatient influenza vaccination and disagreed that their child was too sick to receive the vaccine during hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907817PMC
May 2018

Intravenous Versus Oral Antibiotics for Postdischarge Treatment of Complicated Pneumonia.

Pediatrics 2016 12 17;138(6). Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Division of General Pediatrics, Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and.

Background And Objectives: Postdischarge treatment of complicated pneumonia includes antibiotics administered intravenously via a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) or orally. Antibiotics administered via PICC, although effective, may result in serious complications. We compared the effectiveness and treatment-related complications of postdischarge antibiotics delivered by these 2 routes.

Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included children ≥2 months and <18 years discharged with complicated pneumonia between 2009 and 2012. The main exposure was the route of postdischarge antibiotic administration, classified as PICC or oral. The primary outcome was treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included PICC complications, adverse drug reactions, other related revisits, and a composite of all 4 outcomes, termed "all related revisits."

Results: Among 2123 children, 281 (13.2%) received antibiotics via PICC. Treatment failure rates were 3.2% among PICC and 2.6% among oral antibiotic recipients and were not significantly different between the groups in across-hospital-matched analysis (matched odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 2.94). PICC complications occurred in 7.1%. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 0.6% of children; PICC antibiotic recipients had greater odds of adverse drug reaction in across hospital matched analysis (matched OR, 19.1; 95% CI, 4.2 to 87.3). The high rate of PICC complications and differences in adverse drug reactions contributed to higher odds of the composite outcome of all related revisits among PICC antibiotic recipients (matched OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.97 to 7.46).

Conclusions: Treatment failure rates between PICC and oral antibiotics did not differ. Children with complicated pneumonia should preferentially receive oral antibiotics at discharge when effective oral options are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1692DOI Listing
December 2016

Missed Opportunities for Influenza Vaccination Among Hospitalized Children With Influenza at a Tertiary Care Facility.

Hosp Pediatr 2016 09;6(9):513-9

Hospital Medicine and.

Objectives: To identify the extent and characteristics of missed opportunities for influenza vaccination among children hospitalized with influenza at a tertiary children's hospital.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza admitted to Children's Hospital Colorado from 2010 to 2014. We reviewed medical records for vaccination status and previous visits. The primary outcome was the proportion of underimmunized patients hospitalized with influenza with at least 1 missed opportunity visit (visit before influenza diagnosis in which an eligible patient did not receive the influenza vaccine). The relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and the primary outcome were examined using χ(2) tests and nonparametric tests, and variables with P < .2 were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model.

Results: Among 322 patients hospitalized with influenza, 199 (61%) were undervaccinated; 83 of 199 (42%) had at least 1 missed opportunity for influenza vaccination. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high-risk status (adjusted odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence interval 3.8-12.4) was associated with increased odds of having a missed opportunity visit. Most missed opportunity visits were to subspecialty clinics (42%), and most visits (71%) occurred from September to November.

Conclusions: More than 40% of hospitalizations for influenza in children are associated with at least 1 missed opportunity visit at a tertiary center. Our findings highlight the potential role of tertiary care institutions in increasing influenza vaccination rates among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2015-0112DOI Listing
September 2016

Enterovirus D68 in Critically Ill Children: A Comparison With Pandemic H1N1 Influenza.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2016 11;17(11):1023-1031

1Department of Pediatrics (Hospital Medicine and Infectious Diseases), University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.2Department of Pediatrics (Hospital Medicine), University of Colorado School of Medicine; Adult and Child Center for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, Aurora, CO.3Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.4University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.5Department of Pediatrics (Critical Care), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.6Department of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases), University of Colorado School of Medicine, and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.7Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.8Department of Pediatrics (Critical Care), University of Colorado School of Medicine, and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.9Department of Microbiology (Virology), Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Objective: In 2014, the Unites States experienced an outbreak of enterovirus D68 associated with severe respiratory illness. The clinical characteristics associated with severe illness from enterovirus D68 during this outbreak compared with those associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus outbreak are unknown.

Design And Setting: In this retrospective cohort study, we characterized the clinical features of children with enterovirus D68 admitted to the PICU between August 1, 2014, and November 1, 2014, and compared them with critically ill children infected with H1N1 influenza during the pandemic admitted between May 1, 2009, and January 31, 2010.

Patients: PICU patients.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Ninety-seven severely ill children with enterovirus D68 infections were compared with 68 children infected with H1N1 influenza during the 2009 pandemic. Children with enterovirus D68 were more likely to have asthma (62% vs 23%; p < 0.001) and present with reactive airway disease exacerbations, with greater receipt of albuterol (94% vs 49%) and steroids (89% vs 40%; p < 0.0001 for both). Although more children with enterovirus D68 were admitted to the ICU compared with those with H1N1 influenza, they had a shorter hospital length of stay (4 vs 7 d; p < 0.0001), with lower intubation rates (7% vs 44%), vasopressor use (3% vs 32%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (3% vs 24%), shock (0% vs 16%), and death (0% vs 12%; p < 0.05 for all). Compared with children with other enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, children with enterovirus D68 were more likely to have a history of asthma (64% vs 45%) or multiple prior wheezing episodes (54% vs 34%; p < 0.01 for both).

Conclusions: Critically ill children with enterovirus D68 were more likely to present with reactive airway disease exacerbations, whereas children with H1N1 influenza were more likely to present with pneumonia. Compared with the pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak, the enterovirus D68 outbreak resulted in more children requiring admission to the ICU, but was associated with less severe outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000000922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5096972PMC
November 2016

WU and KI polyomavirus infections in Filipino children with lower respiratory tract disease.

J Clin Virol 2016 09 26;82:112-118. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: WU and KI are human polyomaviruses initially detected in the respiratory tract, whose clinical significance remains uncertain.

Objectives: To determine the epidemiology, viral load and clinical characteristics of WU and KI polyomaviruses.

Study Design: We tested respiratory specimens collected during a randomized, placebo-controlled pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial and related epidemiological study in the Philippines. We analyzed 1077 nasal washes from patients aged 6 weeks to 5 years who developed lower respiratory tract illness using quantitative real-time PCR for WU and KI. We collected data regarding presenting symptoms, signs, radiographic findings, laboratory data and coinfection.

Results: The prevalence and co-infection rates for WU were 5.3% and 74% respectively and 4.2% and 84% respectively for KI. Higher KI viral loads were observed in patients with severe or very severe pneumonia, those presenting with chest indrawing, hypoxia without wheeze, convulsions, and with KI monoinfection compared with co-infection. There was no significant association between viral load and clinical presentation for WU.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a potential pathogenic role for KI, and that there is an association between KI viral load and illness severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2016.07.013DOI Listing
September 2016

Hospitalized Children With Encephalitis in the United States: A Pediatric Health Information System Database Study.

Pediatr Neurol 2016 08 6;61:58-62. Epub 2016 May 6.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objectives: Given the paucity of data on resource utilization among children with encephalitis, the objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and evaluate resource utilization and discharge data of children with encephalitis admitted to US hospitals from 2004 to 2013.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing the Pediatric Health Information System database of children aged 0 to 18 years with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for encephalitis from 2004 to 2013. Only the initial admissions were included, and the age group analyzed was 0 to 18 years.

Results: Among 7298 children with encephalitis, 2933 (40%) were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. The median age was nine years, the overall median length of stay was 16 days, and children requiring critical care had a median length of stay of 25 days. Children in the pediatric intensive care unit were more likely to have seizures (P <0.001) and head magnetic resonance imaging (P <0.001) than children on the floor. Similarly, children requiring critical care were more likely to have a broad diagnostic evaluation sent including cerebrospinal fluid cultures, blood bacterial and fungal cultures, western equine encephalitis antibody, St. Louis equine encephalitis antibody, varicella-zoster serology, human immunodeficiency virus 1 antibody, human immunodeficiency virus DNA polymerase chain reaction, acid-fast stain, and Lyme disease serology. Seventeen percent of children were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, and 4% underwent plasmapheresis. There was a trend of increasing use of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis in children with encephalitis over the study period. A total of 5944 (81%) children were discharged home, and the mortality in this cohort was 3% (230). The mean charges for hospitalization for a child with encephalitis was $64,604 and for those requiring critical care was $260,012.

Conclusions: Encephalitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children with encephalitis admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit are more likely to have seizures and to undergo a more extensive evaluation to determine the cause of encephalitis. Use of plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin is on the rise in hospitalized children. Prospective studies are necessary to better understand treatment and intervention strategies for children with encephalitis and their impact on outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.04.014DOI Listing
August 2016

Rising Oseltamivir Use Among Hospitalized Children in a Postpandemic Era.

Hosp Pediatr 2016 Mar 1;6(3):172-8. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; and Department of Pediatrics (Hospital Medicine and Infectious Diseases), University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado

Background: Oseltamivir prescribing among pediatric inpatients with influenza varied from 2% to 48% prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. After the pandemic, prescribing guidelines were expanded, and studies reported benefits for hospitalized children. Post-pandemic prescribing practices among children are unclear.

Objectives: To report the rate of oseltamivir use and to identify factors associated with its use among inpatients with confirmed influenza infection from 2010 to 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of inpatients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza from December 2010 to April 2014 at Children's Hospital Colorado. The primary outcome was oseltamivir use. Variables regarding demographics, underlying medical conditions, diagnoses, and hospital course were also explored. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: Among 395 inpatients with influenza, 323 (82%) received oseltamivir. In univariate analyses, oseltamivir use was associated with admission within 48 hours of symptom onset (89% vs 77%), ICU admission (88% vs 79%), longer length of stay (90% for >6 days vs 77% for ≤2 days), and influenza A H1N1 infection (P < .05 for all). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, longer length of stay, illness during the 2013-2014 season, and admission within 48 hours of symptom onset were associated with higher odds of oseltamivir use.

Conclusions: Oseltamivir use for children with influenza in the postpandemic era is increasing at our institution, aligning with official recommendations and reported benefits. We report highest use for patients in the 2013-2014 season, those who present early in their illness, and those requiring a prolonged hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2015-0126DOI Listing
March 2016

The Emergence of Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in the United States--A Case-Series.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 Mar 26;62(6):778-83. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

This case-series describes the 6 human infections with Onchocerca lupi, a parasite known to infect cats and dogs, that have been identified in the United States since 2013. Unlike cases reported outside the country, the American patients have not had subconjunctival nodules but have manifested more invasive disease (eg, spinal, orbital, and subdermal nodules). Diagnosis remains challenging in the absence of a serologic test. Treatment should be guided by what is done for Onchocerca volvulus as there are no data for O. lupi. Available evidence suggests that there may be transmission in southwestern United States, but the risk of transmission to humans is not known. Research is needed to better define the burden of disease in the United States and develop appropriately-targeted prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809994PMC
March 2016
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