Publications by authors named "Subramaniyam Nithyananthan"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Curcuma longa and Trigonella foenum graecum-enriched nutrient mixture from germinated Macrotyloma uniflorum and Vigna radiate ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in rats.

J Food Biochem 2020 04 3;44(4):e13159. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India.

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver is increasing due to modern lifestyle. Germinated and dehulled Macrotyloma uniflorum and Vigna radiate were shown to have enhanced nutrients. Curcuma longa and Trigonella foenum graecum were proven hepatoprotective.The supplementation of the nutrient herbal mixture to the MCD diet-induced steatosis shows reduced hepatic fat accumulation and lipid profile, and liver injury markers in serum also reserved in normal. Increased serum albumin in the treatment group indicates that the liver function is enhanced than that of steatosis. The supplementation of the herbal mixture has preserved the hepatic antioxidant. Zymographic analysis of matrix metalloproteinase, western blot determination of α-SMA, and histological evolution (H&E, Sirius red) depicted reduced fibrosis and reveled management of hepatic stellate cells in quiescent form. The present study concludes that the herbal mixture has reduced hepatocyte fat accumulation in steatotic animals, and curtailed the oxidative stress, further it prevents the progression of steatohepatitis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Fatty liver diseases can be treated by modulating the diet composition such as consuming food rich in the nutrient herbal mixture. In this study, the nutrient mixture was made with dynamic food processing techniques such as germination, dehulling, and milling to augment the nutritional contents. Besides, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna radiate, Curcuma longa, and Trigonella foenum graecum were used to improve the medicinal value and antioxidant. This formulation could target the various stages of NAFLD. This study revealed that the nutrient herbal mixture reduces the steatosis of the liver and curtailed the progression of steatohepatitis from hepatic steatosis. Since the edible foodstuff was used to make the nutrient mixture, it has excellent clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13159DOI Listing
April 2020

Nutrient mixture from germinated legumes: Enhanced medicinal value with herbs-attenuated liver cirrhosis.

J Food Biochem 2020 01 23;44(1):e13085. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India.

Among various food processing strategies, germination and dehulling enhance the nutritional content of the food, and the addition of herbs to this could improve the medicinal value. The milled powders of germinated Macrotyloma uniflorum (horse gram) and Vigna radiata (green gram) were used to make the nutrient mixture. Further, Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) were used to improve its medicinal value. The prepared nutrient mixture has high nutritional value, antioxidant potential, and reduced antinutrient factors. Supplementation of nutrient mixture reduced oxidative stress-mediated hepatocyte injury on the CCl -induced liver cirrhosis model. Further, histological examination (H&E and Sirius red), matrix metalloproteinase gelatin zymography, and Western blot revealed the management of hepatic stellate cells in an inactive stage thereby reduced cirrhosis. These findings conclude that the supplementation of nutrient mixture formulation protected and effectively prevented liver cirrhosis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study has a good impact on nutritional therapy for liver diseases. Many of the chronic liver diseases are associated with severe malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia, which further worsens the condition. This study would emphasize the nutritional therapy to treat such imbalance and enriching the medicinal value of nutrition mixture with herbs could target different pathophysiological changes and provide better defense in liver disease patients. Since this nutrient mixture is from common edible natural resources, it could reach the pharmaceutical industry's attention to the highest production and marketing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13085DOI Listing
January 2020

Chemotherapeutic doses of arsenic trioxide delays hepatic regeneration by oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in partial hepatectomy rat.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2019 11 13;382:114760. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India. Electronic address:

The extensive regeneration potential of the liver makes use of hepatic re-sectioning and split liver transplantation for treating advanced liver diseases. Heavy metals such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and arsenic trioxide (ATO) are being practiced as chemotherapeutic agents for different cancers. Further, research is progressed on using different heavy metal nano-particles as a drug, drug carrier and diseases detective agent. Since liver is the chief organ metabolize ingested materials, the current study focuses on the involvement of ATO on acute liver injury regeneration using a partially hepatectomised (PHx) rat model. Scrutiny of serum liver markers such as albumin, AST, ALT & ALP and hepatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase & superoxide dismutase reveled ATO mediated hepatocyte injury and oxidative stress. Further, oxidative stress is confirmed with elevated TBARS and 8-OHdG in the hepatocyte nucleus in ATO supplemented healthy and regenerating liver and are co-relating with the H&E histological observations. It is noticed that ATO supplementation reduced liver regeneration potential as evidenced by reduced proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA) and meanwhile increases apoptotic protein PARP-1. ICP-MS analysis displayed several-fold hiked serum and liver arsenic in ATO administrated normal and liver regenerating animals. This study concludes that ATO at a chemotherapeutic concentration augments oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis, thereby delays liver regeneration potential and could affect the outcome of liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2019.114760DOI Listing
November 2019

Arsenic trioxide, a cancer chemo drug hampers fibrotic liver regeneration by interrupting oxidative stress rekindling and stellate cell rejuvenation.

J Cell Physiol 2020 02 4;235(2):1222-1234. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India.

After withdrawal of liver toxic insult, the spontaneous regenerative potential of the liver is well reported in the literature. On the other hand, various molecules have been reported to promote as well as delay such natural regeneration. This current study investigates the involvement of arsenic trioxide (ATO) medication at chemotherapeutic dose on the spontaneous regeneration of the CCl induced fibrotic liver. Liver injury markers, such as albumin and SGOT, SGPT, and ALP activities, in serum indicated that ATO supplementation during liver regeneration hampers the rejuvenation process. The hepatic architecture as well as the degree of fibrosis by hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red staining confirms the above findings. The reduced hepatic antioxidant system and elevated oxidative stress markers, such as lipid peroxidation and 8-hydroxy deoxy-guanosine-positive hepatocytes in ATO supplied rats, display the persistence of oxidative stress when compared with healthy controls and the normal regeneration model. Immuno-histochemical localization of Ki-67 indicates that mitotically active hepatocytes were fewer in the ATO given rats when compared with normal regeneration rats. Further delay in hepatic fibrinolysis was monitored by matrix metalloproteinase zymography assay in the ATO-given animals. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 expression demonstrates elevated hepatocyte apoptosis with ATO. Furthermore, increased α-smooth muscle actin indicates that the stellate cells are in an activated state in ATO supplemented fibrotic animals. In conclusion, it's observed that ATO supplementation to the fibrotic liver delays oxidative stress revitalization and maintains stellate cells in the active form, thereby delaying liver regeneration, and the health status of the liver must be taken into account before administering drugs like ATO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29037DOI Listing
February 2020

Augmenter of liver regeneration enhances cell proliferation through the microRNA-26a/Akt/cyclin D1 pathway in hepatic cells.

Hepatol Res 2019 Nov 25;49(11):1341-1352. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, South Asian University, Akbar Bhawan, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, India.

Aim: Hepatocytes can proliferate and regenerate when injured by toxins, viral infections, and so on. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is a key regulator of liver regeneration, but the mechanism is unknown. The role of ALR in other cell types is not known. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between microRNA (miRNA)-26a and ALR in the Huh7 cell line and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells from chronic liver disease patients and healthy individuals.

Methods: Huh7 cells were transfected independently with ALR and miRNA-26a expression vectors, and their effects on cell proliferation, the expression of miRNA-26a, and activation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog and Akt signaling pathways were determined. The experiments were repeated on mesenchymal stem cells derived from healthy individuals and chronic liver disease patients to see whether the observations can be replicated in primary cells.

Results: Overexpression of ALR or miRNA-26a resulted in an increase of the phosphorylation of Akt and cyclin D1 expression, whereas it resulted in decreased levels of p-GSK-3β and phosphatase and tensin homolog in Huh7 cells. The inhibition of ALR expression by ALR siRNA or anti-miR-26a decreased the Akt/cyclin D1 signaling pathway, leading to decreased proliferation. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the chronic liver disease patients had a higher ALR expression, while the mesenchymal stem cells isolated from healthy volunteers responded to the growth factor treatments for increased ALR expression. It was found that there was a significant increase in miRNA-26a expression and proliferation.

Conclusions: These data clearly showed that ALR induced the expression of miRNA-26a, which downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog, resulting in an increased p-Akt/cyclin D1 pathway and enhanced proliferation in hepatic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hepr.13404DOI Listing
November 2019

Unveiling anticancer potential of glibenclamide: Its synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin on cancer cells.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 May 14;154:294-301. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India. Electronic address:

Drug repurposing has been an emerging therapeutic strategy, which involves exploration of a new therapeutic approach for the use of an existing drug. Glibenclamide (Gli) is an anti-diabetic sulfonylurea drug extensively used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, it has also been shown to possess anti-proliferative effect against several types of tumors. The present study was executed to understand the mechanisms underlying the interaction of Gli with DNA under physiological conditions. The binding mechanism of Gli with DNA was scrutinized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The conformational changes and electrochemical properties were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Isothermal titration calorimetry was employed to examine the thermodynamic changes and molecular docking technique used to analyze the interaction mode of Gli with DNA. The spectroscopic studies revealed that Gli interacts with DNA through groove binding mode. Further, isothermal titration calorimetry depicted a stronger mode of interaction favorably groove-binding. Recently, systemic combination therapy has shown significant promise in inhibiting multiple targets simultaneously yielding high therapeutic competence with lesser side effects. With this concern, we intended to study the combined cytotoxicity of Gli with doxorubicin (Dox). The results of MTT assay and acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining showed synergistic cytotoxicity of Gli + Dox combination on HepG2 & A549 cells. The present study documents the intricate mechanism of Gli-DNA interaction and delivers a multifaceted access for chemotherapy by Gli + Dox combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.03.025DOI Listing
May 2018

Synthesis and characterisation of arsenic nanoparticles and its interaction with DNA and cytotoxic potential on breast cancer cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Nov 22;295:73-83. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India. Electronic address:

Therapeutic applications of arsenic trioxide (ATO) are limited due to their severe adverse effects. However, nanoparticles of ATO might possess inimitable biologic effects based on their structure and size which differ from their parent molecules. Based on this conception, AsNPs were synthesized from ATO and comparatively analysed for their interaction mechanism with DNA using spectroscopic & electrochemical techniques. Finally, anti-proliferative activity was assessed against different breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) and normal non-cancerous cells (HEK-293). The DNA interaction study revealed that AsNPs and ATO exhibit binding constant values in the order of 10 which indicates strong binding interaction. Binding of AsNPs did not disturb the structural integrity of DNA, on the other hand an opposing effect was observed with ATO through biophysical techniques. Further, in vitro study, confirms cytotoxicity of ATO and AsNPs against different cells, however at particular concentration ATO exhibits more cytotoxicity than that of AsNPs. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was confirmed through acridine orange and comet assay. In conclusion, AsNPs are safer than ATO with comparable efficacy and might be a suitable candidate for the development of novel therapeutic agent against breast cancer and other solid tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2017.12.025DOI Listing
November 2018

Troxerutin with copper generates oxidative stress in cancer cells: Its possible chemotherapeutic mechanism against hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Mar 3;233(3):1775-1790. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India.

Troxerutin (TXER) a rutin derivative is known for its anticancer effect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As part of large study, recently we have shown TXER interact with genetic material and its anti-mutagenic property. In the present study we have explored its possible mode of action in HCC. Since TXER alone did not show significant anticancer effect on Huh-7 cells, in vitro biochemical assays were performed for determining anticancer efficacy of TXER + metal complex using transition metals such as Cu, Zn, and Fe. The anticancer efficacy of TXER + Cu on Huh-7 cells were evaluated using MTT assay, DCFDA, JC-1 staining, comet assay, cell cycle analysis, immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting. Non-toxic nature of TXER was analyzed on primary rat hepatocytes. The in vivo efficacy of TXER was tested in N-nitrosodiethylamine initiated and γ-benzene hexachloride and partial hepatectomy promoted rat liver cancer. Liver markers, transition metal levels, histopathological examination, and expression levels of GST-P, 8-OHdG and Ki-67 were studied to assess the in vivo anticancer effect of TXER. We observed that TXER + Cu induced extensive cellular death on Huh-7 cells through generating free radicals and did not possess any toxic effect on normal hepatocytes. The in vivo studies revealed that TXER possess significant anti-cancer effect as assessed through improved liver markers and suppressed GST-P, 8-OHdG, and Ki-67 expression. TXER treatment reduced the hepatic Cu level in cancer bearing animals. Current study brings the putative mechanism involved in anti-cancer effect of TXER, further it will help to formulate phytoconstituents coupled anti-cancer drug for effective treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.26061DOI Listing
March 2018