Publications by authors named "Suchat Hongsiriwon"

9 Publications

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Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus: a phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a short course of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in women with hepatitis B virus e-antigen.

BMC Infect Dis 2016 08 9;16:393. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Chonburi Hospital, 69 M.2, Sukhumvit Rd., Ban-suan, Muang, Chonburi, 20000, Thailand.

Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is complicated by cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Thailand, 6-7 % of adults are chronically infected with HBV. The risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV has been estimated to be about 12 % when mothers have a high hepatitis B viral load, even if infants receive passive-active prophylaxis with HBV immunoglobulin (HBIg) and initiate the hepatitis B vaccine series at birth. We designed a study to assess the efficacy and safety of a short course of maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) among women with a marker of high viral load for the prevention of MTCT of HBV.

Methods: The study is a phase III, multicenter (17 sites in Thailand), placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized 1:1, two-arm clinical trial of TDF 300 mg once daily versus placebo among pregnant women from 28 weeks' gestation through 2-month post-partum. All infants receive HBIg at birth, and a hepatitis B (HB) vaccination series according to Thai guidelines: birth, and age 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. Participant women at study entry must be age ≥18 years, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e-antigen (HBeAg) positive, have alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level < 30 IU/L at screening (confirmed < 60 IU/L pre-entry), negative hepatitis C serology, creatinine clearance >50 mL/min, and no history of anti-HBV antiviral treatment. The target sample size of 328 mother/infant pairs assumed 156 evaluable cases per arm to detect a ≥9 % difference in MTCT transmission (3 % experimental arm versus 12 % placebo arm) with 90 % power. Mothers and infants are followed until 12 months after delivery. The primary infant endpoint is detection of HBsAg, confirmed by detection of HBV DNA at six months of age. Secondary endpoints are maternal and infant adverse events, acute exacerbations of maternal hepatitis B disease (ALT >300 IU/L, defined as a "flare") following discontinuation of study treatment, infant HBV infection status and growth up to 12 months of age.

Discussion: The results of this randomized trial will clarify the efficacy and safety of a short course of antiviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HBV and inform international guidelines.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01745822 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1734-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4977630PMC
August 2016

A Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model Predicts Favorable HDL Cholesterol Changes Over the First 5 Years in Children Treated With Current Efavirenz-Based Regimens.

J Clin Pharmacol 2016 09 24;56(9):1076-83. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Unité de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, France.

Efavirenz use is associated with changes in cholesterol concentrations, but it is unclear whether this effect is related to drug concentrations. Using efavirenz and cholesterol plasma concentrations measured in 87 antiretroviral-naive children in Thailand, we assessed indirect response models to describe the evolution of high- and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) cholesterol concentrations in relation to efavirenz plasma concentrations over time where efavirenz was assumed to either stimulate cholesterol production or inhibit its elimination. Simulations of cholesterol evolution for children with different average efavirenz concentrations (Cav ) according to their assumed status of "fast" or "slow" metabolizers of efavirenz were performed. At treatment initiation, children's median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 8 years (5 to 10), body mass index z-score 0.01 (-1.05 to 1.44), HDL 31 mg/dL (24 to 44), and LDL 83 mg/dL (69 to 100). Median (IQR) efavirenz Cav was 1.7 mg/L (1.3 to 2.1) during the period of observation. The best model describing the evolution of HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations over time assumed that efavirenz inhibited their elimination. HDL concentrations increase over 5 years, whereas LDL concentrations increased only during the first 4 months and then returned to baseline levels afterward. Simulations predicted that, after 3 years, HDL would increase to 63 mg/dL in "fast" metabolizers and 97 mg/dL in "slow" metabolizers of efavirenz. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model shows that favorable HDL cholesterol changes can be expected in children with current efavirenz dosing guidelines over 5 years of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.701DOI Listing
September 2016

Pharmacokinetics and safety of a new paediatric fixed-dose combination of zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine in HIV-infected children.

Antivir Ther 2011 ;16(8):1287-95

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Alternatives to the available stavudine-containing paediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets are rapidly needed due to concerns regarding the cumulative toxicity of long-term stavudine exposure. We report the bioavailability and short-term safety of a novel paediatric FDC tablet of zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP; 30/15/28 mg) in HIV-infected children.

Methods: In this Phase I/II open-label pharmacokinetic study, 42 children weighing 6-30 kg treated with NVP-based HAART for ≥4 weeks were randomized to receive the FDC tablets (GPO-VIR Z30) or the liquid formulations. Dosing was weight-based. Intensive 12-h blood sampling was performed after 2 weeks; subjects then crossed-over to the alternate formulation at equal doses and sampling repeated 2 weeks later. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Buccal-swab samples were collected for cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6 polymorphism analysis.

Results: With the FDC tablet, the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve (AUC) for ZDV, 3TC and NVP was 1.58 (1.49-1.68), 7.78 (7.38-8.19) and 68.88 (62.13-76.36) μg•h/ml, respectively. Rules for NVP therapeutic inadequacy were defined a priori, and despite lower NVP exposure with the tablet (P<0.001), the levels remained therapeutically adequate. ZDV AUC was similar between formulations. 3TC exposure was significantly higher with the tablet but comparable to historical data in adults and children taking branded tablets. While receiving the tablet, NVP AUC in children with CYP2B 516 GG (45%), GT (45%) and TT (10%) genotypes were 67.0, 74.5 and 106.4 μg•h/ml, respectively (P=0.04).

Conclusions: Disparities in drug exposure between formulations were observed; however, the FDC tablet delivered therapeutically adequate exposures of each drug and could well play an important role in simplifying antiretroviral treatment for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP1931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3348490PMC
April 2012

The interrelated transmission of HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus during gestation and delivery in the offspring of HIV-infected mothers.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2011 Oct;58(2):188-92

Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Our objective was to analyze, in formula-fed infants, correlates of HIV mother-to-child transmission, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. HIV-infected infants were matched with HIV uninfected by maternal HIV RNA in a case-control design. Infant CMV infection was determined by CMV IgG at 18 months and timed by earlier CMV IgM or CMV DNA. Correlations were assessed using logistic regression. In utero HIV infection was independently associated with congenital CMV infection (P = 0.01), intrapartum HIV infection with congenital-plus-intrapartum/neonatal CMV infection (P = 0.01), and overall HIV with overall CMV infection (P = 0.001), and prematurity (P = 0.004). Congenital and acquired CMV infections are strong independent correlates of mother-to-child HIV transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e31822d0433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237680PMC
October 2011

Long-term survival of HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Thailand: a 5-year observational cohort study.

Clin Infect Dis 2010 Dec 5;51(12):1449-57. Epub 2010 Nov 5.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD U174, Paris, France.

Background: There are scarce data on the long-term survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in lower-middle income countries beyond 2 years of follow-up.

Methods: Previously untreated children who initiated ART on meeting immunological and/or clinical criteria were followed in a prospective cohort in Thailand. The probability of survival up to 5 years from initiation was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods, and factors associated with mortality were assessed using Cox regression analyses.

Results: Five hundred seventy-eight children received ART; of these, 111 (19.2%) were followed since birth. At start of ART (baseline), the median age was 6.7 years, 128 children (22%) were aged <2 years, and the median CD4 cell percentage was 7%. Median duration of follow-up was 53 months; 42 children (7%) died, and 38 (7%) were lost to follow-up. Age <12 months, low CD4 cell percentage, and low weight-for-height z score at ART initiation were independently associated with mortality (P < .001). The probability of survival among infants aged <12 months at baseline was 84.3% at 1 year and 76.7% at 5 years of ART, compared with 95.7% and 94.8%, respectively, among children aged ≥1 year. Low CD4 cell percentage and wasting at baseline had a strong association with mortality among older children but weak or no association among infants.

Conclusions: Children who initiated ART as infants after meeting immunological and/or clinical criteria had a high risk of mortality which persisted beyond the first year of therapy. Among older children, those with severe wasting or low CD4 cell percentage at treatment initiation were at high risk of mortality during the first 6 months of therapy. These findings support the scale-up of early HIV diagnosis and immediate treatment in infants, before advanced disease progression in older children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/657401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3106246PMC
December 2010

Growth of human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children exposed to perinatal zidovudine for the prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006 Apr;25(4):325-32

Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, Paris, France.

Background: Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs have been implemented in several countries, and many children have been or will be exposed to antiretrovirals in utero and during their first weeks of life. Although reducing substantially the number of infected children, the potential adverse consequences of these treatments on the health of HIV-uninfected children need to be assessed.

Objective: To investigate the impact of in utero and postnatal zidovudine exposure on the growth of HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women.

Methods: We used data prospectively collected in 1408 live born children participating in a clinical trial comparing zidovudine regimens of different durations to prevent perinatal transmission in Thailand (PHPT-1). We used a linear mixed model to analyze the anthropometric measurements (weight for age, height for age and weight for height Z-scores) until 18 months of age according to zidovudine treatment duration (mothers, <7.5 weeks versus more; infants, 3 days versus >4 weeks).

Results: Children exposed in utero for >7.5 weeks had a slightly lower birth weight (Z-score difference, 0.08; P = 0.003). However, zidovudine exposure had no effect on the evolution of Z-scores from 6 weeks to 18 months of age.

Conclusions: Although a longer in utero zidovudine exposure may have had a negative impact on birth weight, the magnitude of this effect was small and faded over time. Neither the total nor the postnatal duration of exposure was associated with changes in infant Z-scores from 6 weeks to 18 months of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000207398.10466.0dDOI Listing
April 2006

Hospital-based epidemiologic survey of malignancies in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Thailand.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005 Oct;24(10):923-4

King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand.

To determine the incidence and spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children, we surveyed 48 hospitals in Thailand between 1996 and 2000. There were 23 children (14 boys and 9 girls; average age at diagnosis of malignancy, 4.2 years), and the incidence rate was 0.6 per 1000 person-years. The most common malignancy was lymphoma (87.0%). The prognosis was poor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000180972.63966.35DOI Listing
October 2005

Risk factors and clinical features associated with severe dengue infection in adults and children during the 2001 epidemic in Chonburi, Thailand.

Trop Med Int Health 2004 Sep;9(9):1022-9

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an important cause of morbidity in South-east Asia and used to occur almost exclusively in young children. In recent years, there has been a progressive shift in age-distribution towards older children and adults. We investigated an outbreak in 2001 in both children and adults, in an endemic area of Thailand.

Methods: Retrospective study of 347 patients with serologically confirmed dengue infection admitted to Chonburi Hospital during an epidemic in 2001.

Results: A total of 128 (37%) patients had dengue fever (DF) and 219 (63%) had DHF. Patients with DHF were significantly older than patients with DF (11 years vs. 8 years). Clinical bleeding was noted in 124 individuals, both with DF (n = 24) and DHF (n = 100), and significantly more frequently in adults. Twenty-nine (13.2%) of all DHF cases were caused by primary infection. Secondary dengue infection was associated significantly with the development of DHF in children, OR (95% CI) = 3.63 (1.94-6.82), P < 0.0001, but not in adults, OR (95% CI) = 0.6 (0.02-6.04), P = 1. Unusual clinical manifestations were observed in 23 patients: three presented with encephalopathy and 20 with highly elevated liver-enzymes. In the latter group, four patients were icteric and nine had gastrointestinal bleeding.

Conclusion: These results indicate that DHF in South-east Asia is common in both children and adults. In dengue-endemic countries, dengue should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with clinical gastrointestinal bleeding in association with increased liver enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01295.xDOI Listing
September 2004

Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002 Mar;33(1):49-55

Department of Pediatrics, Chon Buri Regional Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.

A report of 19 cases of serologically-proven dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in infants aged 3-12 months who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Chon Buri Regional Hospital, Thailand, during 1995 to 1998. Subjects were 8 males and 11 females, with the peak age of 8 months. Four cases (21%) had DHF and other common co-infections ie pneumonia (2 cases), Staphylococcus aureus sepsis (1 case) and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis (1 case). The clinical manifestations of the 15 DHF cases were high fever (100%), coryza (93.3%), hepatomegaly (80%), drowsiness (53.3 %), and vomiting (46.7%); rash was observed in only 27%; one-fifth developed febrile convulsions. Sites of bleeding were the skin (petechiae) 58%, gastrointestinal system (melena) 16%, and mucous membrane (epistaxis) 5%; thrombocytopenia and increased hematocrit (> or =20%) were noted in 95% and 84% respectively. The majority of the patients (18 cases, 95%) had primary infection; only one (5%) had secondary infection. The clinical severity of the DHF was Grade I, II, and III (dengue shock syndrome) in 21%, 47% and 32% of cases respectively. After appropriate and effective management, all the infants recovered fully.
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March 2002